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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari Sep 2019

A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Radiation therapy is a main component of treatment for many lung cancer patients. However, the respiratory motion can cause inaccuracies in radiation delivery that can lead to treatment complications. In addition, the radiation-induced damage to healthy tissue limits the effectiveness of radiation treatment. Motion management methods have been developed to increase the accuracy of radiation delivery, and functional avoidance treatment planning has emerged to help reduce the chances of radiation-induced toxicity. In this work, we have developed biomechanical model-based techniques for tumor motion estimation, as well as lung functional imaging. The proposed biomechanical model accurately estimates lung and tumor motion ...


A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman Sep 2018

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.

The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...


Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado Aug 2018

Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The BONEBRIDGE bone-conduction device is used to treat conductive and mixed hearing losses. The size of its floating mass transducer (FMT) can preclude implantation in certain anatomies, necessitating comprehensive surgical planning. Current techniques are time consuming and difficult to transfer to the operating room. The objective of this thesis was to develop software for calculating skull thickness to the dura mater to find locations for the FMT and to the first air cells which guarantee sufficient bone for the implant screws to grasp. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images were segmented and processed and custom Matlab code was written to ...


Development Of An Emg-Based Muscle Health Model For Elbow Trauma Patients, Emma Farago Aug 2018

Development Of An Emg-Based Muscle Health Model For Elbow Trauma Patients, Emma Farago

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Rehabilitation is critical for recovery from these conditions and for the prevention of long-term disability. Robot-assisted therapy has been demonstrated to provide improvements to stroke rehabilitation in terms of efficiency and patient adherence. However, there are no wearable robot-assisted solutions for patients with MSK injuries. One of the limiting factors is the lack of appropriate models that allow the use of biosignals as an interface input. Furthermore, there are no models to discern the health of MSK patients as they progress through their therapy.

This thesis describes the ...


Augmented Reality Ultrasound Guidance In Anesthesiology, Golafsoun Ameri Feb 2018

Augmented Reality Ultrasound Guidance In Anesthesiology, Golafsoun Ameri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Real-time ultrasound has become a mainstay in many image-guided interventions and increasingly popular in several percutaneous procedures in anesthesiology. One of the main constraints of ultrasound-guided needle interventions is identifying and distinguishing the needle tip from needle shaft in the image. Augmented reality (AR) environments have been employed to address challenges surrounding surgical tool visualization, navigation, and positioning in many image-guided interventions. The motivation behind this work was to explore the feasibility and utility of such visualization techniques in anesthesiology to address some of the specific limitations of ultrasound-guided needle interventions. This thesis brings together the goals, guidelines, and best ...


Optimal Decomposition Strategy For Tree Edit Distance, Shaofeng Jiang Dec 2017

Optimal Decomposition Strategy For Tree Edit Distance, Shaofeng Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An ordered labeled tree is a tree where the left-to-right order among siblings is significant. Given two ordered labeled trees, the edit distance between them is the minimum cost edit operations that convert one tree to the other.

In this thesis, we present an algorithm for the tree edit distance problem by using the optimal tree decomposition strategy. By combining the vertical compression of trees with optimal decomposition we can significantly reduce the running time of the algorithm. We compare our method with other methods both theoretically and experimentally. The test results show that our strategies on compressed trees are ...


Skills Assessment In Arthroscopic Surgery By Processing Kinematic, Force, And Bio-Signal Data, Behnaz Poursartip Dec 2017

Skills Assessment In Arthroscopic Surgery By Processing Kinematic, Force, And Bio-Signal Data, Behnaz Poursartip

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Arthroscopic surgery is a type of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) performed in human joints, which can be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. The nature of this type of surgery makes it such that surgeons require extensive training to become experts at performing surgical tasks in tight environments and with reduced force feedback. MIS increases the possibility of erroneous actions, which could result in injury to the patient. Many of these injuries can be prevented by implementing appropriate training and skills assessment methods.

