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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Fracture Analysis In Biomimetic Bouligand Architectures, Nobphadon Suksanqpanya Dec 2016

Fracture Analysis In Biomimetic Bouligand Architectures, Nobphadon Suksanqpanya

Open Access Dissertations

The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of Bouligand structures and its biomimetic materials. One of the outstanding species with the Bouligand structures is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus, (or stomatopod) due to its capability of generating high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys. The load-bearing part of this appendage, the dactyl club, contains an interior region, which is mainly characterized by the Bouligand structure. This ...


Geometric Accuracy Evaluation Of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Surveys With Supporting Algorithms, Chisaphat Supunyachotsakul Dec 2016

Geometric Accuracy Evaluation Of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Surveys With Supporting Algorithms, Chisaphat Supunyachotsakul

Open Access Dissertations

Mobile Mapping System (MMS) technology is widely used for many applications, hence quantifying its accuracy is a very important and essential task and is a primary focus of this research. In general, to perfrom geometric accuracy evaluation of MMS data, validation points/features are needed. A method is needed to capture a point feature off the roadway in a position where a target on the ground surface would not be visible to the scanner. In this study, eight sphere targets with 14" diameter were placed on the shoulder of the roadway over validation points on the ground. The sphere targets ...


Fea Methodology For System-Level Redundancy Evaluation: Application To Non-Composite Steel Bridges, Francisco Javier Bonachera Martin Dec 2016

Fea Methodology For System-Level Redundancy Evaluation: Application To Non-Composite Steel Bridges, Francisco Javier Bonachera Martin

Open Access Dissertations

Currently, all steel bridges with members designated as Fracture Critical Members (FCMs) are required to undergo hands-on inspections every 24 months. A FCM is a primary steel tension member (or portion of) which failure results in collapse or loss of serviceability of a bridge. However, presently, there are no codified procedures used to evaluate system-level redundancy in steel bridges. In this dissertation, finite element analysis (FEA) procedures, techniques and inputs were researched in order to develop bridge models that account for the mechanisms that lead to redundant capacity after the failure of a primary steel member. These mechanisms include partial ...


Bridge Maintenance To Enhance Corrosion Resistance And Performance Of Steel Girder Bridges, Luis M. Moran Yanez Dec 2016

Bridge Maintenance To Enhance Corrosion Resistance And Performance Of Steel Girder Bridges, Luis M. Moran Yanez

Open Access Dissertations

The integrity and efficiency of any national highway system relies on the condition of the various components. Bridges are fundamental elements of a highway system, representing an important investment and a strategic link that facilitates the transport of persons and goods. The cost to rehabilitate or replace a highway bridge represents an important expenditure to the owner, who needs to evaluate the correct time to assume that cost. Among the several factors that affect the condition of steel highway bridges, corrosion is identified as the main problem. In the USA corrosion is the primary cause of structurally deficient steel bridges ...


Impact Of Rfid Information-Sharing Coordination Over A Supply Chain With Reverse Logistics, Juan Jose Nativi Nicolau Dec 2016

Impact Of Rfid Information-Sharing Coordination Over A Supply Chain With Reverse Logistics, Juan Jose Nativi Nicolau

Open Access Dissertations

Companies have adopted environmental practices such as reverse logistics over the past few decades. However, studies show that aligning partners inside the green supply chain can be a substantial problem. This lack of coordination can increase overall supply chain cost. Information technology such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has the potential to enable decentralized supply chain coordinate their information. Even though there are research that address RFID on traditional supply chain, few researches address how to coordinate RFID information sharing in a green supply chain. We study, through simulation experiments, two types of RFID information-sharing coordination under different configurations related ...


Computer Vision-Based Structural Assessment Exploiting Large Volumes Of Images, Chul Min Yeum Dec 2016

Computer Vision-Based Structural Assessment Exploiting Large Volumes Of Images, Chul Min Yeum

Open Access Dissertations

Visual assessment is a process to understand the state of a structure based on evaluations originating from visual information. Recent advances in computer vision to explore new sensors, sensing platforms and high-performance computing have shed light on the potential for vision-based visual assessment in civil engineering structures. The use of low-cost, high-resolution visual sensors in conjunction with mobile and aerial platforms can overcome spatial and temporal limitations typically associated with other forms of sensing in civil structures. Also, GPU-accelerated and parallel computing offer unprecedented speed and performance, accelerating processing the collected visual data. However, despite the enormous endeavor in past ...


