Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 1230

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Multiphase Equilibrium In A Novel Batch Dynamic Vl-Cell Unit With High Mixing: Apparatus Design And Process Simulation, Jeonghoon Kong Aug 2020

Multiphase Equilibrium In A Novel Batch Dynamic Vl-Cell Unit With High Mixing: Apparatus Design And Process Simulation, Jeonghoon Kong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The availability of vapor pressure data is essential to validate thermodynamic models and enhance the thermodynamic correlations. Despite its importance, there is limited vapor pressure data of the multicomponent mixtures in open literature. This is the case for hydrocarbon/water blends as they are found in the naphtha recovery unit in the oil sand process.

This thesis uses a CREC-VL-Cell, a batch apparatus to measure the vapor pressures of n-octane/water, synthetic naphtha (SN)/water and solids/n-octane/water. The CREC-VL-Cell operates at thermal equilibrium with less than 1.6 % error using a 1080 rpm impeller speed and various optimized ...


Simulation Approaches To X-Ray C-Arm-Based Interventions, Daniel R. Allen Aug 2020

Simulation Approaches To X-Ray C-Arm-Based Interventions, Daniel R. Allen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mobile C-Arm systems have enabled interventional spine procedures, such as facet joint injections, to be performed minimally-invasively under X-ray or fluoroscopy guidance. The downside to these procedures is the radiation exposure the patient and medical staff are subject to, which can vary greatly depending on the procedure as well as the skill and experience of the team. Standard training methods for these procedures involve the use of a physical C-Arm with real X-rays training on either cadavers or via an apprenticeship-based program. Many guidance systems have been proposed in the literature which aim to reduce the amount of radiation exposure ...


The Study Of Bubble Growth Hydrodynamics In The Supersaturated Liquids, Raj Kumar Nayak Maloth Aug 2020

The Study Of Bubble Growth Hydrodynamics In The Supersaturated Liquids, Raj Kumar Nayak Maloth

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bubble formation and dissolution have a wide range of industrial applications, from the production of beverages to foam manufacturing processes. The rate at which the bubble expands, or contracts has a significant effect on these processes. In the current work, the hydrodynamics of an isolated bubble expanding due to mass transfer in a pool of supersaturated gas-liquid solution is investigated. The complete scalar transportation equation (advection-diffusion) is solved numerically and it has been observed that the present model predicted an accurate bubble growth when compared with existing approximated models and experiments. The effect of gas-liquid solution parameters such as inertia ...


A 3d Printed Axon-Mimetic Diffusion Mri Phantom, Tristan K. Kuehn Aug 2020

A 3d Printed Axon-Mimetic Diffusion Mri Phantom, Tristan K. Kuehn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diffusion MRI is used to non-invasively characterize the microstructure of the brain. However, the accuracy of the characterization is difficult to verify because no other non-invasive imaging modality provides the same information. This thesis presents a novel 3D printed axon-mimetic (3AM) diffusion MRI phantom, a synthetic object designed to mimic the brain's microstructure.

The phantoms were characterized using microscopy, synchrotron micro-computed tomography, and diffusion MRI, and found to have sufficiently axon-mimetic properties to be useful as diffusion MRI phantoms. A set of phantoms designed to have anatomically realistic and complex fibre structures was used to test the response of ...


Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy Aug 2020

Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sports related concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries have seen an increase in frequency over the past decade. The creation of highly biofidelic computational head models is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of these mild brain injuries and preventing them. Hence, the purpose of this research is to combine state-of-the-art computational models, brain imaging modalities and traditional head injury assessment protocols to simulate and predict the brains responses during traumatic head impacts. A novel, atlas-based, parcellated axon fiber embedded head model was developed which allows for in-depth analysis of the brain’s structural connectome tracts for injury diagnosis ...


A New Approach For Homomorphic Encryption With Secure Function Evaluation On Genomic Data, Mounika Pratapa Aug 2020

A New Approach For Homomorphic Encryption With Secure Function Evaluation On Genomic Data, Mounika Pratapa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Additively homomorphic encryption is a public-key primitive allowing a sum to be computed on encrypted values. Although limited in functionality, additive schemes have been an essential tool in the private function evaluation toolbox for decades. They are typically faster and more straightforward to implement relative to their fully homomorphic counterparts, and more efficient than garbled circuits in certain applications. This thesis presents a novel method for extending the functionality of additively homomorphic encryption to allow the private evaluation of functions of restricted domain. Provided the encrypted sum falls within the restricted domain, the function can be homomorphically evaluated “for free ...