Various performance methods, including Global Rating Scales and technical measures, have been proposed in the literature. However ...


Design And Evaluation Of Neurosurgical Training Simulator, Trinette L. Wright Nov 2017

Design And Evaluation Of Neurosurgical Training Simulator, Trinette L. Wright

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surgical simulators are becoming more important in surgical training. Consumer smartphone technology has improved to allow deployment of VR applications and are now being targeted for medical training simulators. A surgical simulator has been designed using a smartphone, Google cardboard 3D glasses, and the Leap Motion (LM) hand controller. Two expert and 16 novice users were tasked with completing the same pointing tasks using both the LM and the medical simulator NeuroTouch. The novice users had an accuracy of 0.2717 bits (SD 0.3899) and the experts had an accuracy of 0.0925 bits (SD 0.1210) while using ...


Force Sensing Surgical Grasper With Folding Capacitive Sensor, Dave Bp Tripp Aug 2017

Force Sensing Surgical Grasper With Folding Capacitive Sensor, Dave Bp Tripp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally-invasive surgery (MIS) has brought many benefits to the operating room, however, MIS procedures result in an absence of force feedback, and surgeons cannot as accurately feel the tissue they are working on, or the forces that they are applying. One of the barriers to introducing MIS instruments with force feedback systems is the high cost of manufacturing and assembly. Instruments must also be sterilized before every use, a process that can destroy embedded sensing systems. An instrument that can be disposed of after a single use and produced in bulk at a low cost is desirable. Printed circuit micro-electro-mechanical ...


Pulmonary Image Segmentation And Registration Algorithms: Towards Regional Evaluation Of Obstructive Lung Disease, Fumin Guo Aug 2017

Pulmonary Image Segmentation And Registration Algorithms: Towards Regional Evaluation Of Obstructive Lung Disease, Fumin Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pulmonary imaging, including pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), provides a way to sensitively and regionally measure spatially heterogeneous lung structural-functional abnormalities. These unique imaging biomarkers offer the potential for better understanding pulmonary disease mechanisms, monitoring disease progression and response to therapy, and developing novel treatments for improved patient care. To generate these regional lung structure-function measurements and enable broad clinical applications of quantitative pulmonary MRI and CT biomarkers, as a first step, accurate, reproducible and rapid lung segmentation and registration methods are required. In this regard, we first developed a 1H MRI lung segmentation algorithm that ...


Interactive Visualization Of Multimodal Brain Connectivity: Applications In Clinical And Cognitive Neuroscience, Saeed Mahdizadeh Bakhshmand Jul 2017

Interactive Visualization Of Multimodal Brain Connectivity: Applications In Clinical And Cognitive Neuroscience, Saeed Mahdizadeh Bakhshmand

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a readily available prognostic and diagnostic method, providing invaluable information for the clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Multimodal neuroimaging allows integration of complementary data from various aspects such as functional and anatomical properties; thus, it has the potential to overcome the limitations of each individual modality. Specifically, functional and diffusion MRI are two non-invasive neuroimaging techniques customized to capture brain activity and microstructural properties, respectively. Data from these two modalities is inherently complex, and interactive visualization can assist with data comprehension.

The current thesis presents the design, development, and validation of visualization and computation ...


Basic Science To Clinical Research: Segmentation Of Ultrasound And Modelling In Clinical Informatics, Ali K. Hamou Apr 2017

Basic Science To Clinical Research: Segmentation Of Ultrasound And Modelling In Clinical Informatics, Ali K. Hamou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The world of basic science is a world of minutia; it boils down to improving even a fraction of a percent over the baseline standard. It is a domain of peer reviewed fractions of seconds and the world of squeezing every last ounce of efficiency from a processor, a storage medium, or an algorithm. The field of health data is based on extracting knowledge from segments of data that may improve some clinical process or practice guideline to improve the time and quality of care. Clinical informatics and knowledge translation provide this information in order to reveal insights to the ...