Identifying And Prioritizing Critical Success Factors For Fixed Base Operators In The United States: A Mixed Method Approach, Yu Wang Dec 2016

Identifying And Prioritizing Critical Success Factors For Fixed Base Operators In The United States: A Mixed Method Approach, Yu Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Fixed Base Operators (FBOs) are major service providers for the general aviation (GA) sector, which closely connect the public with the aviation industry. However, over the past decade, the U.S. GA industry has experienced a decline in the numbers of registered aircraft, pilots, and airports. Due to the fact that FBOs significantly contribute to the aviation industry, further research studies regarding the FBO-sector at a national level are needed. The purpose of this dissertation was to identify and prioritize the critical success factors (CSFs) that promote the success of FBO operations in the United States.

The methodology consisted of ...


The Effects Of Chloride-Based Deicing Chemicals On Degradation Of Portland Cement Mortars With Alkali Reactive Aggregate, Charles Yicheng Chiu Dec 2016

The Effects Of Chloride-Based Deicing Chemicals On Degradation Of Portland Cement Mortars With Alkali Reactive Aggregate, Charles Yicheng Chiu

Open Access Dissertations

The assessment of the influence of deicing chemicals on alkali reactivity of aggregates is still an area of active research, particularly with respect to the combined effects of long-term exposure to deicers, freezing and thawing cycles, and wetting and drying cycles. In order to develop a more comprehensive view of these topics, the present study was conducted in three phases. The focus of the first phase was on studying the effects of the chloride-based deicers on the alkali silica reaction (ASR) using accelerated test methods (i.e. the test was performed at high temperature (80 °C) as per modified ASTM ...


Policy Design Tool For Managing Indoor Residential Water Demand In Water-Scarce Regions, Mujahed M. Thneibat Dec 2016

Policy Design Tool For Managing Indoor Residential Water Demand In Water-Scarce Regions, Mujahed M. Thneibat

Open Access Dissertations

In view of population growth; climate change; and economic evolution, water resources in numerous parts of the world have reached their natural capacities. Consequently, the ability of many countries to grow; meet the basic needs of inhabitants; and protect the environment will be endangered like never before unless water resources are smartly handled and managed. ^ In the past few decades, many developed and developing countries have suffered from water scarcity, and more are certain to follow. The water security dilemma is much more challenging in developing countries. Water utilities have had to follow regulatory plans to manage demand on water ...


Reactions Of Graphene Oxide And Buckminsterfullerene In The Aquatic Environment, Yingcan Zhao Aug 2016

Reactions Of Graphene Oxide And Buckminsterfullerene In The Aquatic Environment, Yingcan Zhao

Open Access Dissertations

Due to unique physical and chemical properties, carbon-based nanomaterials, including C60 and graphene oxide, now being used in an increasing number of applications. Considering their widespread use, nanoparticles will inevitably find their way to the natural environment. However, their environmental fate and transport have not been intensively explored, resulting in a general lack of knowledge regarding their risk assessment and life cycle exposure concentrations. To this end, this study has investigated: (i) the photo mineralization of aqu/nC60 clusters under photo irradiation, and (ii) environmental transformation of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment. This study shows that CO2 was produced ...


Modeling, Control, And Impact Analysis Of The Next Generation Transportation System, Feng Zhu Aug 2016

Modeling, Control, And Impact Analysis Of The Next Generation Transportation System, Feng Zhu

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation aims to develop a systematic tool designated for connected and autonomous vehicles, integrating the simulation of traffic dynamics, traffic control strategies, and impact analysis at the network level.

The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the traffic flow modeling of connected vehicles. This task is the foundation step for transportation planning, optimized network design, efficient traffic control strategies, etc, of the next generation transportation system. Chapter 2 proposes a cell-based simulation approach to model the proactive driving behavior of connected vehicles. Firstly, a state variable of connected vehicle is introduced to track the trajectory of connected ...


Response Of High-Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures To Simulated Earthquakes, Lucas Laughery Aug 2016

Response Of High-Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures To Simulated Earthquakes, Lucas Laughery

Open Access Dissertations

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures expected to resist earthquake demands, substituting smaller amounts of high-strength steel for conventional steel reinforcement can help reduce reinforcement congestion and placement costs while keeping strength unchanged.

Provided cross-sectional dimensions remain unchanged, reducing the amount of longitudinal steel in a member will result in a member with similar initial stiffness but lower post-cracking stiffness. Nominal strength can be kept nearly the same if this reduction in the amount of steel is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the strength of the steel. The topic of this investigation is whether two frames with the same initial ...


