Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 120

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Conceptual Understanding Of Threshold Concepts Of Electrical Phenomena: Mental Models Of Senior Undergraduates In Electrical Engineering, Mark T. Carnes Dec 2016

Conceptual Understanding Of Threshold Concepts Of Electrical Phenomena: Mental Models Of Senior Undergraduates In Electrical Engineering, Mark T. Carnes

Open Access Dissertations

Every field of study has a set of domain-specific concepts that anyone who desires to work in that field must know and understand. Most students who pursue university degrees in engineering trust that their education is designed to provide them with this knowledge. But does it? In electrical engineering (EE), conceptual understanding of electrical phenomena has rarely been addressed. Even though the presumed goal of instructors and students alike is to learn the concepts of electrical phenomena well enough to be able to use the concepts to design useful things, it is difficult to determine whether this goal is being ...


Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum Dec 2016

Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum

Open Access Dissertations

In the past decade, there have been many breakthroughs in the field of plasmonics and nanophotonics that have enabled optical devices with unprecedented functionalities. Even though remarkable demonstration of at photonic devices has been reported, constituent materials are limited to the noble metals such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) due to their abundance of free electrons which enable the support of plasmon resonances in the visible range. With the strong demand for extension of the optical range of plasmonic applications, it is now a necessity to explore and develop alternative materials which can overcome intrinsic issues of noble metals ...


Clustered-Dot Periodic Halftone Screen Design And Icc Profile Color Table Compression, Chuohao Tang Dec 2016

Clustered-Dot Periodic Halftone Screen Design And Icc Profile Color Table Compression, Chuohao Tang

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation studies image quality problems associated with rendering images in devices like printing or displaying. It mainly includes two parts: clustered-dot periodic halftone screen design, and color table compression.

Screening is a widely used halftoning method. As a consequence of the lower resolution of digital presses and printers, the number of printer-addressable dots or holes in each microcell may be too few to provide the requisite number of tone lev- els between paper white and full colorant coverage. To address this limitation, the microcells can be grouped into supercells. The challenge is then to determine the desired supercell shape ...


Approximate Computing: An Integrated Cross-Layer Framework, Swagath Venkataramani Dec 2016

Approximate Computing: An Integrated Cross-Layer Framework, Swagath Venkataramani

Open Access Dissertations

A new design approach, called approximate computing (AxC), leverages the flexibility provided by intrinsic application resilience to realize hardware or software implementations that are more efficient in energy or performance. Approximate computing techniques forsake exact (numerical or Boolean) equivalence in the execution of some of the application’s computations, while ensuring that the output quality is acceptable. While early efforts in approximate computing have demonstrated great potential, they consist of ad hoc techniques applied to a very narrow set of applications, leaving in question the applicability of approximate computing in a broader context.

The primary objective of this thesis is ...


Matrix-Free Time-Domain Methods For General Electromagnetic Analysis, Jin Yan Dec 2016

Matrix-Free Time-Domain Methods For General Electromagnetic Analysis, Jin Yan

Open Access Dissertations

Many engineering challenges demand an efficient computational solution of large-scale problems. If a computational method can be made free of matrix solutions, then it has a potential of solving very large scale problems. Among existing computational electromagnetic methods, the explicit finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is free of matrix solutions. However, it requires a structured orthogonal grid for space discretization. In this work, we develop a new time-domain method that naturally requires no matrix solution, regardless of whether the discretization is a structured grid or an unstructured mesh. No dual mesh, interpolation, projection and mass lumping are needed. Furthermore, a time-marching ...


Statistical Modeling And Simulation Of Variability And Reliability Of Cmos Technology, Khaled Hassan Md Dec 2016

Statistical Modeling And Simulation Of Variability And Reliability Of Cmos Technology, Khaled Hassan Md

Open Access Dissertations

The introduction of High-κ Metal Gate transistors led to higher integration density, low leakage current, and faster switching speed. However, this transition in technology roadmap brought about new failure mechanisms such as Positive Bias Temperature Instability and Stress Induced Leakage Current. In addition, the relentless downscaling of devices to keep up with Moore's law has significantly increased the time-zero variability caused by Random Dopant Fluctuation, Mean Gate Length Deviation, and Line Edge Roughness. Because of their possible correlation with time dependent aging effects, the quantification of reliability has become more complex than ever. To that effect, we propose a ...


Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang Dec 2016

Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Detection of cancer markers such as protein biomolecules and cancer cells in bodily fluids is of great importance in early diagnosis, prognosis as well as evaluation of therapy efficacy. Numerous devices have been developed for detecting either cellular or molecular targets, however there has not yet been a system that can simultaneously detect both cellular and molecular targets effectively. Molecule and cell-based assays are important because each type of target can tell a different story about the state of the disease and the two types of information can potentially be combined and/or compared for more accurate biological or clinical ...


New Marked Point Process Models For Microscopy Images, Dae Woo Kim Dec 2016

New Marked Point Process Models For Microscopy Images, Dae Woo Kim

Open Access Dissertations

In developing new materials, the characterization of microstructures is one of the key steps. To characterize the microstructure, many microscope modalities have been devised and improved over decades. With the increase in image resolution in the spatial and time domains, the amount of image data keeps increasing in the fields such as materials science and biomedical engineering. As a result, image processing plays a critical role in this era of science and technology. In materials image analysis, image segmentation and feature detection are considered very important.

The first part of this research aims to resolve the segmentation problem caused by ...


Two-Dimensional Electronics And Optoelectronics: From Materials Syntheses To Device Applications, Yexin Deng Dec 2016

Two-Dimensional Electronics And Optoelectronics: From Materials Syntheses To Device Applications, Yexin Deng

Open Access Dissertations

The current research on semiconductor device has pushed the scaling of the devices into sub-10 nanometers (nm) regime. While most of the current devices are made on silicon germanium, and III-V materials, people are looking for new materials for use in novel semiconductor devices: either for use in extremely scaled device in sub-10 or even sub-5 nm devices, or for use in other situations such as flexible electronics or low power and lower cost IoT (Internet of Things) applications.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive research interests in their physical, chemical and mechanical properties.Since the discovery of graphene, which ...


Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee Dec 2016

Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Fast electromagnetic analysis in time and frequency domain is of critical importance to the design of integrated circuits (IC) and other advanced engineering products and systems. Many IC structures constitute a very large scale problem in modeling and simulation, the size of which also continuously grows with the advancement of the processing technology. This results in numerical problems beyond the reach of existing most powerful computational resources. Different from many other engineering problems, the structure of most ICs is special in the sense that its geometry is of Manhattan type and its dielectrics are layered. Hence, it is important to ...


Observability And Observer Design For Switched Linear Systems, Scott C. Johnson Dec 2016

Observability And Observer Design For Switched Linear Systems, Scott C. Johnson

Open Access Dissertations

Hybrid vehicles, HVAC systems in new/old buildings, power networks, and the like require safe, robust control that includes switching the mode of operation to meet environmental and performance objectives. Such switched systems consist of a set of continuous-time dynamical behaviors whose sequence of operational modes is driven by an underlying decision process. This thesis investigates feasibility conditions and a methodology for state and mode reconstruction given input-output measurements (not including mode sequence). An application herein considers insulation failures in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) used in heavy hybrid vehicles.

Leveraging the feasibility literature for switched linear time-invariant systems, this ...


Towards Building A Prototype Spin-Logic Device, Ashish Verma Penumatcha Dec 2016

Towards Building A Prototype Spin-Logic Device, Ashish Verma Penumatcha

Open Access Dissertations

Since the late 1980s, several key discoveries, such as Giant and Tunneling Magne- toresistance, and advances in magnetic materials have paved the way for exponentially higher bit-densities in magnetic storage. In particular, the discovery of Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) has allowed information to be written to individual magnets using spin-currents. This has replaced the more traditional Oersted-field control used in field-MRAMs and allowed further scaling of magnetic-memories. A less obvious con- sequence of STT is that it has made possible a logic-technology based on magnets controlled by spin-polarized currents. Charge-coupled Spin Logic (CSL) is one such device proposal that couples a ...


