Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

2011

Discipline
Keyword

Articles 1 - 30 of 63

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Nanoplasmonic Sensors Based On Periodic Arrays Of Gold Nanoparticles, Hao Jiang Dec 2011

Nanoplasmonic Sensors Based On Periodic Arrays Of Gold Nanoparticles, Hao Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nanoplasmonic sensors use the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanostructures to sense the refractive index change in a surface-bound layer caused by biomolecular interactions or changing chemical environment. In this thesis, four types of sensor configurations based on gold nanoparticle arrays are thoroughly investigated.

The first configuration is a periodic array of gold nanoparticles excited by the evanescent field of an optical waveguide mode. Since light carried by a waveguide mode propagates along the same plane of the periodicities, the coupling of nanoparticles are strongly affected by the photonic crystal lattice. This configuration is investigated both in simulations ...


Effects Of Internals Configurations On Heat Transfer And Hydrodynamics In Bubble Columns - With And Without Solid Particles, Anil Kumar Jhawar Dec 2011

Effects Of Internals Configurations On Heat Transfer And Hydrodynamics In Bubble Columns - With And Without Solid Particles, Anil Kumar Jhawar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Internals of different types are required in a number of industrial applications of bubble columns to achieve the desired mixing or to remove the heat of reaction to maintain desired temperature and isothermal conditions of operation. Some of these applications include Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, and production of dimethyl ether (DME). The presence of internals however can alter the column hydrodynamics and mixing patterns which could influence reactor performance. A fast response probe capable of capturing bubble dynamics, as well as detecting flow direction is used to study the effect of internals on local heat transfer and column hydrodynamics in ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of One- And Two-Dimensional Novel Nanomaterials, Yu Zhong Dec 2011

Synthesis And Characterization Of One- And Two-Dimensional Novel Nanomaterials, Yu Zhong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nanomaterials have attracted extensive interest due to their unique structure and excellent properties compared with their bulk counterparts. To obtain nanodevices with controlled properties, it is prerequisite to synthesize nanostructured materials with designed architecture.

In this work, low (one- and two-) dimensional nanomaterials with controlled structures have been synthesized and characterized based on chemical vapour deposition strategy. Our research targets cover one-dimensinoal hollow, solid, and solid @ hollow heterostructural nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs), SnO2 nanowires, Mo doped-SnO2 nanowires, Sn nanowires encapsulated in CNTs (Sn@CNTs), and two-dimensional Mo2S3 nanopetals. Dependence of ...


Development Of Novel Nanomaterials For High-Performance And Low-Cost Fuel Cell Applications, Shuhui Sun Dec 2011

Development Of Novel Nanomaterials For High-Performance And Low-Cost Fuel Cell Applications, Shuhui Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising energy converting technologies to generate electricity by mainly using hydrogen as a fuel, producing water as the only exhaust. However, short life-time and high cost of Pt catalyst are the main obstacles for the commercialization of PEMFCs. In the conventional carbon black supported platinum nanoparticle (NP) commercial catalyst, carbon supports are prone to oxidation and corrosion over time that results in Pt NPs migration, coalescence, even detaching from the catalyst support. In addition, Ostwald ripening of the Pt NPs could also occur due to their high surface energy and zero dimensional structural ...


Fault Location And Incipient Fault Detection In Distribution Cables, Zhihan Xu Dec 2011

Fault Location And Incipient Fault Detection In Distribution Cables, Zhihan Xu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A set of fault location algorithms for underground medium voltage cables, two incipient fault detection schemes for distribution cables and a state estimation method for underground distribution networks are developed in this thesis.

Two schemes are designed to detect and classify incipient faults in underground distribution cables. Based on the methodology of wavelet analysis, one scheme is to detect the fault-induced transients, and therefore identify the incipient faults. Based on the analysis of the superimposed fault current and negative sequence current in time domain, the other scheme is particularly suitable to detect the single-line-to-ground incipient faults, which are mostly occurring ...