Modeling Of Frame Structures Undergoing Large Deformations And Large Rotations, Hui Liu Aug 2016

Modeling Of Frame Structures Undergoing Large Deformations And Large Rotations, Hui Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Numerical simulation of large-scale problems in structural dynamics, such as structures subject to extreme loads, can provide useful insights into structural behavior while minimizing the need for expensive experimental testing for the same. These types of problems are highly non-linear and usually involve material damage, large deformations and sometimes even collapse of structures. Conventionally, frame structures have been modeled using beam-frame finite elements in almost all structural analysis software currently being used by researchers and the industry. However, there are certain limitations associated with this modeling approach. This research focuses on two issues, in particular, of modeling frame structures undergoing ...


Influence Of Stormwater Control Measures On Watershed Hydrology And Biogeochemical Cycling, Colin D. Bell Aug 2016

Influence Of Stormwater Control Measures On Watershed Hydrology And Biogeochemical Cycling, Colin D. Bell

Open Access Dissertations

Urban development replaces vegetation with impervious surfaces and natural drainage channels with pipe networks that quicken flow paths and alter hydrologic regimes. Additionally, the import of food, application of fertilizer to lawns and gardens, and heightened atmospheric deposition increases nutrient availability in urban landscapes. These excess nutrients are ultimately routed to streams through the pipe networks before it can be processed by the vegetation and microorganisms of the landscape. This combination of physical and chemical disturbances impacts stream ecosystems and degrades their ability to perform valuable services such as removal of nutrients, degradation of pollutants, and provision of recreational and ...


Improving The Laboratory Design Of Asphalt Mixtures To Enhance Asphalt Pavement Durability, Ali Hekmatfar Aug 2016

Improving The Laboratory Design Of Asphalt Mixtures To Enhance Asphalt Pavement Durability, Ali Hekmatfar

Open Access Dissertations

Most departments of transportation, including Indiana’s, currently use the Superpave mixture design method to design asphalt mixtures. This method specifies that the optimum asphalt content for a given gradation be selected at 4 percent air voids. During construction, these mixtures are typically compacted to 7-8 percent air voids. If mixtures were designed to be more compactable in the field they could be compacted to the same density as the laboratory mixture design, which would increase pavement durability by decreasing the in-place air voids. The objective of this research was to enhance the asphalt mixture design method in order to ...


Evaluating The Two-Stage Ditch As A New Best Management Practice, Andi Hodaj Aug 2016

Evaluating The Two-Stage Ditch As A New Best Management Practice, Andi Hodaj

Open Access Dissertations

A two-stage ditch involves modifications of a traditional drainage ditch to resemble more the features of a natural stream. The idea is to create or simulate extended benches on both sides of the ditch that would develop naturally over a period of time in a stream because of geomorphological processes. Previous research in Indiana and Ohio has shown that two-stage ditches offer the potential to reduce sediment load and extend the interaction time between water and vegetation on the benches allowing larger uptake of nutrients from the vegetation on the extended benches, and increasing the denitrification rates in the bench ...


Simulation Of Conservation Practice Effects On Water Quality Under Current And Future Climate Scenarios, Carlington W. Wallace May 2016

Simulation Of Conservation Practice Effects On Water Quality Under Current And Future Climate Scenarios, Carlington W. Wallace

Open Access Dissertations

Analysis of the effects of implementing different conservation practices, as well as increased levels of conservation practices under existing and projected future climate, will determine if current conservation practice recommendations will be sufficient to maintain soil and water resources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to study four watersheds of different sizes (CCW = 680 km2, F34 = 183 km2, AXL = 42 km 2 and ALG = 20 km2) located in Northeastern Indiana. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of various agricultural practices on runoff and agricultural chemical losses under current and future climate conditions ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Watershed-Scale Hybrid Hydrologic Model, Younghyun Cho Apr 2016

Development And Evaluation Of A Watershed-Scale Hybrid Hydrologic Model, Younghyun Cho

Open Access Dissertations

A watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model (Distributed-Clark), which is a lumped conceptual and distributed feature model, was developed to predict spatially distributed short- and long-term rainfall runoff generation and routing using relatively simple methodologies and state-of-the-art spatial data in a GIS environment. In Distributed-Clark, spatially distributed excess rainfall estimated with the SCS curve number method and a GIS-based set of separated unit hydrographs (spatially distributed unit hydrograph) are utilized to calculate a direct runoff flow hydrograph, and time-varied SCS CN values and conditional unit hydrograph approach for different runoff depth-based flow convolution are also used to compute long-term rainfall-runoff flow hydrographs ...


