Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Numerical Investigation Of Crossflow Instability On The Hifire-5, Matthew T. Lakebrink Dec 2016

Numerical Investigation Of Crossflow Instability On The Hifire-5, Matthew T. Lakebrink

Open Access Dissertations

Stability analysis was performed with the Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) on a 38.1% scale model of the HIFiRE-5 elliptic-cone forebody to study crossflow-induced transition in hypersonic boundary layers. A resolution study consisting of three grids (30e6, 45e6, and 91e6 points) indicated that the fine grid was sufficiently resolved. Results were largely insensitive to grid resolution over the acreage and near the attachment line. The percent variation in second-mode properties along the semi-minor axis was less than 1% between the medium and fine grids. The variation in crossflow-wave properties was less than 0.04% between the medium ...


Development Of Inverse Methods For Reconstruction Of Flight Environments On Ablators, A. Brandon Oliver Dec 2016

Development Of Inverse Methods For Reconstruction Of Flight Environments On Ablators, A. Brandon Oliver

Open Access Dissertations

Obtaining measurements of flight environments on ablative heatshields is both critical for spacecraft development and extremely challenging due to the harsh heating environment and surface recession. Thermocouples installed several millimeters below the surface are commonly used to measure the heatshield temperature response, but an ill-posed inverse heat conduction problem must be solved to reconstruct the surface heating environment from the embedded thermocouple measurements. The material properties of typical ablators make the reconstruction process more challenging when the measurements are deep, but measurements often must be located deep to allow for surface recession. Compounding the complexity of the surface reconstruction problem ...


Modeling Methods For Merging Computational And Experimental Aerodynamic Pressure Data, Jacob Courtney Haderlie Dec 2016

Modeling Methods For Merging Computational And Experimental Aerodynamic Pressure Data, Jacob Courtney Haderlie

Open Access Dissertations

This research describes a process to model surface pressure data sets as a function of wing geometry from computational and wind tunnel sources and then merge them into a single predicted value. The described merging process will enable engineers to integrate these data sets with the goal of utilizing the advantages of each data source while overcoming the limitations of both; this provides a single, combined data set to support analysis and design. The main challenge with this process is accurately representing each data source everywhere on the wing. Additionally, this effort demonstrates methods to model wind tunnel pressure data ...


Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes Dec 2016

Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes

Open Access Dissertations

Gravity-assist trajectories to Uranus and Neptune are found (with the allowance of impulsive maneuvers using chemical propulsion) for launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038 for Uranus and 2020 to 2070 for Neptune. Solutions are found using a patched conic model with analytical ephemeris via the Satellite Tour Design Program (STOUR), originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Delivered payload mass is computed for all solutions for select launch vehicles, and attractive solutions are identified as those that deliver a specified amount of payload mass into orbit at the target body in minimum time. The best cases for each ...


Interplanetary Mission Design With Applications To Guidance And Optimal Control Of Aero-Assisted Trajectories, Peter J. Edelman Dec 2016

Interplanetary Mission Design With Applications To Guidance And Optimal Control Of Aero-Assisted Trajectories, Peter J. Edelman

Open Access Dissertations

A method for finding optimal aerogravity-assist tours of the solar system is developed using indirect methods. Two cost functionals are used in the optimization; finding the minimum required maximum lift-to-drag ratio, with and without a convective heating-rate path constraint, and the path which provides the minimum total stagnation point convective heat load. It is found that using present or near-future thermal protection system materials will suffice for certain aerogravity assist trajectories at Mars. Minimum heat load optimal trajectories are found for aerocapture maneuvers at Uranus and Neptune. With a large radius, and short rotational periods, atmospheric rotation must be taken ...


A New Approach To Modeling Aviation Accidents, Arjun Harsha Rao Dec 2016

A New Approach To Modeling Aviation Accidents, Arjun Harsha Rao

Open Access Dissertations

General Aviation (GA) is a catchall term for all aircraft operations in the US that are not categorized as commercial operations or military flights. GA aircraft account for almost 97% of the US civil aviation fleet. Unfortunately, GA flights have a much higher fatal accident rate than commercial operations. Recent estimates by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) showed that the GA fatal accident rate has remained relatively unchanged between 2010 and 2015, with 1566 fatal accidents accounting for 2650 fatalities. Several research efforts have been directed towards betters understanding the causes of GA accidents. Many of these efforts use National ...