Functional Mri In The Presence Of Repetitive, Sub-Concussive Impacts, Trey E. Shenk Nov 2016

Functional Mri In The Presence Of Repetitive, Sub-Concussive Impacts, Trey E. Shenk

Open Access Dissertations

Recent research has raised understanding and awareness of the long-term risks associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While much research has focused on the role of concussion (a single event exhibiting clear clinical symptoms), the role of repetitive sub-concussive impacts is not well understood. This study uses functional MRI measurements of high school football players to identify functional changes, even in the absence of clinical symptoms.


Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi Aug 2016

Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi

Open Access Dissertations

As scaling CMOS devices is approaching its physical limits, researchers have begun exploring newer devices and architectures to replace CMOS.

Due to their non-volatility and high density, Spin Transfer Torque (STT) devices are among the most prominent candidates for logic and memory applications. In this research, we first considered a new logic style called All Spin Logic (ASL). Despite its advantages, ASL consumes a large amount of static power; thus, several optimizations can be performed to address this issue. We developed a systematic methodology to perform the optimizations to ensure stable operation of ASL.

Second, we investigated reliable design of ...


Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man Aug 2016

Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man

Open Access Dissertations

Research on nanophotonic structures for three application areas is described, a near perfect optical absorber based on a graphene/dielectric stack, an ultraviolet bandpass filter formed with an aluminum/dielectric stack, and structures exhibiting homogenizable magnetic properties at infrared frequencies. The graphene stack can be treated as a effective, homogenized medium that can be designed to reflect little light and absorb an astoundingly high amount per unit thickness, making it an ideal dark material and providing a new avenue for photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials. Another material stack arrangement with thin layers of metal and insulator forms a multi-cavity ...


Improving The Resilience Of Cyber-Physical Systems Under Strategic Adversaries, Paul Wood Aug 2016

Improving The Resilience Of Cyber-Physical Systems Under Strategic Adversaries, Paul Wood

Open Access Dissertations

Renewable energy resources challenge traditional energy system operations by substituting the stability and predictability of fossil fuel based generation with the unreliability and uncertainty of wind and solar power. Rising demand for green energy drives grid operators to integrate sensors, smart meters, and distributed control to compensate for this uncertainty and improve the operational efficiency of the grid. Real-time negotiations enable producers and consumers to adjust power loads during shortage periods, such as an unexpected outage or weather event, and to adapt to time-varying energy needs. While such systems improve grid performance, practical implementation challenges can derail the operation of ...


Visual Clutter Study For Pedestrian Using Large Scale Naturalistic Driving Data, Kai Yang Aug 2016

Visual Clutter Study For Pedestrian Using Large Scale Naturalistic Driving Data, Kai Yang

Open Access Dissertations

Some of the pedestrian crashes are due to driver’s late or difficult perception of pedestrian’s appearance. Recognition of pedestrians during driving is a complex cognitive activity. Visual clutter analysis can be used to study the factors that affect human visual search efficiency and help design advanced driver assistant system for better decision making and user experience. In this thesis, we propose the pedestrian perception evaluation model which can quantitatively analyze the pedestrian perception difficulty using naturalistic driving data. An efficient detection framework was developed to locate pedestrians within large scale naturalistic driving data. Visual clutter analysis was used ...


Three Dimensional Moving Pictures With A Single Imager And Microfluidic Lens, Chao Liu Aug 2016

Three Dimensional Moving Pictures With A Single Imager And Microfluidic Lens, Chao Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional movie acquisition and corresponding depth data is commonly generated from multiple cameras and multiple views. This technology has high cost and large size which are limitations for medical devices, military surveillance and current consumer products such as small camcorders and cell phone movie cameras. This research result shows that a single imager, equipped with a fast-focus microfluidic lens, produces a highly accurate depth map. On test material, the depth is found to be an average Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 3.543 gray level steps (1.38\%) accuracy compared to ranging data. The depth is inferred using a ...