Enhancement Of Biohydrogen And Biomethane Production From Wastes Using Ultrasonication, Elsayed Elrefaey Elbeshbishy Dec 2011

Enhancement Of Biohydrogen And Biomethane Production From Wastes Using Ultrasonication, Elsayed Elrefaey Elbeshbishy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis demonstrated the feasibility of using ultrasonication to solubilize the particulate matter, suppress the growth of methanogens, and enrich the biohydrogen producers, thus overcoming the main challenge of biohydrogen systems i.e. long-term stability and contamination with methanogens. Furthermore, this work emphasized the benefits of applying ultrasonication inside a bioreactor over using it as a pretreatment for biohydrogen and biomethane production from wastes. The results of this work showed that sonicating hog manure at specific energy (SE) of 500 kJ/kg TS resulted in a 20% increase in methane production and 36% increase in VSS destruction. The viability of ...


A System Dynamics Based Integrated Assessment Modelling Of Global-Regional Climate Change: A Model For Analyzing The Behaviour Of The Social-Energy-Economy-Climate System, Mohammad Khaled Akhtar Dec 2011

A System Dynamics Based Integrated Assessment Modelling Of Global-Regional Climate Change: A Model For Analyzing The Behaviour Of The Social-Energy-Economy-Climate System, Mohammad Khaled Akhtar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The feedback based integrated assessment model ANEMI (version 2) represents the society-biosphere-climate-economy-energy system of the earth and biosphere. The development of the ANEMI model version 2 is based on the system dynamics simulation approach that (a) allows for the understanding and modelling of complex global change and (b) assists in the investigation of possible policy options for mitigating, and/or adopting to changing global conditions within an integrated assessment modelling framework. This thesis presents the ANEMI model version 2 and its nine individual sectors: climate, carbon cycle, land-use, population, food production, hydrologic cycle, water demand, water quality, and energy-economy. Two ...


Mechanistic Mixed-Mode Failure Criterion For Continuous Fiber-Polymer Composites, Thomas P. Bruce Nov 2011

Mechanistic Mixed-Mode Failure Criterion For Continuous Fiber-Polymer Composites, Thomas P. Bruce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Design of continuous fiber-polymer composite components with optimized and predictable energy dissipation requires a failure criterion able to predict the fracture energy of CFP composites for all mixed-mode loading conditions. Existing mixed-mode failure criteria are empirical and show poor correlation for a range of CFP composites. Therefore, a universally applicable criterion based on constituent material properties and operative failure mechanisms is required. A novel mechanistic failure criterion for CFP composites is proposed. The criterion considers resin fracture strength, hackle formation, interfacial debonding, the crack tip plastic zone and interply vs interyarn delamination. Experimental data obtained by mixed-mode testing of continuous ...


Energy Efficient Reduced Complexity Multi-Service, Multi-Channel Scheduling Techniques, Dan J. Dechene Nov 2011

Energy Efficient Reduced Complexity Multi-Service, Multi-Channel Scheduling Techniques, Dan J. Dechene

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The need for energy efficient communications is essential in current and next-generation wireless communications systems. A large component of energy expenditure in mobile devices is in the mobile radio interface. Proper scheduling and resource allocation techniques that exploit instantaneous and long-term average knowledge of the channel, queue state and quality of service parameters can be used to improve the energy efficiency of communication.

This thesis focuses on exploiting queue and channel state information as well as quality of service parameters in order to design energy efficient scheduling techniques. The proposed designs are for multi-stream, multi-channel systems and in general have ...


Investigations Of Transesterification Of Canola Oil With Methanol And Ethanol For A New Efficient Method Of Biodiesel Production, Krupal Pal Nov 2011

Investigations Of Transesterification Of Canola Oil With Methanol And Ethanol For A New Efficient Method Of Biodiesel Production, Krupal Pal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel is a multistep process affected by mass transfer, mixing and chemical reaction equilibrium. Attempts have been made in this study to overcome these limitations by gradually feeding oil into a pool of alcohol. This approach provided large excess of alcohol to allow reaction to proceed further as well as allowed easy dispersion of oil into the alcohol. As a result improved conversion of feed, higher yield and better product quality were achieved. Comparisons have been made with other methods to show the differences and highlight improvements. Reactions were conducted at various reaction conditions for ...