Advanced Signal Processing Methods For Plane-Wave Color Doppler Ultrasound Imaging, Omar Mansour Mar 2017

Advanced Signal Processing Methods For Plane-Wave Color Doppler Ultrasound Imaging, Omar Mansour

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Conventional medical ultrasound imaging uses focused beams to scan the imaging scene line-by-line, but recently however, plane-wave imaging, in which plane-waves are used to illuminate the entire imaging scene, has been gaining popularity due its ability to achieve high frame rates, thus allowing the capture of fast dynamic events and producing continuous Doppler data. In most implementations, multiple low-resolution images from different plane wave tilt angles are coherently averaged (compounded) to form a single high-resolution image, albeit with the undesirable side effect of reducing the frame rate, and attenuating signals with high Doppler shifts.

This thesis introduces a spread-spectrum color ...


A Framework For Tumor Localization In Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery, Nikita Chopra Feb 2017

A Framework For Tumor Localization In Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery, Nikita Chopra

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Manual palpation of tissue is frequently used in open surgery, e.g., for localization of tumors and buried vessels and for tissue characterization. The overall objective of this work is to explore how tissue palpation can be performed in Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (RAMIS) using laparoscopic instruments conventionally used in RAMIS. This thesis presents a framework where a surgical tool is moved teleoperatively in a manner analogous to the repetitive pressing motion of a finger during manual palpation. We interpret the changes in parameters due to this motion such as the applied force and the resulting indentation depth to accurately ...


Expert-In-The-Loop Multilateral Telerobotics For Haptics-Enabled Motor Function And Skills Development, Mahya Shahbazi Jan 2017

Expert-In-The-Loop Multilateral Telerobotics For Haptics-Enabled Motor Function And Skills Development, Mahya Shahbazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Among medical robotics applications are Robotics-Assisted Mirror Rehabilitation Therapy (RAMRT) and Minimally-Invasive Surgical Training (RAMIST) that extensively rely on motor function development. Haptics-enabled expert-in-the-loop motor function development for such applications is made possible through multilateral telerobotic frameworks. While several studies have validated the benefits of haptic interaction with an expert in motor learning, contradictory results have also been reported. This emphasizes the need for further in-depth studies on the nature of human motor learning through haptic guidance and interaction. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate expert-in-the-loop multilateral telerobotic frameworks with stable and human-safe control loops that ...


Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell Jan 2017

Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an indispensable, non-invasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease and function. As an investigational device, MRI has found routine use in both basic science research and medicine for both human and non-human subjects.

Due to the potential increase in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ability to exploit novel tissue contrasts, the main magnetic field strength of human MRI scanners has steadily increased since inception. Beginning in the early 1980’s, 0.15 T human MRI scanners have steadily risen in main magnetic field strength with ultra-high field (UHF) 8 T MRI systems ...


Safe Haptics-Enabled Patient-Robot Interaction For Robotic And Telerobotic Rehabilitation Of Neuromuscular Disorders: Control Design And Analysis, Seyed Farokh Atashzar Dec 2016

Safe Haptics-Enabled Patient-Robot Interaction For Robotic And Telerobotic Rehabilitation Of Neuromuscular Disorders: Control Design And Analysis, Seyed Farokh Atashzar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Motivation: Current statistics show that the population of seniors and the incidence rate of age-related neuromuscular disorders are rapidly increasing worldwide. Improving medical care is likely to increase the survival rate but will result in even more patients in need of Assistive, Rehabilitation and Assessment (ARA) services for extended periods which will place a significant burden on the world's healthcare systems. In many cases, the only alternative is limited and often delayed outpatient therapy. The situation will be worse for patients in remote areas. One potential solution is to develop technologies that provide efficient and safe means of in-hospital ...


