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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Comparative Assessment Of Downscaling Methods And Application Towards Analysis Of Climate Change Impact On Urban Regions, Markus Eichenbaum Nov 2019

Comparative Assessment Of Downscaling Methods And Application Towards Analysis Of Climate Change Impact On Urban Regions, Markus Eichenbaum

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Global climate models (GCM) are sophisticated numerical models used to make long term climate projections. However, the resolution of their output is too coarse for climate change related local impact studies on urban regional scales. Downscaling efforts are taken to address this and increase GCM projection resolution. Physical Scaling (SP) downscaling methodology attempts to incorporate the physical basis of dynamical downscaling efforts with the computational efficiency of statistical methods. In this study, North American Regional Reanalysis surface skin temperature and precipitation data for a 1°x1° region centered on Houston, TX are downscaled to a resolution of 500m via SP ...


Progress Toward Durable Icephobic Materials, Matthew J. Coady Oct 2019

Progress Toward Durable Icephobic Materials, Matthew J. Coady

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ice accumulation is a major engineering challenge in many fields including aerospace, power generation, transportation, and infrastructure. A variety of solutions are being researched to address this challenge. Perhaps the most promising method of combating ice accumulation is by applying coatings with low values of interfacial ice adhesion strength, τice. Icephobic materials are those with ice adhesion below 100 kPa, and it has been shown that passive delamination can occur on surfaces with τice below 20 kPa. While various low adhesion surfaces have been prepared, durability concerns pervade applications where surfaces experience repeated icing or freeze-thaw cycles, mechanical ...


Shape-Controlled Nanoparticles As Effective Catalysts For Proton Exchange Membrane (Pem) Fuel Cells, Ali Feizabadi Sep 2019

Shape-Controlled Nanoparticles As Effective Catalysts For Proton Exchange Membrane (Pem) Fuel Cells, Ali Feizabadi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), is considered a promising candidate for the next generation power sources in transportation, stationary and portable applications. However, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), one of the key reactions occurring on PEMFC is kinetically slow; this has limited performance and further advancement in this kind of fuel cells. Thus, improving the PEMFC efficiency requires a thorough understanding of the ORR mechanism on the desired catalyst. To address the above-mentioned demands, the scope of this thesis is focused on the fundamental understanding of facet-controlled nanoparticles, metal-support interactions, and bimetallic platinum catalysts, utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray absorption, X-ray photoelectron ...


Future Changes Of Hydroclimatic Extremes In Western North America Using A Large Ensemble: The Role Of Internal Variability, Mohammad Hasan Mahmoudi Apr 2019

Future Changes Of Hydroclimatic Extremes In Western North America Using A Large Ensemble: The Role Of Internal Variability, Mohammad Hasan Mahmoudi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increases in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in Western North America (WNA) can cause significant socioeconomic problems and threaten existing infrastructure. In this study we analyze the impacts of climate change on hydroclimatic extremes and assess the role of internal variability over WNA, which collectively drain an area of about 1 million km2. We used gridded observations and downscaled precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature from seven General Circulation Models (GCMs) that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and a large ensemble of CanESM2 model simulations (CanESM2-LE; 50 members) for this analysis. Spatial and ...


Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince Feb 2019

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


Secured Data Masking Framework And Technique For Preserving Privacy In A Business Intelligence Analytics Platform, Osama Ali Dec 2018

Secured Data Masking Framework And Technique For Preserving Privacy In A Business Intelligence Analytics Platform, Osama Ali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The main concept behind business intelligence (BI) is how to use integrated data across different business systems within an enterprise to make strategic decisions. It is difficult to map internal and external BI’s users to subsets of the enterprise’s data warehouse (DW), resulting that protecting the privacy of this data while maintaining its utility is a challenging task. Today, such DW systems constitute one of the most serious privacy breach threats that an enterprise might face when many internal users of different security levels have access to BI components. This thesis proposes a data masking framework (iMaskU: Identify ...