Information Inference For Cyber-Physical Systems With Application To Aviation Safety And Space Situational Awareness, Sangjin Lee Aug 2016

Information Inference For Cyber-Physical Systems With Application To Aviation Safety And Space Situational Awareness, Sangjin Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Due to the rapid advancement of technologies on sensors and processors, engineering systems have become more complex and highly automated to meet ever stringent performance and safety requirements. These systems are usually composed of physical plants (e.g., aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, etc.) and cyber components (e.g., sensing, communication, and computing units), and thus called as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). For safe, efficient, and sustainable operation of a CPS, the states and physical characteristics of the system need to be effectively estimated or inferred from sensing data by proper information inference algorithms. However, due to the complex nature of the ...


Analytical Methods For Gravity-Assist Tour Design, Nathan J. Strange Aug 2016

Analytical Methods For Gravity-Assist Tour Design, Nathan J. Strange

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation develops analytical methods for the design of gravity-assist space- craft trajectories. Such trajectories are commonly employed by planetary science missions to reach Mercury or the Outer Planets. They may also be used at the Outer Planets for the design of science tours with multiple flybys of those planets’ moons. Recent work has also shown applicability to new missions concepts such as NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission.

This work is based in the theory of patched conics. This document applies rigor to the concept of pumping (i.e. using gravity assists to change orbital energy) and cranking (i.e ...


Implementing And Testing A Panel-Based Method For Modeling Acoustic Scattering From Cfd Input, S. Hales Swift Aug 2016

Implementing And Testing A Panel-Based Method For Modeling Acoustic Scattering From Cfd Input, S. Hales Swift

Open Access Dissertations

Exposure of sailors to high levels of noise in the aircraft carrier deck environment is a problem that has serious human and economic consequences. A variety of approaches to quieting exhausting jets from high-performance aircraft are undergoing development. However, testing of noise abatement solutions at full-scale may be prohibitively costly when many possible nozzle treatments are under consideration. A relatively efficient and accurate means of predicting the noise levels resulting from engine-quieting technologies at personnel locations is needed. This is complicated by the need to model both the direct and the scattered sound field in order to determine the resultant ...


Physical Properties, Evaporation And Combustion Characteristics Of Nanofluid-Type Fuels, Saad Tanvir Aug 2016

Physical Properties, Evaporation And Combustion Characteristics Of Nanofluid-Type Fuels, Saad Tanvir

Open Access Dissertations

Nanofluids are liquids with stable suspension of nanoparticles. Limited studies in the past have shown that both energetic and catalytic nanoparticles once mixed with traditional liquid fuels can be advantageous in combustion applications, e.g., increased energy density and shortened ignition delay. Contradictions in existing literature, scarcity of experimental data and lack of understanding on how the added nanoparticles affect the physical properties as well as combustion characteristics of the resulting fuel motivated us to launch a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation.

The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended nanoparticles were measured using the pendant ...


Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti Aug 2016

Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti

Open Access Dissertations

Non-equilibrium microplasmas at atmospheric pressures have been investigated for active flow control, micropropulsion and electronic display applications to name a few. The operational voltages for these microplasmas are on the order of kilovolts. When the electric field at the electrodes reaches GV/m or tens of GV/m either due to reduced interelectrode spacing and surface irregularities or due to carefully designed nanostructures on the electrodes, quantum processes such as field emission and field ionization come into effect. These can potentially reduce the operational voltages of microplasma devices by an order of magnitude. Due to the rarefied and non-equilibrium nature ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics In A Single Element Lean Direct Injection (Ldi) Combustor, Rohan M. Gejji Aug 2016

An Experimental Investigation Of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics In A Single Element Lean Direct Injection (Ldi) Combustor, Rohan M. Gejji

Open Access Dissertations

The management of combustion dynamics in gas turbine combustors has become more challenging as strict NOx/CO emission standards have led to engine operation in a narrow, lean regime. While premixed or partially premixed combustor configurations such as the Lean Premixed Pre-vaporized (LPP), Rich Quench Lean burn (RQL), and Lean Direct Injection (LDI) have shown a potential for reduced NOx emissions, they promote a coupling between acoustics, hydrodynamics and combustion that can lead to combustion instabilities. These couplings can be quite complex, and their detailed understanding is a pre-requisite to any engine development program and for the development of predictive ...


Supporting Space Systems Design Via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology, Cesare Guariniello Aug 2016

Supporting Space Systems Design Via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology, Cesare Guariniello

Open Access Dissertations

The increasing size and complexity of space systems and space missions pose severe challenges to space systems engineers. When complex systems and Systems-of-Systems are involved, the behavior of the whole entity is not only due to that of the individual systems involved but also to the interactions and dependencies between the systems. Dependencies can be varied and complex, and designers usually do not perform analysis of the impact of dependencies at the level of complex systems, or this analysis involves excessive computational cost, or occurs at a later stage of the design process, after designers have already set detailed requirements ...