Improvement Of Simulating Bmps And Lid Practices In L-Thia-Lid Model, Yaoze Liu Apr 2015

Improvement Of Simulating Bmps And Lid Practices In L-Thia-Lid Model, Yaoze Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices are popular approaches used to reduce the negative impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality. To assist planners and decision-makers in urban development projects, user-friendly tools are needed to assess the effectiveness of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and quality. To address this need, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-LID (L-THIA-LID) model was enhanced with additional commonly used BMPs and LID practices represented in the model, improved approaches to estimate hydrology and water quality, and representation of practices in series. The tool was used to evaluate the performance ...


Seismic In-Plane Response Of Reinforced Concrete Frames With Masonry Infill Walls, Rabab Abdel Karim Al Louzi Apr 2015

Seismic In-Plane Response Of Reinforced Concrete Frames With Masonry Infill Walls, Rabab Abdel Karim Al Louzi

Open Access Dissertations

Field data gathered after destructive earthquakes indicate that infill walls interact with reinforced concrete (RC) frames in buildings during an earthquake and could cause failure mechanism different than what the frames are originally designed for. A new method to identify the failure modes of RC frames with infill walls is developed. The method requires only the simple geometric and material properties of the elements involved in the frame- wall assembly. The approach checks various possible failure mechanisms, including those that may evolve depending on how the infill wall may fail during strong shaking, for example, the dynamically evolved captive column ...


Near-Inertial Internal Poincare Waves In Lake Michigan: Seasonal Variability And Effects On Lateral Dispersion And Turbulent Mixing, Jun M Choi Apr 2015

Near-Inertial Internal Poincare Waves In Lake Michigan: Seasonal Variability And Effects On Lateral Dispersion And Turbulent Mixing, Jun M Choi

Open Access Dissertations

A dominant physical process in stratified Lake Michigan is near-inertial internal Poincaré waves. The near-inertial internal Poincaré waves is described as locally quasi-uniform currents in the lateral direction, with vertically-sheared structures rotating clockwise at a near-inertial period. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate their seasonal variation and the potential roles on lateral dispersion and vertical mixing. ^ At this mid-lake location, the Poincaré wave is seen to describe more than 80% of the observed surface current variability for much of the year, with characteristic near-inertial frequency and clockwise-rotating velocities. The wave persists during the stratified period, and is supported ...


International Water And Food Security Development: Performance Evaluation And Assessment Of Research Needs At Multiple Scales, Caitlin Anne Grady Apr 2015

International Water And Food Security Development: Performance Evaluation And Assessment Of Research Needs At Multiple Scales, Caitlin Anne Grady

Open Access Dissertations

Water and food security remain the top development challenges of the decade, and perhaps the century. Since the Millennium Development Goals were established in 2000, billions of people have obtained access to more food, better nutrition, improved water, and basic sanitation facilities worldwide. This progress has been accomplished through the dedication of international organizations, non-governmental organizations, country-level governments, private corporations, and individuals at international, regional, and local scales. Truly tremendous strides have been made in water and food provisioning for humans worldwide. These past two decades have also seen the largest population growth on record, the highest rates of childhood ...


Automated Segmentation, Detection And Fitting Of Piping Elements From Terrestrial Lidar Data, Yun-Ting Su Apr 2015

Automated Segmentation, Detection And Fitting Of Piping Elements From Terrestrial Lidar Data, Yun-Ting Su

Open Access Dissertations

Since the invention of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) in the early 1960s, it has been adopted for use in numerous applications, from topographical mapping with airborne LIDAR platforms to surveying of urban sites with terrestrial LIDAR systems. Static terrestrial LIDAR has become an especially effective tool for surveying, in some cases replacing traditional techniques such as electronic total stations and GPS methods. Current state-of-the-art LIDAR scanners have very fine spatial resolution, generating precise 3D point cloud data with millimeter accuracy. Therefore, LIDAR data can provide 3D details of a scene with an unprecedented level of details. However, automated exploitation ...


Spatial Analysis Of Passenger Vehicle Use And Ownership And Its Impact On The Sustainability Of Highway Infrastructure Funding, Matthew Volovski Apr 2015

Spatial Analysis Of Passenger Vehicle Use And Ownership And Its Impact On The Sustainability Of Highway Infrastructure Funding, Matthew Volovski

Open Access Dissertations

Across the United States, the sustainability of highway funding is at risk due to increasing need and uncertainty in the factors that drive revenue. Past studies on highway funding sustainability have identified that the root cause of changing highway revenue are the shifts in social demographics and economic characteristics. Unfortunately, from the revenue perspective (the focus of this dissertation), the ability of previous research to account for these factors has been rather limited in two ways; first, the inability to accurately assess current regional vehicle use (a typical prerequisite for statistical modeling of highway revenues) due to difficulties associated with ...