Corrosion Dynamics Of Carbon Steel In Used Fuel Container Environments, Dan Guo Dec 2018

Corrosion Dynamics Of Carbon Steel In Used Fuel Container Environments, Dan Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current Canadian used nuclear fuel container (UFC) design uses a pressure‑grade carbon steel (CS) vessel with its outer surface coated with a thin layer of copper. One concern regarding the structural integrity of the UFC design is the potential internal corrosion of the CS vessel. Moisture trapped inside a UFC could condense within the gap between the hemispherical head and the cylindrical body of the vessel. The internal UFC environment will be exposed to a continuous flux of ionizing radiation arising from the decay of radionuclides trapped in the used UO2 fuel matrix.

This thesis research project ...


Robust Earthquake Site Classification Assessment At Ontario Bridge Sites., Alex Bilson Darko Nov 2018

Robust Earthquake Site Classification Assessment At Ontario Bridge Sites., Alex Bilson Darko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canadian seismic design guidelines classify subsurface ground conditions based on the average shear-wave velocity (VS) of the upper 30 meters (VS30). We seek to optimize a robust earthquake site classification procedure for Ontario bridge sites, assessed primarily from blind comparison of non-invasive VS depth profiling techniques. Non-invasive seismic testing is performed at 10 bridge sites in southern Ontario co-located with invasive penetration and/or borehole VS measurements. Non-invasive surface wave dispersion and site amplification functions are jointly inverted to retrieve VS profiles at each site. A general correlation between corrected VS and cone tip ...


Plant Stimuli-Responsive Biodegradable Polymers For The Use In Timed Release Fertilizer Coatings, Spencer Heuchan Aug 2018

Plant Stimuli-Responsive Biodegradable Polymers For The Use In Timed Release Fertilizer Coatings, Spencer Heuchan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers continues to accelerate with human population growth and increases in global food requirements. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) have been developed to improve the synchronization between nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand. However, many of the current controlled release fertilizers are coated with non-degradable polymers that contribute to accumulation of microplastics within ecosystems. This thesis describes research towards the development of a new class of fertilizer coatings using a self-immolative polymer known as poly (ethyl glyoxylate) (PEtG). PEtG itself does not have suitable properties to produce a viable coating but once blended with another degradable polyester ...


Biobutanol Production From Cellulosic And Sugar-Based Feedstock From The Corn Plant, Reyna Gomez-Flores Apr 2018

Biobutanol Production From Cellulosic And Sugar-Based Feedstock From The Corn Plant, Reyna Gomez-Flores

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, biobutanol production by biological fermentation was investigated from the corn plant, integrating two approaches. The first one was to utilize corn cobs, a cellulosic-based material. The second, using a new sugar-based material, sugarcorn juice. Utilizing suitable Clostridia strains for each substrate, these approaches converged into a biorefinery concept to produce renewable biofuels in Ontario, Canada. The corn cob pretreatment was carried out by a dilute acid method resulting in temperature as the variable with most significant effect towards glucose liberation. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed utilizing a very low concentration of an enzymatic stock solution with approximately ...


On The Reduction Of The Driving Force In Shear-Driven Flows, Sakib Shadman Apr 2018

On The Reduction Of The Driving Force In Shear-Driven Flows, Sakib Shadman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In shear-driven flows, an external driving force is needed to maintain the relative movement of horizontal plates. This thesis presents a systematic analysis on using spatially periodic heating and grooved surfaces to control this force. It is found that the use of periodic heating creates a buoyancy-driven effect that always reduces this force. The use of proper heating may even lead to the complete elimination of this force. It is further found that the use of isothermal grooved surfaces always enhances flow resistance, resulting in an increase of this force. When grooves and heating are applied together, their interaction induces ...


Modeling Of Suspended Sediment Concentration Using Conventional And Machine Learning Approaches, In Thames River, Canada, Issam Mohamed Apr 2018

Modeling Of Suspended Sediment Concentration Using Conventional And Machine Learning Approaches, In Thames River, Canada, Issam Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water resource management, planning, hydraulic design, environmental conservation, reservoir management and operation all require reliable information and data about Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC). To predict such data, direct sampling and Sediment Rating Curves (SRC) are commonly utilized. Since direct sampling can be risky during extreme weather events and SRC cannot provide satisfactorily dependable results, engineers are trying to propose new precise fore-casting approaches. Various soft computing techniques have been applied to model different hydrological and environmental problems and have showed promising results in this regard. Although many studies have been performed to simulate the phenomena of SSC at numerous rivers ...


Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht Mar 2018

Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbonaceous gold ores have the ability to adsorb gold (I) cyanide from leach solutions during processing. This phenomenon, known as preg-robbing, is responsible for poor recoveries as the carbonaceous materials of the ore compete with activated carbon used during the leaching and adsorption phase of processing. Chemical oxidation of carbonaceous materials by different reagents has been utilized to investigate and compare the mechanism of Au (CN)2 adsorption onto carbonaceous materials prior to and following the treatment.

The procedure for characterization of the carbonaceous materials (plain and modified) in the sample combines the use of several analytical techniques and test ...


Numerical Studies Of Electrohydrodynamic Flow Induced By Corona And Dielectric Barrier Discharges, Chaoao Shi Feb 2018

Numerical Studies Of Electrohydrodynamic Flow Induced By Corona And Dielectric Barrier Discharges, Chaoao Shi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Electrohyrodynamic (EHD) flow produced by gas discharges allows the control of airflow through electrostatic forces. Various promising applications of EHD can be considered, but this requires a deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms involved.

This thesis investigates the EHD flow generated by three forms of gas discharge. First, a multiple pin-plate EHD dryer associated with the positive corona discharge is studied using a stationary model. Second, the dynamics of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is simulated with a time-dependent solver. Third, different configurations of the extended DBD are explored to enhance the EHD flow.

The results of the ...


Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed Dec 2017

Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fast diminishing of fossil fuels in the near future, as well as the global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases have motivated the urgent quest to develop advanced materials as cost-effective photoanodes for solar light harvesting and many other photocatalytic applications. Recently, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by anodization process has attracted great interest due to their excellent properties such as: high surface area, vertically oriented, highly organized, one-dimensional, nanotubular structure, photoactivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of excellent properties makes TNTAs an excellent photoanode for solar light harvesting. However, the relatively wide band gap energy of ...


Gamma-Radiation Induced Corrosion Of Alloy 800, Mojtaba Momeni Nov 2017

Gamma-Radiation Induced Corrosion Of Alloy 800, Mojtaba Momeni

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis presents a newly developed mechanism and predictive model for the corrosion of Alloy 800. The Fe-Cr-Ni Alloy (Incoloy 800) is mainly used for steam generator (SG) tubing in CANDU and PWR reactors and is a candidate material for the proposed Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) in which it will be exposed to extreme conditions of high radiation flux and large temperature gradients. The influence of gamma radiation and water chemistry conditions on the corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 are studied in this work. Ionizing radiation creates reducing (•eaq, •H, •O2-) and oxidizing radiolysis (•OH, H2 ...


Secure Integer Comparisons Using The Homomorphic Properties Of Prime Power Subgroups, Rhys A. Carlton Aug 2017

Secure Integer Comparisons Using The Homomorphic Properties Of Prime Power Subgroups, Rhys A. Carlton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Secure multi party computation allows two or more parties to jointly compute a function under encryption without leaking information about their private inputs. These secure computations are vital in many fields including law enforcement, secure voting and bioinformatics because the privacy of the information is of paramount importance.

One common reference problem for secure multi party computation is the Millionaires' problem which was first introduced by Turing Award winner Yao in his paper "Protocols for secure computation". The Millionaires' problem considers two millionaires who want to know who is richer without disclosing their actual worth.

There are public-key cryptosystems that ...


Crystal Engineering Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients With Low Aqueous Solubility And Bioavailability, Jenna M. Skieneh Aug 2017

Crystal Engineering Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients With Low Aqueous Solubility And Bioavailability, Jenna M. Skieneh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Approximately 75% of new molecular entities approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the pharmaceutical industry are found to have poor aqueous solubility. This undesirable attribute leads to consequences such as higher doses required to reach therapeutic levels, greater vulnerability to food effects, lesser fraction absorbed in the small intestine and damage to the environment due to increased quantity of excretion. The addition of an excipient (i.e. a FDA approved inactive ingredient) to the molecular structure of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) through intermolecular bonding is of growing interest because the properties of the API ...


