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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Energy Transfer And Localization In Molecular Crystals, Mitchell A. Wood May 2016

Energy Transfer And Localization In Molecular Crystals, Mitchell A. Wood

Open Access Dissertations

With the aim of developing new technologies for the detection and defeat of energetic materials, this collection of work was focused on using simulations to characterize materials at extremes of temperature, pressure and radiation. Each branch of the work here is collected by which material response is potentially used as the detectable signal.

Where the chemical response is of interest, this work will explore the possibility of non-statistical chemical reactions in condensed-phase energetic materials via reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We characterize the response of three unique high energy density molecular crystals to different means of energy input: electric fields ...


Direct Drug Screening And Lipid Profiling Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry, Yuan Su Apr 2016

Direct Drug Screening And Lipid Profiling Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry, Yuan Su

Open Access Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) stands in an outstanding position in analysis of biological specimens owing to its abundant structural information, high accuracy, incomparable sensitivity, high speed, and the large variety of its applications. The ion source, an instrumental part for converting the analyte into ions, has played an important role in analyzing biological specimens by MS. However, the performance of conventional spray-based ionization methods always suffers from chemical interferences derived from complex biological matrices. A series of sample extraction, purification, and separation steps is required before the ionization, so as to ensure excellent performance of MS analysis. In order to simplify ...


Effect Of Maleic Acid On The Selectivity Of Glucose And Fructose Dehydration And Degradation, Ximing Zhang Apr 2015

Effect Of Maleic Acid On The Selectivity Of Glucose And Fructose Dehydration And Degradation, Ximing Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

5-Hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF), a platform chemical can upgrade to a variety of fuels and polymers, can be manufactured from lignocellulose. This study focuses on the Lewis and Brønsted acid effect on hexose dehydration for HMF production. We report the positive effect of maleic acid, a dicarboxylic acid used as Brønsted acid, on the selectivity of hexose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF), and subsequent hydrolysis to levulinic and formic acids. We also describe the kinetic analysis of a Lewis acid (AlCl 3) alone and in combination with HCl or maleic acid to catalyze the isomerization of glucose to fructose, dehydration of fructose to ...


Structure-Activity Relationships For The Water-Gas Shift Reaction Over Supported Metal Catalysts, Kaiwalya D. Sabnis Jan 2015

Structure-Activity Relationships For The Water-Gas Shift Reaction Over Supported Metal Catalysts, Kaiwalya D. Sabnis

Open Access Dissertations

The Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction (CO + H2O → CO2 + H2) is an important chemical process for industrial hydrogen production. The overall goal of this project is to use kinetic experiments and in situ characterization techniques in tandem, in order to derive structure-activity relationships for various catalytic systems. These relationships facilitate the rational catalyst design by identification of catalyst descriptors. In order to establish such relationships, various studies were undertaken, such as (i) effect of transition admetals on the WGS catalysis by molybdenum carbide (ii) effect of residual oxygen content on the performance of molybdenum carbide for WGS ...


Instrumentation And Development Of A Mass Spectrometry System For The Study Of Gas-Phase Biomolecular Ion Reactions, Ziqing Lin Jan 2015

Instrumentation And Development Of A Mass Spectrometry System For The Study Of Gas-Phase Biomolecular Ion Reactions, Ziqing Lin

Open Access Dissertations

Gas-phase reactions of biomolecular ions are highly relevant to the understanding of structures and functions of the biomolecules. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in investigating gas-phase ion chemistry. Various mass spectrometers have been developed to explore ion/molecule reactions, ion/ion reactions, ion/photon reactions, ion/radical reactions etc., both at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. In-vacuum reactions have an advantage of involving pre-selecting the ions for the reactions using a mass analyzer. Over the decades, a variety of mass analyzers have been employed in the research of ion chemistry. Hybrid configurations, such as quadrupole ion trap with a ...


Fundamental Studies On Copper Zeolites For Catalytic No X Abatement, Anuj Arun Verma Jul 2014

Fundamental Studies On Copper Zeolites For Catalytic No X Abatement, Anuj Arun Verma

Open Access Dissertations

Stringent regulations in mobile NOx emissions have resulted in the development of Standard Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as the dominant NOx abatement technology in lean burn diesel engines. Standard SCR is a reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia (NH3), in the presence of oxygen (O 2) to form nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O). Copper containing zeolites show commercially viable SCR performance. Cu-SSZ-13 (CHA framework), a member of this family, is a preferred catalyst for SCR applications because it shows exceptional hydrothermal stability in addition to commercially viable SCR performance. Our work focuses on 1) determination ...


Development Of Quantitative Ft- Ir Methods For Analyzing The Cure Kinetics Of Epoxy Resins, Sang Ha Son Oct 2013

Development Of Quantitative Ft- Ir Methods For Analyzing The Cure Kinetics Of Epoxy Resins, Sang Ha Son

Open Access Dissertations

Epoxy thermosets are important engineering materials with applications in coating, adhesives, packaging and as structural components in a variety of advanced engineering products. The ultimate performance of polymer critically depends upon the details of the cure chemistry used to produce the thermoset. In order to better understand and monitor the cure chemistry, quantitative analysis of the FT-IR response has been developed for describing the epoxy-amine curing reaction as well as monitoring the hydrogen bonding that occurs in these systems The FT-IR analysis includes (i) quantitative deconvolution of complex peaks into individual spectral contributions, (ii) peak identification via DFT analysis and ...


Utilizing Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Methods To Understand Water Structure And Water Doping, Lior Miller Oct 2013

Utilizing Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Methods To Understand Water Structure And Water Doping, Lior Miller

Open Access Dissertations

Water is the second most common element in the universe and the most studied material on earth. Most of the studies concerning water are from the fields of chemistry and biology. Hence, the structure of water molecules and short range order and interactions are well characterized and understood. However, the collective arrangement of water molecules and the long range order are still missing. Understanding of this long range order in water is needed, as it is the key to many water activities.