Evaluation And Bias Correction Of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Products Across Canada, Saber Moazamigoodarzi Aug 2020

Evaluation And Bias Correction Of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Products Across Canada, Saber Moazamigoodarzi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Reliable estimation of precipitation, as the most important variable in hydrological modelling, is crucial for water resources management. Rain gauges that provide precipitation measurements at point scale have inherent limitations and difficulties in remote regions and complex terrains due to accessibility, gauge undercatch, among others. Alternatively, satellite and radar precipitation data can estimate precipitation at high spatial and temporal resolution by utilizing several types of space and ground-borne sensors. However, due to the indirect estimates of precipitation by remotely sensed products, their measurements are subject to systematic biases and are required to be evaluated and bias adjusted before using at ...


Ontology-Driven Semantic Data Integration In Open Environment, Islam M. Ali Aug 2020

Ontology-Driven Semantic Data Integration In Open Environment, Islam M. Ali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Collaborative intelligence in the context of information management can be defined as "A shared intelligence that results from the collaboration between various information systems". In open environments, these collaborating information systems can be heterogeneous, dynamic and loosely-coupled. Information systems in open environment can also possess a certain degree of autonomy. The integration of data residing in various heterogeneous information systems is essential in order to drive the intelligence efficiently and accurately. Because of the heterogeneous, loosely-coupled, and dynamic nature of open environment, the integration between these information systems in the data level is not efficient. Several approaches and models have ...


An Investigation Of The Interleaved Operation Of A Stacked Ac-Dc Single-Stage Flyback Converter, Mengkai Xiong Aug 2020

An Investigation Of The Interleaved Operation Of A Stacked Ac-Dc Single-Stage Flyback Converter, Mengkai Xiong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Low power AC-DC power conversion is typically done with a two-stage converter that consists of an AC-DC front-end boost converter that also performs input power factor correction and an isolated DC-DC back-end converter that is either a flyback or a forward converter. In applications where cost is an overriding factor, single-stage AC-DC converters that use a single power converter to simultaneously perform input power factor correction and AC-DC conversion can be used. In applications where output filtering and hold-up time are important considerations, single-stage AC-DC converters are implemented with a DC bus capacitor.

The main objective of this thesis is ...


Biological Nutrient Removal: Minimizing Carbon And Oxygen Requirements, Masuduz Zaman Aug 2020

Biological Nutrient Removal: Minimizing Carbon And Oxygen Requirements, Masuduz Zaman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With increasing focus on the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment and rapidly emerging paradigm shift towards resource recovery, energy consumption minimization and utilization of readily available organics for biological nutrient removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants is eliciting significant interest. The objective of this PhD work is to investigate non-traditional approach to minimize carbon and energy demand for biological nutrient removal

The feasibility of using thermal alkaline treated municipal wastewater biosolids as an alternative carbon source for biological phosphorus removal was investigated. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with synthetic volatile fatty acids (acetic acid and propionic acid) and ...


Development Of Technologies For High Value Products From Biomass Pyrolysis, Chiara Barbiero Aug 2020

Development Of Technologies For High Value Products From Biomass Pyrolysis, Chiara Barbiero

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex. Steud. is an invasive perennial grass found in North America, which is rapidly spreading throughout Ontario, damaging the native ecosystem and endangering the wildlife. This infestation has caused a decrease in biodiversity and nutrient availability to the agricultural crops through competition. One of the most effective management practices is spading them, leaving a huge number of dead stalks that need to be disposed of. Pyrolysis was selected as an alternative thermochemical method to convert this feedstock to value-added bioproducts, such as bio-oil and biochar, and to produce valuable renewable chemicals from the pyrolysis oil, such ...


Terramechanics And Machine Learning For The Characterization Of Terrain, Bryan W. Southwell Aug 2020

Terramechanics And Machine Learning For The Characterization Of Terrain, Bryan W. Southwell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An instrumented rover wheel can collect vast amounts of data about a planetary surface. Planetary surfaces are changed by complex geological processes which can be better understood with an abundance of surface data and the use of terramechanics. Identifying terrain parameters such as cohesion and angle of friction hold importance for both the rover driver and the planetary scientist. Knowledge of terrain characteristics can warn of unsafe terrain and flag potential interesting scientific sites. The instrumented wheel in this research utilizes a pressure pad to sense load and sinkage, a string potentiometer to measure slip, and records motor current draw ...


