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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Rotating Heater Pyrolyzer (Rhp): A New Pyrolysis Technology For Biochar Production, Ariel Porat Nov 2019

Rotating Heater Pyrolyzer (Rhp): A New Pyrolysis Technology For Biochar Production, Ariel Porat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biochar provides an effective and inexpensive carbon sequestration technology to combat climate change. It is formed through a process known as pyrolysis; where biomass is thermally decomposed in the absence of oxygen. In this study, a new pyrolysis reactor called the Rotating Heater Pyrolyzer (RHP) was designed and built for biochar production. RHP derived biochar properties were compared to biochars produced with a standard batch pyrolysis reactor (Pyrolytic Shaker Reactor (PSR)) to determine RHP performance. Using several biochar characterization techniques, the soil amendment potential of two solid anaerobic digestate feedstocks were investigated. Woodchip RHP derived biochar processed between 2-3 hrs ...


Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh Aug 2019

Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miscanthus, an invasive crop, has recently gained attention as an emerging energy crop because of certain features such as adaptability to lower temperature, efficient use of water and nutrients, low or no need of nitrogen fertilizers, high biomass yield, fast growing cycle and less intensive agricultural cultivation practices than other energy crops, such as corn.

The literature review is focused on the value-added applications and conversion of Miscanthus for bioenergy and biomaterial applications. The thermochemical conversion technologies reviewed in this chapter include pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction and gasification, whereas biochemical conversion technologies include enzymatic saccharification and fermentation.

In this work, Miscanthus ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen Aug 2018

Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic material can be subjected to pyrolysis to yield pyrolysis liquid, biochar, and gas. The pyrolysis liquid resulting from the condensation of vapours can be separated into a rich organic condensate and an acidic “aqueous pyrolysis condensate” (APC) which may be considered a waste. The target of this research is subjecting APC to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas that can be energy purposed, and to reduce the organic load of APC to acceptable levels for possible disposal. From this study, it was found that without any treatment, the inoculum requires 50 to 60 days of adaptation period to reduce the ...


Pyrolysis As An Economical And Ecological Treatment Option For Solid Anaerobic Digestate And Municipal Sewage Sludge, Devon J. Barry Jan 2018

Pyrolysis As An Economical And Ecological Treatment Option For Solid Anaerobic Digestate And Municipal Sewage Sludge, Devon J. Barry

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential for pyrolysis of solid anaerobic digestate and municipal sewage sludge. Slow, fast, and autothermal pyrolysis experiments were conducted for the anaerobic digestate while slow and fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out for the sewage sludge. Pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 250 to 550 ᵒC. The effect of pyrolysis conditions on the pyrolysis products was examined.

Fast pyrolysis at higher temperatures was favourable for energy recovery in the bio-oil products. Slow pyrolysis was favourable for the biochar products. Lower pyrolysis temperatures favoured energy recovery in the biochar; while higher temperatures increased biochar ...


The Production Of Pyrolytic Biochar For Addition In Value-Added Composite Material, Douglas Matthew Cuthbertson Jan 2018

The Production Of Pyrolytic Biochar For Addition In Value-Added Composite Material, Douglas Matthew Cuthbertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pyrolytic biochar has recently gained attention for its potential value as a carbon sequestering by-product that can be used in industrial applications. While biochar is typically targeted for soil amendment applications, higher value applications such as addition in consumer products and building materials needs to be investigated.

In this study, biochar is produced from three different Canadian feedstocks using three different pyrolysis methods. The biochar is characterized to determine the effects that feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions has on biochar properties. The biochar is also incorporated into concrete at varying concentrations to create a lightweight and sustainable material. The effect ...


Hydrodeoxygenation Of Anisole In A Novel Externally Agitated Reactor, Brett Pomeroy Dec 2017

Hydrodeoxygenation Of Anisole In A Novel Externally Agitated Reactor, Brett Pomeroy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bio-oil upgrading via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was investigated using anisole, a model compound, in a novel Externally Agitated (EA) reactor which is expected to enhance gas-liquid-solid mixing. Operating conditions were established based on anisole HDO with 10 wt.% Ni on silica, γ-alumina, and δ-alumina while varying temperatures between 160 to 280oC, and reaction times between 30 – 90 minutes. Mild temperatures of 220oC and 45 minutes for reaction time with γ-alumina were selected for subsequent work since γ-alumina demonstrated the highest HDO activity. HDO was then investigated with varying Ni-Cu and Ni loadings. Despite the improved reducibility from ...


Pyrolysis Based Biorefineries For The Production Of Fermentable Substrates, Luis Carlos Luque-Moreno Nov 2015

Pyrolysis Based Biorefineries For The Production Of Fermentable Substrates, Luis Carlos Luque-Moreno

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fast pyrolysis is rapid thermal conversion process capable of transforming multiple feedstocks into various energy carriers, specifically pyrolysis oil, bio gas, and bio char. The oil phase is of high value due to its complex mixtures of organic molecules, along with large number of anhydrous carbohydrates, which can be easily transformed into glucose via acid hydrolysis. These carbohydrates can be either biocatalyzed into fuels and chemicals by microorganisms or converted after further treatment steps. However quantities of these carbohydrates in the oil are a function of feedstock composition and process parameters. The research presented in this thesis focuses on producing ...