High Speed And Low-Complexity Hardware Architectures For Elliptic Curve-Based Crypto-Processors, Reza Azarderakhsh Nov 2011

High Speed And Low-Complexity Hardware Architectures For Elliptic Curve-Based Crypto-Processors, Reza Azarderakhsh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) has been identified as an efficient scheme for public-key cryptography. This thesis studies efficient implementation of ECC crypto-processors on hardware platforms in a bottom-up approach. We first study efficient and low-complexity architectures for finite field multiplications over Gaussian normal basis (GNB). We propose three new low-complexity digit-level architectures for finite field multiplication. Architectures are modified in order to make them more suitable for hardware implementations specially focusing on reducing the area usage. Then, for the first time, we propose a hybrid digit-level multiplier architecture which performs two multiplications together (double-multiplication) with the same number of ...


Convection Due To Spatially Distributed Heating, Mohammad Zakir Hossain Nov 2011

Convection Due To Spatially Distributed Heating, Mohammad Zakir Hossain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Convection in an infinite horizontal slot subject to spatially distributed heating has been investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers. The primary flow response consists of convection in the form of rolls. When heating wave number alpha is sufficiently large the convection is found to be limited to a layer adjacent to lower wall and a uniform conductive layer emerges at upper section of the slot.

Conditions leading to the emergence of secondary convection have been identified using linear stability of the above primary convection. The secondary convection gives rise to longitudinal, or transverse, or oblique rolls; or to ...


Thermal And Mechanical Studies Of Thin Spray-On Liner (Tsl) For Concrete Tunnel Linings, Taesang Ahn Nov 2011

Thermal And Mechanical Studies Of Thin Spray-On Liner (Tsl) For Concrete Tunnel Linings, Taesang Ahn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The thesis presents a summary of Thin Spray-On Liner (TSL) effects on concrete. Three aspects, fire insulation, adhesion strength on concrete surface and load carrying capacity (i.e. flexural strength) on segmental concrete liners, are presented. Small-scale to full-scale laboratory tests were conducted using ASTM standards or devised methods. The TSL effects on three aspects were then compared with the results for uncoated concrete specimens. Numerical analyses using TEMP/W for the thermal response of TSL and a FE program, ABAQUS for the mechanical response of TSL were respectively carried out and compared with the measured results. Additionally, numerical analyses ...


Seismic Microzonation Of Great Toronto Area And Influence Of Building Resonances On Measured Soil Responses, Dimitar Genchev Mihaylov Nov 2011

Seismic Microzonation Of Great Toronto Area And Influence Of Building Resonances On Measured Soil Responses, Dimitar Genchev Mihaylov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A pilot seismic microzonation of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is used to establish the conditions and limitations of geophysical methods for site response investigations in city conditions. Maps of fundamental soil resonant frequencies, amplifications at these frequencies and interpolated average shear wave velocity of top 30 m of soil profile (VS- 30) used in soil classification were compared to the maps of drift thickness and surficial geology for the GTA. The non-applicability of the interpolated VS-30 map for site classification between measured test points is indicated. It is also shown that the soil response cannot be estimated properly using ...


Three-Dimensional Modeling Of Electrostatic Precipitator Using Hybrid Finite Element - Flux Corrected Transport Technique, Niloofar Farnoosh Oct 2011

Three-Dimensional Modeling Of Electrostatic Precipitator Using Hybrid Finite Element - Flux Corrected Transport Technique, Niloofar Farnoosh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis presents the results of a three-dimensional simulation of the entire precipitation process inside a single-electrode one-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The model was designed to predict the motion of ions, gas and solid particles. The precipitator consists of two parallel grounded collecting plates with a corona electrode mounted at the center, parallel to the plates and excited with a high dc voltage. The complex mutual interaction between the three coexisting phenomena of electrostatic field, fluid dynamics and the particulate transport, which affect the ESP process, were taken into account in all the simulations. The electrostatic field and ionic space ...