A Cross-Sectional And Mixed-Method Assessment Of Safety Culture And Safety Climate At A Regional Airline, Micah S. Walala May 2016

A Cross-Sectional And Mixed-Method Assessment Of Safety Culture And Safety Climate At A Regional Airline, Micah S. Walala

Open Access Dissertations

The researcher applied a mixed methods approach to conduct a cross-sectional assessment of the safety culture, safety climate, and SMS at a regional airline in the United States. Data collection techniques were comprised of interview, on-line-survey, and a focus group activity. Participants in the current study were maintenance technicians, flight attendants, dispatchers, pilots, and managers. Results indicated significant differences of perception of safety climate, safety culture, and Safety Management System between the maintenance technicians and flight attendants. The length of time a participant had worked at the subject airline and age of the participant appeared to be significant factors of ...


Incorporation Of Gnss Multipath To Improve Autonomous Rendezvous, Docking And Proximity Operations In Space, Benjamin W. Ashman Apr 2016

Incorporation Of Gnss Multipath To Improve Autonomous Rendezvous, Docking And Proximity Operations In Space, Benjamin W. Ashman

Open Access Dissertations

Automated rendezvous and docking (AR&D;) operations are important for many future space missions, such as the resupply of space stations, repair and refueling of large satellites, and active removal of orbital debris. These operations depend critically on accurate, real-time knowledge of the relative position and velocity between two space vehicles. Unfortunately, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) capabilities remain severely limited in close proximity to large space structures due to significant multipath effects and signal blockage. Although GNSS is used for the initial stages of approach, other instruments such as laser, radar and vision-based systems, are required to augment GNSS during ...


Preliminary Design Tools In Turbomachinery: Non-Uniformly Spaced Blade Rows, Multistage Interaction, Unsteady Radial Waves, And Propeller Horizontal-Axis Turbine Optimization, Yujun Leng Apr 2016

Preliminary Design Tools In Turbomachinery: Non-Uniformly Spaced Blade Rows, Multistage Interaction, Unsteady Radial Waves, And Propeller Horizontal-Axis Turbine Optimization, Yujun Leng

Open Access Dissertations

Turbomachinery flow fields are inherently unsteady and complex which makes the related CFD analyses computationally intensive. Physically based preliminary design tools are desirable for parametric studies early in the design stage, and to provide deep physical insight and a good starting point for the later CFD analyses. Four analytical/semi-analytical models are developed in this study: 1) a generalized flat plate cascade model for investigating the unsteady aerodynamics of a blade row with non-uniformly spaced blades; 2) a multistage interaction model for investigating rotor-stator interactions; 3) an analytical solution for quantifying the impeller wake convection and pressure wave propagating between ...


A Transfer Network Linking Earth, Moon, And The Triangular Libration Point Regions In The Earth-Moon System, Lucia R. Capdevila Apr 2016

A Transfer Network Linking Earth, Moon, And The Triangular Libration Point Regions In The Earth-Moon System, Lucia R. Capdevila

Open Access Dissertations

In the near future, several space applications in the Earth-Moon system may require a spacecraft to hold a stable motion, but the transfer trajectory infrastructure to access such stable motions has not been fully investigated yet. The triangular libration points, L 4and L5, in the Earth-Moon system have long been thought of as ideal locations for a communications satellite. Recently, Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) and Near-Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) near the Moon have been identified as motion of interest for manned and unmanned missions with a focus on operations in cislunar space. The triangular libration points, as well as ...


Coupled Orbit-Attitude Mission Design In The Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem, Davide Guzzetti Apr 2016

Coupled Orbit-Attitude Mission Design In The Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem, Davide Guzzetti

Open Access Dissertations

Trajectory design increasingly leverages multi-body dynamical structures that are based on an understanding of various types of orbits in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP). Given the more complex dynamical environment, mission applications may also benefit from deeper insight into the attitude motion. In this investigation, the attitude dynamics are coupled with the trajectories in the CR3BP. In a highly sensitive dynamical model, such as the orbit-attitude CR3BP, periodic solutions allow delineation of the fundamental dynamical structures. Periodic solutions are also a subset of motions that are bounded over an infinite time-span (assuming no perturbing factors), without the necessity to ...


