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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Exploring The Cause Of Injury Or Death In Grain Entrapment, Engulfment And Extrication, Salah F. Issa Dec 2016

Exploring The Cause Of Injury Or Death In Grain Entrapment, Engulfment And Extrication, Salah F. Issa

Open Access Dissertations

Grain entrapments and engulfments are one of most common hazards associated with grain storage facilities. Since the 1970’s over 1,880 incidents have been documented in agricultural confined spaces of which 65% of all recorded incidents were grain entrapments and engulfments. There have been several studies conducted on the contributing factors behind these incidents; however, there have been very few attempts to understand the environmental, physiological or psychological factors the victims experience while entrapped, engulfed, or extricated. This includes understanding how secondary injuries are caused by grain or during extrication by first responders. The research effort was divided into ...


Investigation Of Methods For Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination In Distillers Grains, Hu Shi Dec 2016

Investigation Of Methods For Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination In Distillers Grains, Hu Shi

Open Access Dissertations

The overall goal of this project was to reduce the aflatoxin level in the final coproduct of ethanol bioprocessing--DDGS. This was pursued by examining the effects of reduction of aflatoxin in the incoming corn prior to bioprocessing, the degradation of aflatoxin in the intermediate products, namely DWG and CDS, during processing, and aflatoxin degradation in the DDGS. Segregation techniques (size screening and density sorting) and detoxification methods (conventional and microwave heating, food additives, and high voltage atmospheric cold plasma) were evaluated for their effectiveness in aflatoxin reduction.

Effectiveness of physical segregation of aflatoxin contaminated corn was investigated by size screening ...


Organizing Historical Agricultural Data And Identifying Data Integrity Zones To Assess Agricultural Data Quality, Elizabeth Marie Hawkins Aug 2016

Organizing Historical Agricultural Data And Identifying Data Integrity Zones To Assess Agricultural Data Quality, Elizabeth Marie Hawkins

Open Access Dissertations

As precision agriculture transitions into decision agriculture, data driven decision- making has become the focus of the industry and data quality will be increasingly important. Traditionally, yield data cleaning techniques have removed individual data points based on criteria primarily focused on the yield values. However, when these methods are used, the underlying causes of the errors are often overlooked and as a result, these techniques may fail to remove all of the inaccurate data or remove “good” data. As part of this research, an alternative to data cleaning was developed. Data integrity zones (DIZ) within each field were identified by ...


Simulation Of Conservation Practice Effects On Water Quality Under Current And Future Climate Scenarios, Carlington W. Wallace May 2016

Simulation Of Conservation Practice Effects On Water Quality Under Current And Future Climate Scenarios, Carlington W. Wallace

Open Access Dissertations

Analysis of the effects of implementing different conservation practices, as well as increased levels of conservation practices under existing and projected future climate, will determine if current conservation practice recommendations will be sufficient to maintain soil and water resources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to study four watersheds of different sizes (CCW = 680 km2, F34 = 183 km2, AXL = 42 km 2 and ALG = 20 km2) located in Northeastern Indiana. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of various agricultural practices on runoff and agricultural chemical losses under current and future climate conditions ...


Investigation Of Climate Variability And Climate Change Impacts On Corn Yield In The Eastern Corn Belt, Usa, Ruoyu Wang May 2016

Investigation Of Climate Variability And Climate Change Impacts On Corn Yield In The Eastern Corn Belt, Usa, Ruoyu Wang

Open Access Dissertations

The increasing demand for both food and biofuels requires more corn production at global scale. However, current corn yield is not able to meet bio-ethanol demand without jeopardizing food security or intensifying and expanding corn cultivation. An alternative solution is to utilize cellulose and hemi-cellulose from perennial grasses to fulfill the increasing demand for biofuel energy. A watershed level scenario analysis is often applied to figure out a sustainable way to strike the balance between food and fuel demands, and maintain environment integrity. However, a solid modeling application requires a clear understanding of crop responses under various climate stresses. This ...


Effect Of Bioenergy Crops And Fast Growing Trees On Hydrology And Water Quality In The Little Vermilion River Watershed, Tian Guo Apr 2016

Effect Of Bioenergy Crops And Fast Growing Trees On Hydrology And Water Quality In The Little Vermilion River Watershed, Tian Guo

Open Access Dissertations

Energy security and sustainability require a suite of biomass crops, including woody species. Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) such as Populus have great potential as biofuel feedstocks. Quantifying biomass yields of bioenergy crop and hydrologic and water quality responses to growth is important should it be widely planted in the Midwestern U.S. Subsurface tile drainage systems enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but also create environmental problems like nitrate-N contamination of the water it drains. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage, but the new tile ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Watershed-Scale Hybrid Hydrologic Model, Younghyun Cho Apr 2016