The Effect Of Biomechanical And Biochemical Factors On Endothelial Cells: Relevance To Atherosclerosis, Qiuquan Guo Oct 2011

The Effect Of Biomechanical And Biochemical Factors On Endothelial Cells: Relevance To Atherosclerosis, Qiuquan Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Microscale technologies create great opportunities for biologists to unveil cellular or molecular mechanisms of complex biological processes. Advanced measuring techniques, like atomic force microscope (AFM), allow detecting and controlling biological samples at high spatial and temporal resolution. Further integration with microsystems, such as microfluidic platforms, gives the ability to get detailed insight into basic biological phenomena. Highly integrated microdevices show great promise for biomedical research and potential clinical applications.

It is hypothesized that biomechanical factors play a significant role in the development of vascular diseases like atherosclerosis. To explore effects of biomechanical and biochemical stimuli on endothelial cells (ECs), AFM ...


Time-Domain Macromodeling Of High Speed Distributed Networks, Amir Beygi Oct 2011

Time-Domain Macromodeling Of High Speed Distributed Networks, Amir Beygi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With the rapid growth in density, operating speeds and complexity of modern very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits, there is a growing demand on efficient and accurate modeling and simulation of high speed interconnects and packages in order to ensure the signal integrity, reliability and performance of electronic systems. Such models can be derived from the knowledge of the physical characteristics of the structure or based on the measured port-to-port response.In the first part of this thesis, a passive macromodeling technique based on Method of Characteristics (referred as Passive Method of Characteristics or PMoC) is described which is applicable for modeling ...


Advanced Islanded-Mode Control Of Microgrids, Mohammad Bagher Delghavi Sep 2011

Advanced Islanded-Mode Control Of Microgrids, Mohammad Bagher Delghavi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is focused on modeling, control, stability, and power management of electronically-interfaced distributed energy resource (DER) units for microgrids. Voltage amplitude and frequency regulation in an islanded microgrid is one of the main control requirements. To that end, first a mathematical model is developed for an islanded DER system and then, based on the developed model, amplitude and frequency control schemes are proposed for (i) balanced and linear loads and (ii) unbalanced and nonlinear loads. The proposed control strategy for unbalanced and nonlinear loads, utilizes repetitive control scheme to reject the effects of unbalanced and/or distorted load currents ...


Electronic And Magnetic Excitations In Graphene And Magnetic Nano-Ribbons, Maher Zakaria Ahmed Selim Sep 2011

Electronic And Magnetic Excitations In Graphene And Magnetic Nano-Ribbons, Maher Zakaria Ahmed Selim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The discovery of graphene - a 2D material with superior physical properties - in 2004 was important for the intensive global research to find alternatives to three-dimensional (3D) semiconductor materials in industry. At the same time there have been exciting advances for 2D magnetic materials on the nanometer scale. The superior properties of graphene are mainly attributed to its crystal structure and its relatively short-range interactions. These properties show that natural and artificial 2D materials are promising for new applications.

In this thesis we have carried out a comprehensive investigation of the effects of the 2D lattice structures, the roles of nearest ...


Addressing Computational Complexity Of High Speed Distributed Circuits Using Model Order Reduction, Ehsan Rasekh Sep 2011

Addressing Computational Complexity Of High Speed Distributed Circuits Using Model Order Reduction, Ehsan Rasekh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advanced in the fabrication technology of integrated circuits (ICs) over the last couple of years has resulted in an unparalleled expansion of the functionality of microelectronic systems. Today’s ICs feature complex deep-submicron mixed-signal designs and have found numerous applications in industry due to their lower manufacturing costs and higher performance levels. The tendency towards smaller feature sizes and increasing clock rates is placing higher demands on signal integrity design by highlighting previously negligible interconnect effects such as distortion, reflection, ringing, delay, and crosstalk. These effects if not predicted in the early stages of the design cycle can severely degrade ...