Production Of Activated Carbons From Pyrolytic Char For Environmental Applications, Anastasia Colomba Jul 2015

Production Of Activated Carbons From Pyrolytic Char For Environmental Applications, Anastasia Colomba

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomass pyrolysis has the potential to become a major component of future biorefineries, since biomass is cracked to produce gases, liquid products (bio-oil) and solid products (bio-char). In order for the process to be economically feasible, it is necessary to obtain the maximum value from each stream, thus no by-product can be regarded as a waste.

Bio-char is normally regarded as a by-product of fast pyrolysis, which is optimized to target bio-oil production. However, there are many potentially attractive applications for it: for example, it can be used for the production of activated carbons, which are the most commonly used ...


Application Of Mechanically Fluidized Reactors To Lignin Pyrolysis, Valentina Lago Apr 2015

Application Of Mechanically Fluidized Reactors To Lignin Pyrolysis, Valentina Lago

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignin has great potential for the production of aromatics currently derived from petroleum, since it is the most abundant source of aromatics in nature. At present, Kraft lignin is used as fuel within the pulping process but, alternatively, it could be converted to high-value chemicals using thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis. Kraft lignin, however, is a very cohesive and thermally sensitive powder with foaming and agglomerating tendency under reaction conditions. Therefore, new reactor designs are necessary to efficiently process this raw material.

Consequently, a novel reactor design, designated as Mechanically Fluidized Reactor (MFR) has been developed to successfully process Kraft ...


Thermal Conversion Of Triglycerides Of Vegetable Oil For Production Of Renewable Lamp Fuel, Jamie A. Gregory Jan 2015

Thermal Conversion Of Triglycerides Of Vegetable Oil For Production Of Renewable Lamp Fuel, Jamie A. Gregory

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The thermal treatment of crop oils was investigated with the aim to produce a renewable, liquid fuel suitable for use in wick-based lighting systems. Specific objectives include reducing fuel viscosity and improving wickability in traditional flat cotton wicks. Pyrolysis and visbreaking processes were the two methods of thermal treatment that were studied. Visbreaking was a semi-batch process carried out in a stirred tank reactor at temperatures ranging from 300 to 500 °C. Pyrolysis utilized a continuous system with a mechanically fluidized bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 400- 650 °C. Initial testing with soybean oil feedstock demonstrated that pyrolysis was ...


Effects Of Mixing And Vapor Residence Time On The Thermal Cracking Performance Of Fluidized Beds, Clayton Stanlick Sep 2014

Effects Of Mixing And Vapor Residence Time On The Thermal Cracking Performance Of Fluidized Beds, Clayton Stanlick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this thesis is to investigate the effects of applied bed mixing and vapor phase residence time on the thermal cracking of agglomerating and non-agglomerating feedstock. Bitumen thermal cracking was investigated using a novel Mechanically Fluidized Reactor system and a pilot-scale Fluid Coking Reactor. Bed mixing and vapor residence time were studied to determine their impacts on agglomerate distributions, yields, and the quality of liquid product. Birchwood pyrolysis was investigated using a fluidized bed reactor to determine the impacts of particle-bed mixing on the pyrolysis of a non-agglomerating feedstock, to provide contrast to the agglomerating bitumen-coke system. It ...


Development And Applications Of A Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder For Pyrolysis Reactors, Federico M. Berruti Sep 2013

Development And Applications Of A Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder For Pyrolysis Reactors, Federico M. Berruti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This PhD research addresses the challenge of feeding biomass residues into fluidized bed reactors for pyrolysis, through the development of a novel intermittent solid slug feeder, both for laboratory-scale and large-scale reactors. The new feeder can successfully handle biomass residues that are either too cohesive or thermally sensitive for traditional feeders.

To optimize the novel feeder performance, a model for the pulsating solids flow was developed from experimental data collected with ideal slugs, as well as real biomass flow. The model was validated using both a laboratory-scale (< 10 kg/hr) and large-scale feeder (> 250 kg/hr). Several important variables were identified. They include the material flow ...


Production Of Bio-Coal And Activated Carbon From Biomass, Diana C. Cruz Dec 2012

Production Of Bio-Coal And Activated Carbon From Biomass, Diana C. Cruz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The slow pyrolysis of different biomasses (maple wood, birch bark, switch grass, coffee pulp and corn stalk) was studied with the aim to produce a solid pyrolysis product (bio-coal) with promising properties and potential for use in traditional fossil-coal applications. Batch pyrolysis experiments were conducted in a Mechanically Fluidized Reactor (MFR) at temperatures ranging from 143 to 665 oC, which includes the torrefaction temperature range (200-300 oC). The effects of temperature and holding time on bio-coal mass yields were determined. The bio-coals were characterized in detail and a highly-controlled study on bio-coal hygroscopicity is presented. Optimal conditions for ...