A Study On Flow Development In An Apu-Style Inlet And Its Effect On Centrifugal Compressor Performance, Fangyuan Lou Mar 2016

A Study On Flow Development In An Apu-Style Inlet And Its Effect On Centrifugal Compressor Performance, Fangyuan Lou

Open Access Dissertations

The objectives of this research were to investigate the flow development inside an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance. The motivation arises from the increased applications of gas turbine engines installed with APU-style inlets such as unmanned aerial vehicles, auxiliary power units, and helicopters. The inlet swirl distortion created from these complicated inlet systems has become a major performance and operability concern. To improve the integration between the APU-style inlet and gas turbine engines, better understanding of the flow field in the APU-style inlet and its effect on gas turbine is necessary.

A research facility for the ...


Design Of Elastic Metamaterials, Yu-Chi Su Dec 2015

Design Of Elastic Metamaterials, Yu-Chi Su

Open Access Dissertations

This study focused on the design and fabrication of a double negativity and three broadband single negativity elastic metamaterials using a 3D printer. We investigated dispersion curves and dynamic material properties of the metamaterials. Negative phase velocity in the double negativity metamaterial was also demonstrated.

For metamaterials with single negativity, three types of broadband metamaterials were designed from parametric studies. A comparison showed that using frame bending/stretching mode is more effective than applying beam bending mode to broaden bandgap. Furthermore, it is found that adding internal resonant components could enlarge the bandgap. The single negativity metamaterials were validated by ...


System Importance Measures: A New Approach To Resilient Systems-Of-Systems, Payuna Uday Apr 2015

System Importance Measures: A New Approach To Resilient Systems-Of-Systems, Payuna Uday

Open Access Dissertations

Resilience is the ability to withstand and recover rapidly from disruptions. While this attribute has been the focus of research in several fields, in the case of system-of-systems (SoSs), addressing resilience is particularly interesting and challenging. As infrastructure SoSs, such as power, transportation, and communication networks, grow in complexity and interconnectivity, measuring and improving the resilience of these SoSs is vital in terms of safety and providing uninterrupted services. ^ The characteristics of systems-of-systems make analysis and design of resilience challenging. However, these features also offer opportunities to make SoSs resilient using unconventional methods. In this research, we present a new ...


Assessment Of High-Fidelity Collision Models In The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method, Andrew Brian Weaver Apr 2015

Assessment Of High-Fidelity Collision Models In The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method, Andrew Brian Weaver

Open Access Dissertations

Advances in computer technology over the decades has allowed for more complex physics to be modeled in the DSMC method. Beginning with the first paper on DSMC in 1963, 30,000 collision events per hour were simulated using a simple hard sphere model. Today, more than 10 billion collision events can be simulated per hour for the same problem. Many new and more physically realistic collision models such as the Lennard-Jones potential and the forced harmonic oscillator model have been introduced into DSMC. However, the fact that computer resources are more readily available and higher-fidelity models have been developed does ...


Design Of Transfers From Earth-Moon L 1/L2 Libration Point Orbits To A Destination Object, Masaki Kakoi Apr 2015

Design Of Transfers From Earth-Moon L 1/L2 Libration Point Orbits To A Destination Object, Masaki Kakoi

Open Access Dissertations

Within the context of both manned and robotic spaceflight activities, orbits near the Earth-Moon L1 and L2 libration points could support lunar surface operations and serve as staging areas for future missions to near-Earth asteroids as well as Mars. In fact, an Earth-Moon L2 libration point orbit has been proposed as a potential hub for excursions to Mars as well as activities in support of planetary exploration. Yet, the dynamical environment within the Earth-Moon system is complex and, consequently, trajectory design in the vicinity of Earth-Moon L1 and L2 is nontrivial. Routine transfers between an Earth-Moon L1/L2 facility and ...


An Experimental Study On The Effects Of Blade Row Interactions On Aerodynamic Loss Mechanisms In A Multistage Compressor, Natalie Rochelle Smith Apr 2015

An Experimental Study On The Effects Of Blade Row Interactions On Aerodynamic Loss Mechanisms In A Multistage Compressor, Natalie Rochelle Smith

Open Access Dissertations

While the gas turbine engine has existed for nearly 80 years, much of the complex aerodynamics which governs compressor performance is still not well understood. The unsteady flow field consists of periodic blade row interactions from the wakes and potential fields of each blade and vane. Vane clocking is the relative circumferential indexing of adjacent vane rows with the same vane count, and it is one method to change blade row interactions. Though the potential of performance benefits with vane clocking is known, the driving flow physics have yet to be identified. ^ This research examines the effects of blade row ...