To fill this gap, this study utilizes a new direct method for characterization of water in the vapor ...


The Effect Of Composition On The Linear And Nonlinear Mechanical Properties Of Particulate Filled Elastomers, Oluwaseyi Ogebule Oct 2013

The Effect Of Composition On The Linear And Nonlinear Mechanical Properties Of Particulate Filled Elastomers, Oluwaseyi Ogebule

Open Access Dissertations

Engineering elastomers are materials capable of undergoing large deformation upon load application and recovering upon load removal. From car tires to building vibration isolator systems, elastomers are the most versatile of engineering materials. The inclusion of particulate fillers into elastomers enhances their mechanical properties (modulus, tensile strength, toughness, tear resistance, etc) thereby extending their applicability to more demanding functions. The automotive, healthcare, construction, adhesives and consumer products are some of the many industries that produce finished goods containing elastomeric parts.

Despite the various concepts on reinforcement in filled elastomers, a complete understanding of their linear viscoelastic properties and the nonlinear ...


Elucidation Of Chiral Recognition Mechanisms Of Solutes By Amylose Tris[(S)-Alpha-Methylbenzylcarbamate] Sorbent, Hung-Wei Tsui Oct 2013

Elucidation Of Chiral Recognition Mechanisms Of Solutes By Amylose Tris[(S)-Alpha-Methylbenzylcarbamate] Sorbent, Hung-Wei Tsui

Open Access Dissertations

Enantioselective separations of chiral molecules are important in various chemical fields, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals industries. Polysaccharide-based sorbents have been widely used in chiral liquid chromatography. The recognition mechanisms which determine their enantioselectivities are not completely understood.

In this dissertation, the chiral recognition mechanisms of a widely used commercial sorbent, amylose tris[(S)-alpha-methylbenzylcarbamate], for benzoin (B) enantiomers were first studied. The HPLC data for benzoin with pure n-hexane as the mobile phase have been obtained. The behavior of sorbent-solute-hexane systems can be interpreted by considering only sorbent solute two-component interactions. Infrared (IR) spectra showed evidence of substantial hydrogen ...


Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study Of Copper-Exchanged Zeolites For The Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nox With Ammonia, Shane Adam Bates Oct 2013

Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study Of Copper-Exchanged Zeolites For The Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nox With Ammonia, Shane Adam Bates

Open Access Dissertations

The recent application of metal-exchanged, small-pore zeolites for use in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia NH3 for automotive deNOx applications has been a great stride in achieving emission standard goals. Copper-exchanged SSZ-13 (Cu-SSZ-13), the small-pore zeolite in this study, has been shown to be very hydrothermally stable and active under conditions presented in the exhaust of the lean-burn diesel engine. In this work, detailed studies were performed to identify many aspects of the active site(s) in Cu-SSZ-13 in order to learn about the standard SCR mechanism.

A series of seven Cu-SSZ-13 samples ...


Preparation Of Mesoporous Silica Supported Ruthenium Oxides And The Application And Kinetic Study In The Catalysis Of Water Oxidation, Yang Zhang Oct 2013

Preparation Of Mesoporous Silica Supported Ruthenium Oxides And The Application And Kinetic Study In The Catalysis Of Water Oxidation, Yang Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

Photo-induced water splitting of water into H2 and O2 has been a major focus in the development of clean and renewable energy. The development of viable and efficient catalysts that facilitates O2 production remains the major challenge in the study of the corresponding half-reaction of water oxidation. There are plenty of metal oxides reported active in the catalysis of water oxidation. However, several important performance bench marks of those materials, such as the non-stoichiometric production of O2, slow reaction rate and/or low quantum efficiency, remain to be improved.

Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) has long been known as one of the ...


Organic Materials As Templates For The Formation Of Mesoporous Inorganic Materials And Ordered Inorganic Nanocomposites, Christopher Ryan Ziegler Feb 2012

Organic Materials As Templates For The Formation Of Mesoporous Inorganic Materials And Ordered Inorganic Nanocomposites, Christopher Ryan Ziegler

Open Access Dissertations

Hierarchically structured inorganic materials are everywhere in nature. From unicellular aquatic algae such as diatoms to the bones and/or cartilage that comprise the skeletal systems of vertebrates. Complex mechanisms involving site-specific chemistries and precision kinetics are responsible for the formation of such structures. In the synthetic realm, reproduction of even the most basic hierarchical structure effortlessly produced in nature is difficult. However, through the utilization of self-assembling structures or "templates", such as polymers or amphiphilic surfactants, combined with some favorable interaction between a chosen inorganic, the potential exists to imprint an inorganic material with a morphology dictated via synthetic ...


Design Of Hybrid Conjugated Polymer Materials: 1) Novel Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Semiconductors And 2) Surface Modification Via Grafting Approaches, Joseph J. Peterson Feb 2012

Design Of Hybrid Conjugated Polymer Materials: 1) Novel Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Semiconductors And 2) Surface Modification Via Grafting Approaches, Joseph J. Peterson

Open Access Dissertations

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the design and synthesis of novel hybrid conjugated polymer materials using two different approaches: 1) inorganic/organic hybrid semiconductors through the incorporation of carboranes into the polymer structure and 2) the modification of surfaces with conjugated polymers via grafting approaches. Hybrid conjugated polymeric materials, which are materials or systems in which conjugated polymers are chemically integrated with non-traditional structures or surfaces, have the potential to harness useful properties from both components of the material to help overcome hurdles in their practical realization in polymer-based devices. This work is centered around the synthetic ...