A Biomechanical Investigation Into The Effect Of Experimental Design On Wrist Biomechanics And Contact Mechanics, Clare E. Padmore Aug 2020

A Biomechanical Investigation Into The Effect Of Experimental Design On Wrist Biomechanics And Contact Mechanics, Clare E. Padmore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The wrist is one of the most commonly injured joints, and injury can have serious sequelae if pathological healing ensues. Strides have been made to understand normal and pathological wrist biomechanics using experimental approaches, which has contributed to improved patient care. The present work advances our understanding of the influence of experimental techniques and joint motion measurement techniques on in-vitro wrist biomechanical cadaveric studies, and applies the knowledge learned to a common clinical entity of scapholunate insufficiency.

First, the relative contributions of the carpal rows to wrist motion were assessed, in addition to the identification of limitations of current biomechanical ...


Experimental And Numerical Study On Three-Edge Bearing Test For Reinforced Concrete Pipe, Abdul-Aziz Younis Jul 2020

Experimental And Numerical Study On Three-Edge Bearing Test For Reinforced Concrete Pipe, Abdul-Aziz Younis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) is widely used in storm and wastewater management owing to its resiliency and reliability. The century old Three-Edge Bearing Test (TEBT) is currently used to classify RCP strength. The test relies on the skill and experience of the operator for capturing the occurrence of a 0.3-mm-wide crack using a leaf-gauge, which induces subjectivity and error. Studies have also indicated the TEBT crack bears little structural significance.

This thesis aims at improving the TEBT by replacing the arbitrary crack-width with rational capacity-driven criteria. A wide range of full-scale RCP were instrumented and subjected to the modified ...


Experimental And Numerical Study Of Precast Concrete Pipe With Single Elliptical Steel Cage Reinforcement, Abdullah Samir Ramadan Jul 2020

Experimental And Numerical Study Of Precast Concrete Pipe With Single Elliptical Steel Cage Reinforcement, Abdullah Samir Ramadan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) with single elliptical (SE) reinforcement offers cost savings and is permitted by Canadian and American standards. Yet, its use has not yet gained momentum primarily due to limited knowledge of its structural performance. This study explores the structural behaviour of full-scale 1050 mm and 1200 mm diameter RCP reinforced with SE cold drawn steel wire cage under the Three-Edge Bearing Test. Results indicate that RCP with SE reinforcement designed per current standards did not meet the specified 0.3-mm crack and ultimate load capacity. Hence, pertinent provisions in CSA A257.2 and ASTM C76 for RCP ...


Effects Of Corner Radii On Wind Tunnel Testing Of Low-Rise Buildings, Kytin Kwan Jul 2020

Effects Of Corner Radii On Wind Tunnel Testing Of Low-Rise Buildings, Kytin Kwan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Wind effects on buildings are commonly studied by testing 3D printed building models in a wind tunnel. A challenge with 3D printing is that the edges of these models may not be perfectly sharp, but rounded with a radius of curvature, R. It is well known that when edges are significantly rounded, the aerodynamics of the building can be altered (Robertson, 1991; Mahmood 2011), leading to inaccurate predictions of full-scale surface pressures and wind loads. However, there is presently no guidance on model edge radii prescribed in wind tunnel testing standards such as ASCE 49-12. The objective of the present ...


Analytic Delay Model Of Rlc Interconnects Using Numerical Inversion Of The Laplace Transform, Yu Jiang Jul 2020

Analytic Delay Model Of Rlc Interconnects Using Numerical Inversion Of The Laplace Transform, Yu Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Signal integrity analysis for on-chip interconnect becomes increasingly important in high-speed designs. SPICE, a conventional circuit simulator, can provide accurate prediction for interconnects, however, using SPICE is extremely computationally expensive. On the other hand, explicit moment matching technique can produce unstable poles for highly accurate approximations and implicit moment matching technique can obtain more accurate approximations at the expense of computational complexity. This thesis presents an analytic model to efficiently estimate the signal delays of RLC on-chip interconnects. It uses the numerical inversion of Laplace transform (NILT) to obtain time function, suitable for transient analysis. Since the integration formula of ...


Fluidization Characteristics Of Group C+ Particles: Fine Powder With Nanoparticle Modulation, Yandaizi Zhou Jul 2020

Fluidization Characteristics Of Group C+ Particles: Fine Powder With Nanoparticle Modulation, Yandaizi Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Geldart Group C particles become increasingly attractive in industry because of their small particle sizes and large specific surface areas. The main challenge in the flow and fluidization of Geldart Group C particles is their cohesive nature due to strong interparticle forces. The “nanoparticle modulation” technique was adopted to reduce the interparticle forces of Group C particles and thus significantly improved their flow and fluidization quality. Group C+ particles, a new type of fine particles with drastically reduced or insignificant interparticle forces, were created using the nano-modulation technique.