Modeling The Impact Of Battery Degradation Within Lifecycle Cost Based Design Optimization Of Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Ashish P. Vora Aug 2016

Modeling The Impact Of Battery Degradation Within Lifecycle Cost Based Design Optimization Of Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Ashish P. Vora

Open Access Dissertations

The optimal design of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains from a systems perspective is critical to realize the maximum benefits for a given application. This is particularly true in the heavy-duty vehicle space where the major challenges are: (i) greater emphasis on economic viability, (ii) reluctance to take on risk associated with new technologies, and (iii) numerous diverse applications that preclude a one-size-fits-all approach to hybrid-electric powertrain design. Past studies on HEV powertrain design have either ignored battery degradation, or failed to holistically capture its impact from a lifecycle cost perspective. The focus of this effort is the development of ...


Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam Aug 2016

Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam

Open Access Dissertations

Silicon nanowires are promising building blocks for high-performance electronics and chemical/biological sensing devices due to their ultra-small body and high surface-to-volume ratios. However, the lack of the ability to assemble and position nanowires in a highly controlled manner still remains an obstacle to fully exploiting the substantial potential of nanowires. Here we demonstrate a one-step method to synthesize intrinsic and doped silicon nanowires for device applications. Sub-diffraction limited nanowires as thin as 60 nm are synthesized using laser direct writing in combination with chemical vapor deposition, which has the advantages of in-situ doping, catalyst-free growth, and precise control of ...


Error Resilient Video Coding Using Bitstream Syntax And Iterative Microscopy Image Segmentation, Neeraj Jayant Gadgil Aug 2016

Error Resilient Video Coding Using Bitstream Syntax And Iterative Microscopy Image Segmentation, Neeraj Jayant Gadgil

Open Access Dissertations

There has been a dramatic increase in the amount of video traffic over the Internet in past several years. For applications like real-time video streaming and video conferencing, retransmission of lost packets is often not permitted. Popular video coding standards such as H.26x and VPx make use of spatial-temporal correlations for compression, typically making compressed bitstreams vulnerable to errors. We propose several adaptive spatial-temporal error concealment approaches for subsampling-based multiple description video coding. These adaptive methods are based on motion and mode information extracted from the H.26x video bitstreams. We also present an error resilience method using data ...


Incorporation Of Gnss Multipath To Improve Autonomous Rendezvous, Docking And Proximity Operations In Space, Benjamin W. Ashman Apr 2016

Incorporation Of Gnss Multipath To Improve Autonomous Rendezvous, Docking And Proximity Operations In Space, Benjamin W. Ashman

Open Access Dissertations

Automated rendezvous and docking (AR&D;) operations are important for many future space missions, such as the resupply of space stations, repair and refueling of large satellites, and active removal of orbital debris. These operations depend critically on accurate, real-time knowledge of the relative position and velocity between two space vehicles. Unfortunately, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) capabilities remain severely limited in close proximity to large space structures due to significant multipath effects and signal blockage. Although GNSS is used for the initial stages of approach, other instruments such as laser, radar and vision-based systems, are required to augment GNSS during ...


Effect Of Bioenergy Crops And Fast Growing Trees On Hydrology And Water Quality In The Little Vermilion River Watershed, Tian Guo Apr 2016

Effect Of Bioenergy Crops And Fast Growing Trees On Hydrology And Water Quality In The Little Vermilion River Watershed, Tian Guo

Open Access Dissertations

Energy security and sustainability require a suite of biomass crops, including woody species. Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) such as Populus have great potential as biofuel feedstocks. Quantifying biomass yields of bioenergy crop and hydrologic and water quality responses to growth is important should it be widely planted in the Midwestern U.S. Subsurface tile drainage systems enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but also create environmental problems like nitrate-N contamination of the water it drains. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage, but the new tile ...


Coupled Resonator Based Wireless Power Transfer For Bioelectronics, Henry Mei Apr 2016

Coupled Resonator Based Wireless Power Transfer For Bioelectronics, Henry Mei

Open Access Dissertations

Implantable and wearable bioelectronics provide the ability to monitor and modulate physiological processes. They represent a promising set of technologies that can provide new treatment for patients or new tools for scientific discovery, such as in long-term studies involving small animals. As these technologies advance, two trends are clear, miniaturization and increased sophistication i.e. multiple channels, wireless bi-directional communication, and responsiveness (closed-loop devices). One primary challenge in realizing miniaturized and sophisticated bioelectronics is powering. Integration and development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology, however, can overcome this challenge.