Development And Evaluation Of A Watershed-Scale Hybrid Hydrologic Model, Younghyun Cho

Open Access Dissertations

A watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model (Distributed-Clark), which is a lumped conceptual and distributed feature model, was developed to predict spatially distributed short- and long-term rainfall runoff generation and routing using relatively simple methodologies and state-of-the-art spatial data in a GIS environment. In Distributed-Clark, spatially distributed excess rainfall estimated with the SCS curve number method and a GIS-based set of separated unit hydrographs (spatially distributed unit hydrograph) are utilized to calculate a direct runoff flow hydrograph, and time-varied SCS CN values and conditional unit hydrograph approach for different runoff depth-based flow convolution are also used to compute long-term rainfall-runoff flow hydrographs ...


Rearward Visibility Issues Related To Agricultural Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions, Shawn Gregory Ehlers Apr 2016

Rearward Visibility Issues Related To Agricultural Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions, Shawn Gregory Ehlers

Open Access Dissertations

As the size, complexity, and speed of tractors and other agricultural self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing not only damage to both machine and stationary objects, but also injuries (even fatalities) to bystanders not visible to the operator. Fortunately, monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering operators today more options for increasing awareness of the area surrounding their machines. In this research, an attempt is ...


Enhancing Bioethanol Fermentation Through Removal Of Acetic Acid Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Mahdieh Aghazadeh Apr 2016

Enhancing Bioethanol Fermentation Through Removal Of Acetic Acid Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Mahdieh Aghazadeh

Open Access Dissertations

The concern for the ever growing human population as well as the depletion of fossil fuel resources and their impact on global warming have long been motivations for the researchers to investigate means for sustainable producing carbon-neutral energy. Second-generation biofuel refers to liquid fuels that are produced from non-food resources and reduce the total greenhouse gas emission by at least 60 %. Acetic acid has been shown to be one of the most ubiquitous fermentation inhibitors in a bioethanol production facility which slows down the bioethanol production and reduces its yield through inhibition of the ethanol producing microorganisms. The use of ...


Hydrologic And Water Quality Impacts From Perennial Crop Production On Marginal Lands, Qingyu Feng Mar 2016

Hydrologic And Water Quality Impacts From Perennial Crop Production On Marginal Lands, Qingyu Feng

Open Access Dissertations

Marginal lands are proposed as a viable option for producing biofeedstocks as these lands are not heavily engaged in agricultural production or may not be suitable for intensive row-crop food/feed production. However, meeting biofeedstock production goals will require large amount of marginal lands and the unintended consequences of producing biofeedstocks on marginal lands are not fully clear. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the productivity of biofeedstocks on marginal lands and the potential impacts on hydrologic and water quality processes from the land use conversion.

This study was conducted in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB ...


Estimating The Water Quality Condition Of River And Lake Water In The Midwestern United States From Its Spectral Characteristics, Jing Tan Dec 2015

Estimating The Water Quality Condition Of River And Lake Water In The Midwestern United States From Its Spectral Characteristics, Jing Tan

Open Access Dissertations

This study focuses on developing/calibrating remote sensing algorithms for water quality retrieval in Midwestern rivers and lakes. In the first part of this study, the spectral measurements collected using a hand-held spectrometer as well as water quality observations for the Wabash River and its tributary the Tippecanoe River in Indiana were used to develop empirical models for the retrieval of chlorophyll (chl) and total suspended solids (TSS). A method for removing sky and sun glint from field spectra for turbid inland waters was developed and tested. Empirical models were then developed using a subset of the field measurements with ...


Improvement Of Simulating Bmps And Lid Practices In L-Thia-Lid Model, Yaoze Liu Apr 2015

Improvement Of Simulating Bmps And Lid Practices In L-Thia-Lid Model, Yaoze Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices are popular approaches used to reduce the negative impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality. To assist planners and decision-makers in urban development projects, user-friendly tools are needed to assess the effectiveness of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and quality. To address this need, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-LID (L-THIA-LID) model was enhanced with additional commonly used BMPs and LID practices represented in the model, improved approaches to estimate hydrology and water quality, and representation of practices in series. The tool was used to evaluate the performance ...


Effect Of Maleic Acid On The Selectivity Of Glucose And Fructose Dehydration And Degradation, Ximing Zhang Apr 2015

Effect Of Maleic Acid On The Selectivity Of Glucose And Fructose Dehydration And Degradation, Ximing Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

5-Hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF), a platform chemical can upgrade to a variety of fuels and polymers, can be manufactured from lignocellulose. This study focuses on the Lewis and Brønsted acid effect on hexose dehydration for HMF production. We report the positive effect of maleic acid, a dicarboxylic acid used as Brønsted acid, on the selectivity of hexose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF), and subsequent hydrolysis to levulinic and formic acids. We also describe the kinetic analysis of a Lewis acid (AlCl 3) alone and in combination with HCl or maleic acid to catalyze the isomerization of glucose to fructose, dehydration of fructose to ...