Design Of Low-Thrust Missions To Asteroids With Analysis Of The Missed-Thrust Problem, Frank E. Laipert Apr 2015

Design Of Low-Thrust Missions To Asteroids With Analysis Of The Missed-Thrust Problem, Frank E. Laipert

Open Access Dissertations

Small bodies in the Solar System, such as asteroids and dwarf planets, are ideal targets for electric propulsion missions because of the high delta-V required to rendezvous with these targets. We study trajectories to the asteroid belt, including a human mission to Ceres and a sample return mission to (216) Kleopatra, along with trajectories to the Jupiter Trojan asteroids. For the human mission to Ceres, payload masses of 75 Mg are achievable with a 11.7 MW nuclear electric propulsion system and an initial mass in LEO of 289 Mg. For low-thrust sample return missions to the main belt asteroid ...


Maneuver Analysis For Spinning Thrusting Spacecraft And Spinning Tethered Spacecraft, Kaela Mae Martin Apr 2015

Maneuver Analysis For Spinning Thrusting Spacecraft And Spinning Tethered Spacecraft, Kaela Mae Martin

Open Access Dissertations

During axial thrusting of a spin-stabilized spacecraft undergoing orbital injections or control maneuvers, misalignments and center-of-mass offset create undesired body-fixed torques. The effects of the body-fixed torques, which in turn cause velocity pointing errors, can be reduced by ramping up (and then ramping down) the thruster. The first topic discussed in this thesis derives closed-form solutions for the angular velocity, Euler angles, inertial velocity, and inertial displacement solutions with nonzero initial conditions. Using the closed-form solutions, the effect of variations in the spin-axis moment of inertia and spin-rate on the spacecraft velocity pointing error are shown. The analytical solutions closely ...


Crossflow Instability And Transition On A Circular Cone At Angle Of Attack In A Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel, Christopher A. C Ward Oct 2014

Crossflow Instability And Transition On A Circular Cone At Angle Of Attack In A Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel, Christopher A. C Ward

Open Access Dissertations

To investigate the effect of roughness on the stationary crossflow vortices, roughness elements 2 inches from the nosetip were created in a Torlon insert section of a 7-deg half-angle cone at 6-deg angle of attack in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel. Roughness elements with depths and diameters on the order of 500 microns were found to have a significant effect on the generation of the stationary vortices and the location of crossflow-induced transition under quiet flow. Crossflow-induced transition was measured under fully quiet flow. The controlled roughness elements also appeared to dominate the generation of the vortices, overwhelming the ...


Trajectory Design In The Spatial Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem Exploiting Higher-Dimensional Poincare Maps, Amanda F. Haapala Oct 2014

Trajectory Design In The Spatial Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem Exploiting Higher-Dimensional Poincare Maps, Amanda F. Haapala

Open Access Dissertations

In this investigation, the role of higher-dimensional Poincaré maps in facilitating trajectory design is explored for a variety of applications. To begin, existing strategies to implement Poincaré maps for trajectory design applications in the spatial CR3BP are evaluated. New applications for these strategies are explored, including an analysis of the natural motion of Jupiter-family comets that experience temporary capture about Jupiter, and the search for periodic orbits in the vicinity of the primary bodies in the spatial problem. Because current strategies to represent higher-dimensional maps, generally, lead to a loss of information, new approaches to represent all information contained in ...


Solid Amine-Boranes As High Performance Hypergolic Hybrid Rocket Fuels, Mark A. Pfeil Oct 2014

Solid Amine-Boranes As High Performance Hypergolic Hybrid Rocket Fuels, Mark A. Pfeil

Open Access Dissertations

Hypergolic hybrid rockets have the potential of providing systems that are simple, reliable, have high performance, and allow for energy management. Such a propulsion system can be applied to fields that need a single tactical motor with flexible mission requirements of either high speed to target or extended loitering. They also provide the possibility for alternative fast response dynamic altitude control systems if ignition delays are sufficiently short. ^ Amines are the traditional fuel of choice when selecting a hypergolic combination as these tend to react readily with both nitric acid and dinitrogen tertroxide based oxidizers. It has been found that ...


Applications Of Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering In Combustion, Claresta Nicole Dennis Oct 2014

Applications Of Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering In Combustion, Claresta Nicole Dennis

Open Access Dissertations

The dissertation deals with the further development of chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CPP fs-CARS) for applications of gas phase thermometry and extension to methane concentration measurements. The main effort has been to assess the usefulness and robustness of the technique in turbulent combustors of practical interest. A primary aim has been to evaluate the use of CPP fs-CARS for vibrational N2 thermometry in a highly turbulent environment. It has been suggested that due to the laser beam temporal overlap required for fs-CARS signal generation, the technique would be unsuccessful due to beam propagation retardation effects from density ...