In this dissertation, I propose the use of coupled resonator WPT ...


Learning From Minimally Labeled Data With Accelerated Convolutional Neural Networks, Aysegul Dundar Apr 2016

Learning From Minimally Labeled Data With Accelerated Convolutional Neural Networks, Aysegul Dundar

Open Access Dissertations

The main objective of an Artificial Vision Algorithm is to design a mapping function that takes an image as an input and correctly classifies it into one of the user-determined categories. There are several important properties to be satisfied by the mapping function for visual understanding. First, the function should produce good representations of the visual world, which will be able to recognize images independently of pose, scale and illumination. Furthermore, the designed artificial vision system has to learn these representations by itself. Recent studies on Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) produced promising advancements in visual understanding. These networks attain significant ...


Optimal Monitoring And Mitigation Of Systemic Risk In Lending Networks, Zhang Li Apr 2016

Optimal Monitoring And Mitigation Of Systemic Risk In Lending Networks, Zhang Li

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis proposes optimal policies to manage systemic risk in financial networks. Given a one-period borrower-lender network in which all debts are due at the same time and have the same seniority, we address the problem of allocating a fixed amount of cash among the nodes to minimize the weighted sum of unpaid liabilities. Assuming all the loan amounts and cash flows are fixed and that there are no bankruptcy costs, we show that this problem is equivalent to a linear program. We develop a duality-based distributed algorithm to solve it which is useful for applications where it is desirable ...


On The 3d Point Cloud For Human-Pose Estimation, Kai-Chi Chan Apr 2016

On The 3d Point Cloud For Human-Pose Estimation, Kai-Chi Chan

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis aims at investigating methodologies for estimating a human pose from a 3D point cloud that is captured by a static depth sensor. Human-pose estimation (HPE) is important for a range of applications, such as human-robot interaction, healthcare, surveillance, and so forth. Yet, HPE is challenging because of the uncertainty in sensor measurements and the complexity of human poses. In this research, we focus on addressing challenges related to two crucial components in the estimation process, namely, human-pose feature extraction and human-pose modeling.

In feature extraction, the main challenge involves reducing feature ambiguity. We propose a 3D-point-cloud feature called ...


Supervised Learning-Based Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control And Unknown Input Estimation In Biomedical Systems, Ankush Chakrabarty Feb 2016

Supervised Learning-Based Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control And Unknown Input Estimation In Biomedical Systems, Ankush Chakrabarty

Open Access Dissertations

Application of nonlinear control theory to biomedical systems involves tackling some unique and challenging problems. The mathematical models that describe biomedical systems are typically large and nonlinear. In addition, biological systems exhibit dynamics which are not reflected in the model (so-called 'un-modeled dynamics') and hard constraints on the states and control actions, which exacerbate the difficulties in designing model-based controllers or observers.

This thesis investigates the design of scalable fast explicit nonlinear model predictive controllers (ENMPCs). The design involves (i) the estimation of a feasible region using Lyapunov stability methods and support vector machines; and (ii) within the estimated feasible ...


Dependability Where The Mobile World Meets The Enterprise World, Amiya K. Maji Apr 2015

Dependability Where The Mobile World Meets The Enterprise World, Amiya K. Maji

Open Access Dissertations

As we move toward increasingly larger scales of computing, complexity of systems and networks has increased manifold leading to massive failures of cloud providers (Amazon Cloudfront, November 2014) and geographically localized outages of cellular services (T-Mobile, June 2014). In this dissertation, we investigate the dependability aspects of two of the most prevalent computing platforms today, namely, smartphones and cloud computing. These two seemingly disparate platforms are part of a cohesive story—they interact to provide end-to-end services which are increasingly being delivered over mobile platforms, examples being iCloud, Google Drive and their smartphone counterparts iPhone and Android. ^ In one of ...


Modular Approach To Spintronics, Kerem Yunus Camsari Apr 2015

Modular Approach To Spintronics, Kerem Yunus Camsari

Open Access Dissertations

There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this thesis is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiments we establish ...