Machs: Mitigating The Achilles Heel Of The Cloud Through High Availability And Performance-Aware Solutions, Manar Jammal Apr 2017

Machs: Mitigating The Achilles Heel Of The Cloud Through High Availability And Performance-Aware Solutions, Manar Jammal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cloud computing is continuously growing as a business model for hosting information and communication technology applications. However, many concerns arise regarding the quality of service (QoS) offered by the cloud. One major challenge is the high availability (HA) of cloud-based applications. The key to achieving availability requirements is to develop an approach that is immune to cloud failures while minimizing the service level agreement (SLA) violations. To this end, this thesis addresses the HA of cloud-based applications from different perspectives. First, the thesis proposes a component’s HA-ware scheduler (CHASE) to manage the deployments of carrier-grade cloud applications while maximizing ...


Metafork: A Compilation Framework For Concurrency Models Targeting Hardware Accelerators, Xiaohui Chen Mar 2017

Metafork: A Compilation Framework For Concurrency Models Targeting Hardware Accelerators, Xiaohui Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parallel programming is gaining ground in various domains due to the tremendous computational power that it brings; however, it also requires a substantial code crafting effort to achieve performance improvement. Unfortunately, in most cases, performance tuning has to be accomplished manually by programmers. We argue that automated tuning is necessary due to the combination of the following factors. First, code optimization is machine-dependent. That is, optimization preferred on one machine may be not suitable for another machine. Second, as the possible optimization search space increases, manually finding an optimized configuration is hard. Therefore, developing new compiler techniques for optimizing applications ...


Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell Jan 2017

Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an indispensable, non-invasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease and function. As an investigational device, MRI has found routine use in both basic science research and medicine for both human and non-human subjects.

Due to the potential increase in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ability to exploit novel tissue contrasts, the main magnetic field strength of human MRI scanners has steadily increased since inception. Beginning in the early 1980’s, 0.15 T human MRI scanners have steadily risen in main magnetic field strength with ultra-high field (UHF) 8 T MRI systems ...


Analysis Of 3d Cone-Beam Ct Image Reconstruction Performance On A Fpga, Devin Held Dec 2016

Analysis Of 3d Cone-Beam Ct Image Reconstruction Performance On A Fpga, Devin Held

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Efficient and accurate tomographic image reconstruction has been an intensive topic of research due to the increasing everyday usage in areas such as radiology, biology, and materials science. Computed tomography (CT) scans are used to analyze internal structures through capture of x-ray images. Cone-beam CT scans project a cone-shaped x-ray to capture 2D image data from a single focal point, rotating around the object. CT scans are prone to multiple artifacts, including motion blur, streaks, and pixel irregularities, therefore must be run through image reconstruction software to reduce visual artifacts. The most common algorithm used is the Feldkamp, Davis, and ...


Channel Form And Processes In A Formerly Glaciated Terrain, Nathaniel Bergman Nov 2016

Channel Form And Processes In A Formerly Glaciated Terrain, Nathaniel Bergman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite that many places around the world in general, and North America in particular, were glaciated during the last ice age, relatively little is known about rivers that evolved over these landscapes once they deglaciated. These rivers are commonly categorized as alluvial with a glacial legacy, and often described as plain gravel-bed or sand-bed rivers. Alternatively, they are considered to be bedrock rivers when the glacial deposits were eroded and underlying rock was exposed. However, ignoring the glacial history of these rivers is scientifically wrong and they should be termed "semi-alluvial". This work shows that classification is important, not only ...


Automatic Fracture Orientation Extraction From Sfm Point Clouds, Jon Kissi Oct 2016

Automatic Fracture Orientation Extraction From Sfm Point Clouds, Jon Kissi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Geology seeks to understand the history of the Earth and its surface processes through charac- terisation of surface formations and rock units. Chief among the geologists’ tools are rock unit orientation measurements, such as Strike, Dip and Dip Direction. These allow an understanding of both surface and sub-structure on both the local and macro scale.

Although the way these techniques can be used to characterise geology are well understood, the need to collect these measurements by hand adds time and expense to the work of the geologist, precludes spontaneity in field work, and coverage is limited to where the geologist ...


Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic Oct 2016

Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research presented herein is a mix of meteorological and wind engineering disciplines. In many cases, there is a gap between these two fields and this thesis is an attempt to bridge that gap through multiscale wind modelling approaches. Data and methods used in this study cover a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Applications are in the fields of sustainability and resilience. This relationship between multiscale wind modelling and sustainability and resilience is investigated examining several case studies of three different developments: urban, rural and coastal.