Fundamental studies provided a comprehensive understanding of the fluidization quality of Group ...


A Computational Investigation Into Acromial Fractures After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty, Jason Lockhart Jul 2020

A Computational Investigation Into Acromial Fractures After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty, Jason Lockhart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Acromial fractures are a debilitating complication following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). The purpose of this work is to (1) improve the current state of FE bone stress estimates after RTSA and to investigate the effects of (2) plane of elevation, (3) hand loads, and (4) baseplate screw position on scapular spine stress. The FE method used was validated against an in-vitro strain gauge based experiment and found to be accurate in the prediction of stress increases and decreases after RTSA. The coronal plane of elevation was found to increase scapular spine stress compared to more central planes of elevation ...


Optimization Of Indentation For The Material Characterization Of Soft Pva-Cryogels, Md. Mansur Ul Mulk Jul 2020

Optimization Of Indentation For The Material Characterization Of Soft Pva-Cryogels, Md. Mansur Ul Mulk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over the past few years a variety of clinical procedures aiming at tissue repair and other relevant therapies have been under active investigation [12,32]. Success of procedures aimed at soft tissue repair depend on the combined response of biochemical and biomechanical properties of the organs neighbouring the tissue [53]. Using human or animal cadaveric tissue for this purpose is very challenging due to issues pertaining to biodegradability and infection or biohazard risk factors [135,205].As such, tissue mimicking materials (e.g. Polyvinyl Alcohol Cryo-gel (PVA-C)) have been investigated to satisfy the need for the said clinical applications. Advantages ...


Improved Fermentation Design And Screening Devices For Biobutanol Production, Garret Christopher Munch Jul 2020

Improved Fermentation Design And Screening Devices For Biobutanol Production, Garret Christopher Munch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A worldwide increase in demand for renewable fuels has revived interest in fermentatively produced butanol. However, butanol fermentation suffers from low product yields and productivity. The work presented in this thesis addresses part of these research and development needs at three levels: innovative fermentation process design; genetic manipulation for strain enhancement; and the development of a new tool for anaerobic process characterization and optimization.

Product yield could be increased through traditional fermentation engineering. Co-fermentation of butyric acid with glycerol increased the butanol yield from 0.45 mol/mol (mols C in butanol / mol C in substrates) to 0.51 mol ...


Experimental Investigation Of Flow And Thermal Behavior In Channels With Pcm-Filled Thermal Energy Storage Columns For Potential Application In Photobioreactors, Kira Toxopeus Jul 2020

Experimental Investigation Of Flow And Thermal Behavior In Channels With Pcm-Filled Thermal Energy Storage Columns For Potential Application In Photobioreactors, Kira Toxopeus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Microalgae has been identified as a potential source for the production of biofuels and other bio-products. The growth of microalgae is sensitive to the temperature variations inside the photobioreactor. The present research investigated an innovative approach to thermally regulate photobioreactors by introducing passive thermal energy storage using phase change material (PCM). The research was specifically focused on a novel design to integrate thermal storage in the reactor channel in the form of offset columns containing PCM. Two column shapes were considered: circular and square. The first part of the study was focused on characterizing the influence of offset column shapes ...


Bubble Dynamics In A Sand Fluidized Bed In The Presence Of Biomass Pellets, Nicolas Torres Brauer Jun 2020

Bubble Dynamics In A Sand Fluidized Bed In The Presence Of Biomass Pellets, Nicolas Torres Brauer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Given the worldwide concerns regarding fossil fuel availability, global warming, water, and air pollution and economy needs, there is an urgent requirement to develop and implement alternative energies. Biomass gasification can consume vegetal waste to produce syngas, which is a mix of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. When biomass gasification is carried out in a fluidized bed, the process is highly efficient.

The experimental study of the present Ph.D. dissertation took place in a Plexiglas 0.44 m diameter unit, equipped with a CREC Optiprobe system and a video camera. The unit was filled with 200-900 µm sand ...


Internal Pressure Modelling For Low-Rise Buildings In Tornadic Winds, Aaron L. Jaffe Jun 2020

Internal Pressure Modelling For Low-Rise Buildings In Tornadic Winds, Aaron L. Jaffe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Internal pressures play a large role in the failure of wood-frame houses as the loss of the entire roof section becomes much more likely once the envelope of the building has been breached. Many studies have used internal pressure modelling to simulate internal pressures in structures from atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) winds, however, relatively little work has been done on this subject using tornadic winds. The objective of this study is to explore internal pressure modelling issues for tornadoes. The first part of the study uses a computational internal pressure model to simulate tornadic internal pressures of a low-rise structure ...