Attitude Estimation And Control Of Vtol Uavs, Andrew D. Roberts Sep 2011

Attitude Estimation And Control Of Vtol Uavs, Andrew D. Roberts

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The theoretical challenge involved in the operation of VTOL UAVs is often divided into two main problems. The first problem involves the development of an estimation scheme which can accurately recover the orientation, or angular position, of the aircraft. The second problem involves the development of algorithms which can be used to reliably control the orientation and/or the position of the vehicle. These two problems are the primary focus of this thesis.

We first consider the problem of attitude estimation. To solve this problem we use vector measurements, and in many cases, a gyroscope (to measure the angular velocity ...


Vortex Shedding From Elongated Bluff Bodies, Zachary J. Taylor Sep 2011

Vortex Shedding From Elongated Bluff Bodies, Zachary J. Taylor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As the spans of suspension bridges increase, the structures become inherently flexible. The flexibility of these structures, combined with the wind and particular aerodynamics, can lead to significant motions. From the collapse due to flutter of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge to the case of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of the Storebælt Bridge, it is evident that a better understanding of the aerodynamics of these geometries is necessary. The work herein is motivated by these two problems and is presented in two parts.

In the first part, the focus is on the physical mechanisms of vortex shedding. It is shown that the ...


Investigating Performance And Reliability Of Process Bus Networks For Digital Protective Relaying, Mitalkumar Kanabar Sep 2011

Investigating Performance And Reliability Of Process Bus Networks For Digital Protective Relaying, Mitalkumar Kanabar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To reduce the cost of complex and long copper wiring, as well as to achieve flexibility in signal communications, IEC 61850 part 9-2 proposes a process bus communication network between process level switchyard equipments, and bay level protection and control (P&C) Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). After successful implementation of Ethernet networks for IEC 61850 standard part 8-1 (station bus) at several substations worldwide, major manufacturers are currently working on the development of interoperable products for the IEC 61850-9-2 based process bus. The major technical challenges for applying Ethernet networks at process level include: 1) the performance of time critical messages for protection applications; 2) impacts of process bus Ethernet networks on the reliability of substation protection systems.

This work starts with the performance analysis in terms of time critical Sampled Value (SV) messages loss and/or delay over the IEC 61850-9-2 process bus networks of a typical substation. Unlike GOOSE, the SV message is not repeated several times, and therefore, there is ...


Investigation Of Hybrid Monopile-Footing Foundation Systems Subjected To Combined Loading, Mohamed El-Marassi Sep 2011

Investigation Of Hybrid Monopile-Footing Foundation Systems Subjected To Combined Loading, Mohamed El-Marassi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Laterally loaded structures such as wind turbines, offshore platforms, earth retaining structures, bridge abutments and many other structures impose complex loading regimes on the supporting foundations. These foundations are typically subjected to combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment loadings resulting from the vertical self-weight of the foundation system, superstructure, soil fill and surface surcharge, in addition to significant lateral loads and moments due to soil pressures, wind loads, waves and currents. In the case of shallow foundations, the weight and dimensions must be sufficient to resist tilting and sliding, whilst at the same time preventing failure of the subsoil and ...


The Analysis Of Extreme Synoptic Winds, David A. Gatey Sep 2011

The Analysis Of Extreme Synoptic Winds, David A. Gatey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Time histories of wind speed and direction from 394 surface observation stations were obtained to calculate synoptic 50-year return period wind speeds for 11 countries in Europe. Preliminary investigation indicated wind speed differences along national borders were successfully reduced by application of a simple consistent methodology to wind speed data. This study considers the ideal methodology for calculating synoptic 50-year return period wind speeds.

Wind speed data requires standardisation through quality control measures, exposure correction and adjustment for disjunct sampling. A quality control algorithm was successfully applied to identify shifts of monthly mean wind speeds and data conversion issues. Three ...