Controlling And Processing Core For Wireless Implantable Telemetry System, Naeeme Modir Oct 2016

Controlling And Processing Core For Wireless Implantable Telemetry System, Naeeme Modir

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Wireless implantable telemetry systems are suitable choices for monitoring various physiological parameters such as blood pressure and volume. These systems typically compose of an internal device implanted into a living body captures the physiological data and sends them to an external base station located outside of the body for further processing. The internal device usually consists of a sensor interface to convert the collected data to electrical signals; a digital core to digitize the analog signals, process them and prepare them for transmission; an RF front-end to transmit the data outside the body and to receive the required commands from ...


Shape Memory Alloy Actuators And Sensors For Applications In Minimally Invasive Interventions, Amit Srivastava Sep 2016

Shape Memory Alloy Actuators And Sensors For Applications In Minimally Invasive Interventions, Amit Srivastava

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Reduced access size in minimally invasive surgery and therapy (MIST) poses several restriction on the design of the dexterous robotic instruments. The instruments should be developed that are slender enough to pass through the small sized incisions and able to effectively operate in a compact workspace. Most existing robotic instruments are operated by big actuators, located outside the patient’s body, that transfer forces to the end effector via cables or magnetically controlled actuation mechanism. These instruments are certainly far from optimal in terms of their cost and the space they require in operating room. The lack of adequate sensing ...


Towards The Development Of A Wearable Tremor Suppression Glove, Yue Zhou Dec 2015

Towards The Development Of A Wearable Tremor Suppression Glove, Yue Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often associate with tremor. Among other symptoms of PD, tremor is the most aggressive symptom and it is difficult to control with traditional treatments. This thesis presents the assessment of Parkinsonian hand tremor in both the time domain and the frequency domain, the performance of a tremor estimator using different tremor models, and the development of a novel mechatronic transmission system for a wearable tremor suppression device. This transmission system functions as a mechatronic splitter that allows a single power source to support multiple independent applications. Unique features of this transmission system include ...


Endoscopic Targeting Tasks Simulator: An Approach Using Game Engines, Shaun W. Carnegie Sep 2015

Endoscopic Targeting Tasks Simulator: An Approach Using Game Engines, Shaun W. Carnegie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pervasiveness of simulators used in professions requiring the skilled control of expensive machinery such as is the case in the aviation, mining, construction, and naval industries raises an intriguing question about the relatively poor adoption within the field of medicine. Certain surgical procedures such as neuro-endoscopic and laparoscopic lend themselves well to the application of virtual reality based simulators. This is due to the innate ability to decom- pose these complex macro level procedures into a hierarchy of subtasks that can be modelled in a software simulator to augment existing teaching and training techniques.

The research in this thesis ...


Design Of Novel Sensors And Instruments For Minimally Invasive Lung Tumour Localization Via Palpation, Anish Srinivasan Naidu Jul 2015

Design Of Novel Sensors And Instruments For Minimally Invasive Lung Tumour Localization Via Palpation, Anish Srinivasan Naidu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally Invasive Thoracoscopic Surgery (MITS) has become the treatment of choice for lung cancer. However, MITS prevents the surgeons from using manual palpation, thereby often making it challenging to reliably locate the tumours for resection. This thesis presents the design, analysis and validation of novel tactile sensors, a novel miniature force sensor, a robotic instrument, and a wireless hand-held instrument to address this limitation. The low-cost, disposable tactile sensors have been shown to easily detect a 5 mm tumour located 10 mm deep in soft tissue. The force sensor can measure six degrees of freedom forces and torques with temperature ...


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Remote Catheter Navigation System, Mohammad Ali Tavallaei Jul 2015

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Remote Catheter Navigation System, Mohammad Ali Tavallaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many vascular and cardiac diseases are diagnosed and treated using a medical technique known as percutaneous transluminal catheter intervention (PTC). In PTC, the interventionalist inserts a catheter into the vasculature, and using the vessel as the guiding passageway, the catheter is navigated to desired anatomical targets where it would be used for various purposes such as catheter ablation for the treatment/management of cardiac arrhythmias. The catheterization procedure is conventionally guided with x-ray fluoroscopic imaging and more recently, but rarely, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray imaging irradiates the patient directly during the procedure, and the staff and interventionalists indirectly ...