Detecting Command-Driven Brain Activity In Patients With Disorders Of Consciousness Using Tr-Fnirs, Androu Abdalmalak Jun 2020

Detecting Command-Driven Brain Activity In Patients With Disorders Of Consciousness Using Tr-Fnirs, Androu Abdalmalak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Vegetative state (VS) is a disorder of consciousness often referred to as “wakefulness without awareness”. Patients in this condition experience normal sleep-wake cycles, but lack all awareness of themselves and their surroundings. Clinically, assessing consciousness relies on behavioural tests to determine a patient’s ability to follow commands. This subjective approach often leads to a high rate of misdiagnosis (~40%) where patients who retain residual awareness are misdiagnosed as being in a VS. Recently, functional neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has allowed researchers to use command-driven brain activity to infer consciousness. Although promising, the cost and ...


Identification Of Aerodynamic Damping For Flexible Structures Using Wind-Induced Response, Shea Laventure Jun 2020

Identification Of Aerodynamic Damping For Flexible Structures Using Wind-Induced Response, Shea Laventure

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Damping estimation is a critical task to perform during the design of slender structures, or for existing structures. This is to ensure the response of the structure is within allowable limits and to determine if additional damping is necessary from auxiliary devices. If a slender structure is experiencing wind loading, a phenomenon known as aerodynamic damping arises, which has the potential to reduce the damping of the structure. The most efficient method to estimate aerodynamic damping is to use a system identification technique, which requires only the input forces and output response of the structure. This thesis describes how to ...


Vehicle Networks: Statistical And Game Theoretic Approaches To Their Evaluation And Design, Gleb Dubosarskii Jun 2020

Vehicle Networks: Statistical And Game Theoretic Approaches To Their Evaluation And Design, Gleb Dubosarskii

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Vehicle ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become a popular topic in modern research. The main advantages of these networks include: improved security, traffic optimization, and infotainment. However, deploying such networks in practice requires extensive infrastructure. To estimate the network load, one needs to have information about the network, such as the number of clusters, cluster size, etc. Since VANETs are formed by vehicles that rapidly change their location, the network topology is constantly changing, making its analysis by deterministic methods impossible. Therefore, in this dissertation, we use probability theory methods to obtain probability distributions of such fundamental network properties, such ...


3d Culture Strategies For The Dynamic Expansion And Preconditioning Of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells On Decellularized Adipose Tissue Bioscaffolds, Tim Tian Han May 2020

3d Culture Strategies For The Dynamic Expansion And Preconditioning Of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells On Decellularized Adipose Tissue Bioscaffolds, Tim Tian Han

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adipose tissue engineering holds promise for the development of therapeutic strategies for subcutaneous adipose tissue regeneration to treat defects resulting from congenital birth defects, invasive surgical procedures and traumatic injuries. Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) scaffolds represent a potential off-the-shelf tissue substitute for volume augmentation. Seeding the DAT with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has been shown to enhance adipose tissue regeneration in immunocompetent animals in vivo. Although promising, this strategy is limited by low cell attachment on the DAT. As such, this thesis focused on the development of bioreactor strategies to enhance the capacity of human ASCs to stimulate angiogenesis and ...


Video Processing For The Evaluation Of Vascular Dynamics In Neurovascular Interventions, Reid Vassallo May 2020

Video Processing For The Evaluation Of Vascular Dynamics In Neurovascular Interventions, Reid Vassallo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal collection of blood vessels which causes blood to travel from arteries to veins through an abnormal twisted network of vessels. This network has an elevated risk of rupture, which can lead to permanent disability and death if the rupture occurs in the brain. The gold standard treatment for AVM is surgical resection, and it is crucial to know which vessels are bringing blood towards and away from the AVM. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to know this by looking at the surgical scene. The primary limitations of current methods to address this are ...


Design Wind Loads For Air-Permeable Multilayer Cladding Systems, Connell S. Miller Apr 2020

Design Wind Loads For Air-Permeable Multilayer Cladding Systems, Connell S. Miller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Monetary losses from severe wind storms continue to rise despite improvements to building codes. This is because air-permeable multilayer cladding systems such as vinyl siding and roof pavers are a major component of the monetary losses in severe wind storms, but there are not legal requirements for these products. Some air-permeable multilayer products have manufacturing standards that deal with design loads by eliminating the cavity flow and applying a pressure equalization factor to account for the reduction in net load caused by this cavity flow. The objective of this thesis was to develop design guidelines for wind loads on air-permeable ...