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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Esterification Of Free Fatty Acid By Selected Homogeneous And Solid Acid Catalysts For Biodiesel Production, Mohamed Kaddour Sep 2016

Esterification Of Free Fatty Acid By Selected Homogeneous And Solid Acid Catalysts For Biodiesel Production, Mohamed Kaddour

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biodiesel, derived from plant oils and animal fats is an attractive alternative fuel to fossil-based diesel as it is biodegradable, non-toxic, renewable, and has a low emission profile. Industrial production of biodiesel faces major challenges including limited supply of raw material and high cost of feedstock, which accounts for 60-80% of total production cost. Economic feasibility for biodiesel can be improved by using inexpensive raw materials such as waste frying oils and non-edible oils. However, these low quality feedstocks contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) which reacts with a base to produce soap hindering product separation and reduce ...


Direct Conversion Of Wet Microalgae And Oleaginous Yeast To Biodiesel Using Ionic Liquids, Valerie Orr Aug 2016

Direct Conversion Of Wet Microalgae And Oleaginous Yeast To Biodiesel Using Ionic Liquids, Valerie Orr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examined the development of an oleaginous yeast or microalgae based biorefinery process. First, improvements were made to the Nile Red assay, a high-throughput method for monitoring lipid accumulation in oleaginous organisms resulting in a significantly more reproducible and accurate assay. This assay was then used to optimize lipid production during heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae on glucose using response surface methodology resulting in microalgae with high lipid content (37.6% wt.). In order to improve the renewability of heterotrophic lipid production, both oleaginous yeast and microalgae were cultivated using pyrolytic sugars, produced via fast pyrolysis of pinewood waste. The ...


A Comprehensive Study Of Esterification Of Free Fatty Acid To Biodiesel In A Simulated Moving Bed System, Nillohit Mitra Ray Apr 2015

A Comprehensive Study Of Esterification Of Free Fatty Acid To Biodiesel In A Simulated Moving Bed System, Nillohit Mitra Ray

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) systems are used for separations that are difficult using traditional separation techniques. Due to the advantage of adsorption-based chromatographic separation, SMB has shown promising application in petrochemical and sugar industries, and of late, for chiral drug separations. In recent years, the concept of integration of reaction and in-situ separation in a single unit has achieved considerable attention. The simulated moving bed reactor (SMBR) couples both these unit operations bringing down the operation costs while improving the process performance, particularly for products that require mild operating conditions. However, its application has been limited due to complexity of ...


Investigations Of Cost-Effective Biodiesel Production From High Ffa Feedstock, Lesly N. Lesmes Sanchez Dec 2013

Investigations Of Cost-Effective Biodiesel Production From High Ffa Feedstock, Lesly N. Lesmes Sanchez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commercial production of biodiesel from refined vegetable oils has been widely practiced. However, more economic raw materials are required in order to make biodiesel competitive in the fuel market. This is a challenge since low-cost lipid feedstock contains high concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and water, which inhibit transesterification. This work investigates new catalyst combinations and method configuration to develop a cost-effective and suitable process utilizing refined canola oil and canola oil with high oleic acid content. Results suggest that potassium carbonate is more tolerant to water in the feed and enhances phase separation when compared to traditional catalyst ...


Effects Of Biodiesel Concentration On Microbial Deterioration Of Polyethylene In A Simulated Fuel Storage Tank, Juan Manuel Restrepo-Florez Dec 2013

Effects Of Biodiesel Concentration On Microbial Deterioration Of Polyethylene In A Simulated Fuel Storage Tank, Juan Manuel Restrepo-Florez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this study a simulated fuel storage tank was used to investigate the effect of biodiesel concentration on biodegradation of polyethylene. This research is relevant in the field of fuel storage. The simulated storage system consisted of a number of identical conical flasks. Each flask was comprised of two layers, an upper one consisting of a fuel blend of diesel with biodiesel in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100% of biodiesel and the bottom layer containing an aqueous mineral media inoculated with a community obtained from a real fuel storage facility. Polyethylene slabs cut to a specific size were immersed ...


Optimisation Of The Transesterification Stage Of Biodiesel Production Using Statistical Methods, Arnold Paintsil Oct 2013

Optimisation Of The Transesterification Stage Of Biodiesel Production Using Statistical Methods, Arnold Paintsil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present research examines solely the transesterification stage of the biodiesel production process. Six process variables that affect the yield of biodiesel at this stage are examined using the 12 run Plackett-Burman Design. To study the effect of FFA[1] and to replicate real life situations where oil (feedstock) contain varying amounts of FFA, linoleic acid is used as FFA and intentionally added to high oleic acid canola oil containing less than 0.07% FFA. The process is catalyzed with potassium carbonate and evaluated at varying temperatures, stirring rates, reaction times and methanol oil ratios. The yields at the end ...


Investigations Of Transesterification Of Canola Oil With Methanol And Ethanol For A New Efficient Method Of Biodiesel Production, Krupal Pal Nov 2011

Investigations Of Transesterification Of Canola Oil With Methanol And Ethanol For A New Efficient Method Of Biodiesel Production, Krupal Pal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel is a multistep process affected by mass transfer, mixing and chemical reaction equilibrium. Attempts have been made in this study to overcome these limitations by gradually feeding oil into a pool of alcohol. This approach provided large excess of alcohol to allow reaction to proceed further as well as allowed easy dispersion of oil into the alcohol. As a result improved conversion of feed, higher yield and better product quality were achieved. Comparisons have been made with other methods to show the differences and highlight improvements. Reactions were conducted at various reaction conditions for ...