Behavior And Design Of Steel-Plate Composite (Sc) Walls For Blast Loads, Jakob C Bruhl Apr 2015

Behavior And Design Of Steel-Plate Composite (Sc) Walls For Blast Loads, Jakob C Bruhl

Open Access Dissertations

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical ...


Modeling Person-To-Person Contaminant Transport In Enclosed Environments, Chun Chen Apr 2015

Modeling Person-To-Person Contaminant Transport In Enclosed Environments, Chun Chen

Open Access Dissertations

It is essential to predict person-to-person contaminant transport in enclosed environments to improve air distribution design and reduce the infection risk from airborne infectious diseases. This study aims to improve and accelerate the simulation of person-to-person contaminant transport in enclosed environments. ^ This investigation first conducted experimental measurements of person-to-person contaminant transport in an office mockup and the first-class cabin of a functional MD-82 aircraft. The experimental data of steady-state airflow, temperature, and gas contaminant concentration fields obtained in the office were used to validate the steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. In the aircraft cabin, the transient particle concentrations were ...


An Integrated System Of Vapor-Compression Chiller And Absorption Heat Pump: Experiment, Modeling, And Energy And Economic Evaluation, Yi-Shu Kung Apr 2015

An Integrated System Of Vapor-Compression Chiller And Absorption Heat Pump: Experiment, Modeling, And Energy And Economic Evaluation, Yi-Shu Kung

Open Access Dissertations

Buildings currently consume 41% of the primary energy in the United States. Among the 41% primary energy, approximate 50% are used for building heating, cooling, and water heating. Improving the efficiencies of the devices for building heating and cooling has potentials to reducing the energy consumptions. This research aims to find one solution for building energy efficiency through investigating an Integrated System of an Integrated Compression-Absorption Subcooling System (ICASS) Based upon the principle of subcooling effect, the ICASS can improve the efficiency of the cooling device but also achieve additional useful heating sources potentially used for space heating and domestic ...


Photochemistry Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes In The Aquatic Environment, And Their Extraction From Soils, Somayeh Beigzadehmilani Apr 2015

Photochemistry Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes In The Aquatic Environment, And Their Extraction From Soils, Somayeh Beigzadehmilani

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a class of engineered nanoparticles, composed of an array of sp2 carbon atoms arranged as fused benzene rings. Due to their exceptional electrical, mechanical, and physical properties, CNTs find applications in construction, aerospace, and medical industries. In the United States, CNTs already had an annual production of 2,000 tons in 2011. This rate of annual production indicates that CNTs will find their way into the environment, which will result in certain environmental exposure. Yet, there have not been sufficient and definitive studies on the health and environment effects of CNTs. For example, additional information regarding ...


Development And Application Of Quantitative Methods For Ecosystem Services, Rebecca A. Logsdon Apr 2015

Development And Application Of Quantitative Methods For Ecosystem Services, Rebecca A. Logsdon

Open Access Dissertations

Ecosystem services are benefits that people receive from the environment. Despite recent exponential increases in ecosystem service research, the ecosystem service framework has made little impact on policy and land management decisions, especially in the United States. Two of the main limitations for a lack of ecosystem service considerations in both policy and land management decisions are a need for more advanced quantification methods and the lack of engagement of key stakeholders who are responsible for making land management decisions. This research seeks to address these two limitations by testing and improving quantification methods of ecosystem services and by evaluating ...


Algorithms For Bundling And Pricing Trucking Services: Deterministic And Stochastic Approaches, Rodrigo Mesa-Arango Apr 2015

Algorithms For Bundling And Pricing Trucking Services: Deterministic And Stochastic Approaches, Rodrigo Mesa-Arango

Open Access Dissertations

Bundling and pricing trucking services is an important strategic decision for carriers. This is helpful when they consider the incorporation of new businesses to their networks, look for economic and optimal operations, and develop revenue management strategies. Reverse combinatorial auctions for trucking services are real-world examples that illustrate the necessity of such strategies. In these auctions, a shipper asks carriers for quotes to serve combinations of lanes and the carriers have to bundle demand and price it properly. This dissertation explores several dimensions of the problem employing state-of-the-art analytical tools. These dimensions include: Truckload (TL) and less-than-truckload (LTL) operations, behavioral ...