Geotechnique, Physico-Chemical Behaviour And A New Erosion Model For Mine Tailings Under Environmental Loading, Rozalina S. Dimitrova Sep 2011

Geotechnique, Physico-Chemical Behaviour And A New Erosion Model For Mine Tailings Under Environmental Loading, Rozalina S. Dimitrova

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Comprehensive geotechnical characterisation of mine tailings is required for the design, construction and safe operation of mine waste management facilities against the large number of potential failure risks. It is important that the characterization is carried out under the stress range and drainage conditions relevant to those encountered in the field.

The present research utilized mine tailings samples from a copper/nickel base-metal mine. Kaolinite and bentonite clays were added to the mine tailings in order to study the effect of clay percentage and clay mineralogy on the behaviour of saturated tailings/clay systems with varying composition. Slurries with moderate ...


Photocatalytic Degradation Of Phenolic Compounds In Water: Irradiation And Kinetic Modeling, Jesus Moreira Del Rio Aug 2011

Photocatalytic Degradation Of Phenolic Compounds In Water: Irradiation And Kinetic Modeling, Jesus Moreira Del Rio

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scaling up a photoreactor requires both knowledge of optical properties of the slurry medium and an established kinetic model. Measuring the scattering and absorption coefficients of particles suspended in water involves the use of specialized optical equipment, as well as the partial solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE). In addition, modeling of the radiation field in photoreactors with complicated geometries offers special challenges.

On the other hand, most of the kinetic models (KM) for phenol photodegradation reported in the literature were obtained for a single organic chemical species only. In fact, neglecting all the intermediate species generated during the ...


Vibration Isolation Using In-Filled Geofoam Trench Barriers, Ashref Mohamed A. Alzawi Aug 2011

Vibration Isolation Using In-Filled Geofoam Trench Barriers, Ashref Mohamed A. Alzawi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A significant amount of numerical and experimental research has been conducted to study the vibration isolation by wave barriers considering open trenches, in-filled concrete or bentonite trenches, sheet-pile walls, and rows of piles. A few studies have investigated the use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam material as wave barriers, which indicated that in-filled geofoam trenches can be used as effective wave barriers. However, no engineering design method is available to date for the design of such type of wave barriers. This dissertation presents comprehensive experimental and numerical investigations on the use of in-filled geofoam trench barriers to scatter machine foundations ...


Exploring Bacterial Nanowires: From Properties To Functions And Implications, Kar Man Leung Aug 2011

Exploring Bacterial Nanowires: From Properties To Functions And Implications, Kar Man Leung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The discovery of electrically conductive bacterial nanowires from a broad range of microbes provides completely new insights into microbial physiology. Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, produces extracellular bacterial nanowires up to tens of micrometers long, with a lateral dimension of ~10 nm. The Shewanella bacterial nanowires are efficient electrical conductors as revealed by scanning probe techniques such as CP-AFM and STM.

Direct electrical transport measurements along Shewanella nanowires reveal a measured nanowire resistivity on the order of 1 Ω∙cm. With electron transport rates up to 109/s at 100 mV, bacterial nanowires can serve as ...


On Developing Novel Energy-Relates Nanostructured Materials By Atomic Layer Deposition, Xiangbo Meng Aug 2011

On Developing Novel Energy-Relates Nanostructured Materials By Atomic Layer Deposition, Xiangbo Meng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ABSTRACT

This thesis presents the fabrication of a series of novel nanostructured materials using atomic layer deposition (ALD). In contrast to traditional methods including chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), and solution-based processes, ALD benefits the synthesis processes of nanostructures with many unrivalled advantages such as atomic-scale control, low temperature, excellent uniformity and conformality. Depending on the employed precursors, substrates, and temperatures, the ALD processes exhibited different characteristics. In particular, ALD has capabilities in fine-tuning compositions and structural phases. In return, the synthesis and the resultant nanostructured materials show many novelties.

This thesis covers ALD processes of four ...