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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Spraying Slurries: Impact Of Slurry Properties On Spray Characteristics And Agglomerate Formation In Fluidized Beds, Joshua Idowu Sep 2018

Spraying Slurries: Impact Of Slurry Properties On Spray Characteristics And Agglomerate Formation In Fluidized Beds, Joshua Idowu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Fluid CokingTM is a process that upgrades Alberta’s heavy oil. The recycle stream in the process contains unwanted fines which could affect the interaction between the liquid feed and the bed particles and the tendency to form agglomerates. Agglomeration leads to lower product yields and vessel damage.

The impacts of slurry solids on spray stability and angle were measured in open air while the impacts on agglomerate stability and liquid distribution were studied in a fluidized bed. Particle properties were varied to understand the impact of the solids on agglomerates.

In open air, it was observed that ...


Study Of Motion Of Agglomerates Through A Fluidized Bed, Muhammad Owais Iqbal Bhatti Dec 2017

Study Of Motion Of Agglomerates Through A Fluidized Bed, Muhammad Owais Iqbal Bhatti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Formation of agglomerates in Fluid CokersTM can cause operating problems, such as excessive shed fouling, which can lead to premature unit shut down. Better understanding of how agglomerates move through a fluidized bed can help improve the design and operation of Fluid CokersTM and minimize the risk of agglomerates reaching regions where they cause problems.

To identify key factors in agglomerates motion in a fluidized bed, a new two-dimensional (2D) Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) method was developed which tracks model agglomerates motion. In conjunction, a tribo-electric method was used to determine bubble flow distribution in the fluidized bed ...


Effect Of Spray Jet Interactions On The Liquid Distribution In A Fluidized Bed, Helal Elkolaly Jul 2015

Effect Of Spray Jet Interactions On The Liquid Distribution In A Fluidized Bed, Helal Elkolaly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many processes use spray nozzles to introduce liquid into a fluidized bed. One such process is the Fluid Coking Process which is used to upgrade bitumen. Poor liquid distribution in a Fluid Coker proves detrimental as agglomerates form which introduce mass and heat transfer limitations. The main objective of this thesis is to determine the effect of interacting spray jets on the liquid distribution in a Fluid Coker. This was accomplished by using a low temperature experimental model of Fluid Coking to estimate the liquid distribution. Preliminary screening of nozzle positions was accomplished by the use of conductance measurements. A ...


Impact Of Local Bed Hydrodynamics On Jet-Bed Interaction, Maryam Mohagheghi Dar Ranji Nov 2014

Impact Of Local Bed Hydrodynamics On Jet-Bed Interaction, Maryam Mohagheghi Dar Ranji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In Fluid CokingTM or Fluid Catalytic Cracking liquid feedstocks are injected into a bed of fluidized particles. Uniform distribution of liquid feed on fluidized particles increases the yield of valuable products and improves operability in these processes. Contact between the injected liquid and the bed particles can be greatly affected by the liquid properties and local bed hydrodynamics.

The impact of parameters such as liquid properties, fluidization velocity, nozzle atomization gas flowrate, nozzle location and inclination were investigated on the distribution of liquid sprayed into a fluidized bed with a reliable and fast response capacitance meter. This method was ...


Effects Of Mixing And Vapor Residence Time On The Thermal Cracking Performance Of Fluidized Beds, Clayton Stanlick Sep 2014

Effects Of Mixing And Vapor Residence Time On The Thermal Cracking Performance Of Fluidized Beds, Clayton Stanlick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this thesis is to investigate the effects of applied bed mixing and vapor phase residence time on the thermal cracking of agglomerating and non-agglomerating feedstock. Bitumen thermal cracking was investigated using a novel Mechanically Fluidized Reactor system and a pilot-scale Fluid Coking Reactor. Bed mixing and vapor residence time were studied to determine their impacts on agglomerate distributions, yields, and the quality of liquid product. Birchwood pyrolysis was investigated using a fluidized bed reactor to determine the impacts of particle-bed mixing on the pyrolysis of a non-agglomerating feedstock, to provide contrast to the agglomerating bitumen-coke system. It ...


Effect Of Nozzle Geometry On Jet Bed Interaction: Experiments With Commercial Scale Nozzles And Eroded Nozzles, Nicholas A. Prociw Jul 2014

Effect Of Nozzle Geometry On Jet Bed Interaction: Experiments With Commercial Scale Nozzles And Eroded Nozzles, Nicholas A. Prociw

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Liquid injection into fluidized bed reactors has several industrial applications, such as Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Gas Phase Polyethylene production, and Fluid Coking. High quality liquid distribution is essential to maximize the yield of desirable products, and minimize agglomeration.

The objectives of this thesis are: to develop a method that measures the rate of liquid released from agglomerates formed as a result of liquid injection into a fluidized bed; to use this method to determine the effect of internal erosion on nozzle performance; and to compare the performance of current commercial spray nozzles to nozzles with altered geometries. To achieve these ...


Development And Application Of An Experimental Model For The Fluid Coking Process, Carolina B. Morales Aug 2013

Development And Application Of An Experimental Model For The Fluid Coking Process, Carolina B. Morales

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Liquid injection into a fluidized bed is used in industrial applications such as the Fluid CokingTM process for heavy oil thermal cracking. Poor initial liquid-solid contact results in the formation of agglomerates that limit heat and mass transfer processes, reduce the yield of valuable compounds and create operating problems. The present study develops a new experimental model to simulate the complex phenomena that occur when heavy oil is injected in a Fluid Coker through two-phase nozzles. The model is applied in a pilot scale fluidized bed using scaled-down industrial spray nozzles. The experimental results indicate that agglomerate formation slows ...


Liquid Distribution From Industrial Scale Spray Jets In Fluidized Beds, Mohammadali Zirgachianzadeh May 2012

Liquid Distribution From Industrial Scale Spray Jets In Fluidized Beds, Mohammadali Zirgachianzadeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Liquid injections via spray nozzles are used in fluidized bed reactors such as Fluid Cokers. In such industrial processes, in order to maximize the product yields it is required to optimize the performance of the nozzle. Moreover parts of the bed might become defluidized, bogged, due to high liquid load. Then optimizing the performance of the nozzle and local bed bogging detection is the primary research objectives for this thesis work.

The first part of the research work was focused on developing a novel method employing electrical conductance to characterize the liquid distribution in a large scale fluid bed of ...