Force Sensing In Arthroscopic Instruments Using Fiber Bragg Gratings, Daniel S. Yurkewich Apr 2015

Force Sensing In Arthroscopic Instruments Using Fiber Bragg Gratings, Daniel S. Yurkewich

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally-invasive surgery has revolutionized many medical procedures; however, it also impedes the ability to feel the interaction between the surgical tool and the anatomical part being operated on. In order to address this problem, it is necessary to obtain accurate measurements of the interaction forces exerted on the surgical tools during surgery. These forces can then be manifested to the surgeon via a haptic device or presented visually (visual-force feedback). This thesis describes the use of a fiber optic device to measure and display to the surgeon interaction forces acting on an arthroscopic tool. The sensorization of the tool involves ...


Numerical Modeling Of Deformation, Oscillation, Spreading And Collision Characteristics Of Droplets In An Electric Field, Osameh Ghazian Dec 2014

Numerical Modeling Of Deformation, Oscillation, Spreading And Collision Characteristics Of Droplets In An Electric Field, Osameh Ghazian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Electric field induced flows, or electrohydrodynamics (EHD), have been promising in many fast-growing technologies, where droplet movement and deformation can be controlled to enhance heat transfer and mass transport. Several complex EHD problems existing in many applications were investigated in this thesis.

Firstly, this thesis presents the results of numerical simulations of the deformation, oscillation and breakup of a weakly conducting droplet suspended in an ambient medium with higher conductivity. It is the first time that the deformation of such a droplet was investigated numerically in a 3D configuration. We have determined three types of behavior for the droplets, which ...


Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo Sep 2014

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


Evaluating Human Performance For Image-Guided Surgical Tasks, Matthew Kenneth Kramers Aug 2014

Evaluating Human Performance For Image-Guided Surgical Tasks, Matthew Kenneth Kramers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The following work focuses on the objective evaluation of human performance for two different interventional tasks; targeted prostate biopsy tasks using a tracked biopsy device, and external ventricular drain placement tasks using a mobile-based augmented reality device for visualization and guidance. In both tasks, a human performance methodology was utilized which respects the trade-off between speed and accuracy for users conducting a series of targeting tasks using each device. This work outlines the development and application of performance evaluation methods using these devices, as well as details regarding the implementation of the mobile AR application. It was determined that the ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige Jul 2014

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar Apr 2014

Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (WEFS) microscopy is developed as a non-invasive, label-free live cell imaging technique. This new high-contrast imaging can be employed to study the first hundred nanometers from the surface as it utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide as the illumination source. Previously, waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy was developed as a fluorescence imaging technique comparable to the total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. Both the WEFF and WEFS technique utilizes the same fundamental concepts except in WEFS microscopy imaging is accomplished without the application of any fluorescent labeling. In this work, bacterial ...


Modeling And Control Of Steerable Ablation Catheters, Mahta Khoshnam Tehrani Apr 2014

Modeling And Control Of Steerable Ablation Catheters, Mahta Khoshnam Tehrani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Catheters are long, flexible tubes that are extensively used in vascular and cardiac interventions, e.g., cardiac ablation, coronary angiography and mitral valve annuloplasty. Catheter-based cardiac ablation is a well-accepted treatment for atrial fibrillation, a common type of cardiac arrhythmia. During this procedure, a steerable ablation catheter is guided through the vasculature to the left atrium to correct the signal pathways inside the heart and restore normal heart rhythm. The outcome of the ablation procedure depends mainly on the correct positioning of the catheter tip at the target location inside the heart and also on maintaining a consistent contact between ...