An urban wind modelling methodology is proposed and applied for a specific development ...


Neurosurgical Ultrasound Pose Estimation Using Image-Based Registration And Sensor Fusion - A Feasibility Study, Utsav Pardasani Oct 2016

Neurosurgical Ultrasound Pose Estimation Using Image-Based Registration And Sensor Fusion - A Feasibility Study, Utsav Pardasani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Modern neurosurgical procedures often rely on computer-assisted real-time guidance using multiple medical imaging modalities. State-of-the-art commercial products enable the fusion of pre-operative with intra-operative images (e.g., magnetic resonance [MR] with ultrasound [US] images), as well as the on-screen visualization of procedures in progress. In so doing, US images can be employed as a template to which pre-operative images can be registered, to correct for anatomical changes, to provide live-image feedback, and consequently to improve confidence when making resection margin decisions near eloquent regions during tumour surgery.

In spite of the potential for tracked ultrasound to improve many neurosurgical procedures ...


Development Of Ultrasonic Techniques For Characterization Of Liquid Mixtures, William A. Cooke Sep 2016

Development Of Ultrasonic Techniques For Characterization Of Liquid Mixtures, William A. Cooke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To evaluate the suitability of ultrasonic techniques for on-line process monitoring applications, an ultrasonic probe was used to measure acoustic velocity, acoustic impedance, and isentropic compressibility of hydrocarbons (including n-, iso-, and cycloalkanes, toluene, mineral oil, and crude oil) and polar liquids (alcohols, water, salt water) over a temperature range of 25-60°C. Temperature, carbon chain length, molecular shape, and intermolecular forces had significant effects on ultrasonic parameters. Relationships between media characteristics and observed ultrasonic parameters were modeled using empirical-least squares equations. The same parameters were measured in binary mixtures of hydrocarbons in heptane, as well as polar liquids in ...


Nanostructured Air Electrodes And Electrochemical Reaction Mechanism Studies For Sodium-Oxygen Batteries, Hossein Yadegari Sep 2016

Nanostructured Air Electrodes And Electrochemical Reaction Mechanism Studies For Sodium-Oxygen Batteries, Hossein Yadegari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alkali metal-O2 batteries, i.e. Li- and Na-O2, are considered as the next generation of energy saving technologies with potential application in electric transportation. The high theoretical energy density in these cells is related to the use of high energy alkali metals as negative and oxygen as the positive electrode materials. The performance of alkali metal-O2 cells is highly dependent on the positive electrode material, where oxygen reduction and evolution reactions take place. Besides, the primary products of oxygen reduction reaction in these cells are typically metal oxides, which are insoluble in nonaqueous electrolytes, resulting in accumulation ...


Hydraulic And Electrokinetic Delivery Of Remediants For In-Situ Remediation, Ahmed I. A. Chowdhury Sep 2016

Hydraulic And Electrokinetic Delivery Of Remediants For In-Situ Remediation, Ahmed I. A. Chowdhury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has shown promising mobility and in-situ reactivity with chlorinated volatile organic compounds when injected into saturated porous media. The current study evaluated nZVI mobility and subsequent reactivity with in-situ contaminants in a variably saturated porous media. The nZVI particles, synthesized onsite at subzero temperatures, demonstrated complete trichloroethene (TCE) degradation within the target area. Furthermore, a three dimensional finite difference model (CompSim) was utilized to investigate nZVI mobility in variably saturated zones. Model predicted well head data were in very good agreement with field observations. Simulation results showed that the injected slurry migrated radially outward from ...


Collective Contextual Anomaly Detection For Building Energy Consumption, Daniel Berhane Araya Aug 2016

Collective Contextual Anomaly Detection For Building Energy Consumption, Daniel Berhane Araya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commercial and residential buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of total global energy consumption and as a result make a significant contribution to global carbon emissions. Hence, energy-saving goals that target buildings can have a major impact in reducing environmental damage. During building operation, a significant amount of energy is wasted due to equipment and human-related faults. To reduce waste, today's smart buildings monitor energy usage with the aim of identifying abnormal consumption behaviour and notifying the building manager to implement appropriate energy-saving procedures. To this end, this research proposes the \textit{ensemble anomaly detection} (EAD) framework. The ...