Development And Application Of Quantitative Methods For Ecosystem Services, Rebecca A. Logsdon Apr 2015

Development And Application Of Quantitative Methods For Ecosystem Services, Rebecca A. Logsdon

Open Access Dissertations

Ecosystem services are benefits that people receive from the environment. Despite recent exponential increases in ecosystem service research, the ecosystem service framework has made little impact on policy and land management decisions, especially in the United States. Two of the main limitations for a lack of ecosystem service considerations in both policy and land management decisions are a need for more advanced quantification methods and the lack of engagement of key stakeholders who are responsible for making land management decisions. This research seeks to address these two limitations by testing and improving quantification methods of ecosystem services and by evaluating ...


Adaptive Targeting: Engaging Farmers To Assess Perceptions And Improve Watershed Modeling, Optimization, And Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices, Margaret Mccahon Kalcic Oct 2013

Adaptive Targeting: Engaging Farmers To Assess Perceptions And Improve Watershed Modeling, Optimization, And Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices, Margaret Mccahon Kalcic

Open Access Dissertations

Targeting agricultural conservation practices to farmland that has the greatest impact on surface water quality has received wide support from scientists and watershed managers. The targeting approach has, however, been politically contentious as many believe farmers will oppose the approach on grounds such as privacy invasion and unfair distribution of government incentives. Targeting conservation practices using complex optimization models has become common in the scientific community, and yet targeted results are underutilized in practice because of difficulties such as knowledge transfer and absence of a political framework for their use. For targeting to be successful, it must be politically supported ...


Using X-Ray Imaging Techniques To Determine Density Of Foods, Shivangi Mohan Kelkar Oct 2013

Using X-Ray Imaging Techniques To Determine Density Of Foods, Shivangi Mohan Kelkar

Open Access Dissertations

Density depends on the experimental technique and structural properties of food. True, apparent and bulk are different types of densities. For porous foods such as baked food products and complex food systems, accurate measurement of density is challenging. Empirical correlations dependent on composition and temperature exist to calculate true density. Thus if composition and apparent density are known, porosity can be calculated, porosity = [1 - (apparent density/ true density)]. Various non-destructive diagnostic tools have been employed to study food microstructure. Among these, computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR) utilizing x-ray imaging showed greater capability for evaluation of food density. The ...


Advanced Control Strategies For Mobile Hydraulic Applications, Davide Cristofori Oct 2013

Advanced Control Strategies For Mobile Hydraulic Applications, Davide Cristofori

Open Access Dissertations

Mobile hydraulic machines are affected by numerous undesired dynamics, mainly discontinuous motion and vibrations. Over the years, many methods have been developed to limit the extent of those undesired dynamics and improve controllability and safety of operation of the machine. However, in most of the cases, today's methods do not significantly differ from those developed in a time when electronic controllers were slower and less reliable than they are today.

This dissertation addresses this aspect and presents a unique control method designed to be applicable to all mobile hydraulic machines controlled by proportional directional valves. In particular, the proposed ...


Ozonation Systems As A Non-Chemical Alternative For Stored Grain Protection, Carlos A. Campabadal Oct 2013

Ozonation Systems As A Non-Chemical Alternative For Stored Grain Protection, Carlos A. Campabadal

Open Access Dissertations

The use of ozone as a non-chemical alternative in stored grain protection was studied by conducting scale-up demonstrations using a fixed bed ozonation system and developing a semi-continuous counterflow and a continuous flow ozonation treatment system. The objectives of this research were to determine the efficacy of ozonation to control insect pests without affecting end-use quality; to prove the concept of the semi-continuous counterflow ozonation system to ozonate grain at a faster rate and quantify its effect on mold growth reduction; to evaluate the efficacy of a modified screw conveyor for pest control by treating grain in a continuous-flow ozonation ...


Direct And Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biomass Storage: Implications For Life Cycle Assessment Of Biofuels, Isaac Robert Emery Oct 2013

Direct And Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biomass Storage: Implications For Life Cycle Assessment Of Biofuels, Isaac Robert Emery

Open Access Dissertations

Ethanol and other biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks are currently the most promising candidates to replace a large fraction of gasoline consumption in the United States and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Gaps in current approaches to estimating the net greenhouse gas emissions from second-generation biofuels may lead to underestimation of the carbon intensity of these fuels. Current life cycle assessment models of biofuels do not sufficiently account for biomass losses and emissions associated with the harvest and storage of biomass feedstocks, which can require additional fuel and materials use on the farm as well as reducing the effective yield of a ...