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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Graphene Channels Interfaced With Distributed Quantum Dots, Xin Miao Aug 2019

Graphene Channels Interfaced With Distributed Quantum Dots, Xin Miao

Dissertations

Previous research has elucidated the remarkable electrical and optical characteristics of graphene and pointed to the various applications of graphene-based devices. One of such applications is electro-optical graphene-based elements. In this work, the optoelectronic properties of field-effect transistors are explored. These are composed of surface graphene guides, which are interfaced with an array of individual semiconductor quantum dots. The graphene guide also serves as a channel for the field-effect transistor (FET) while the dots provide for fluorescence markers. They may be placed either within the capacitor formed between the graphene and the gate electrode, or on top of the graphene ...


Modulation Of Corticospinal Excitability Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation Combined With Movement, Ahmad O. Alokaily Aug 2019

Modulation Of Corticospinal Excitability Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation Combined With Movement, Ahmad O. Alokaily

Dissertations

An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to undergo long-lasting morphological or functional changes in response to experiences or trauma. Advances in noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have led to increased interest in understanding neural mechanisms of neuroplasticity at the network level. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is one of the most commonly used applications for noninvasive brain stimulation because of its clinical potential as an adjuvant rehabilitative intervention. However, the optimal method for incorporating PAS into rehabilitative activities remains unknown. This dissertation explores different approaches to combining PAS with movement and investigates the enhancement of the specificity of conventional ...


Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander Aug 2019

Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander

Dissertations

A novel dissolving microneedle array system is developed to investigate permeation of a sumatriptan succinate formulations through the skin aided by iontophoresis. Three formulations consisting of hydrophilic, positively charged drug molecules encapsulated in a water-soluble biologically suitable polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), have been accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The microneedle systems are fabricated with 600 pyramid-shaped needles, each 500 µm tall, on a 0.785-cm2 circular array. In vitro transdermal studies with minipig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells show > 68% permeation of sumatriptan over a 24-hour period. A combination of microneedle and electrical current ...


Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez Aug 2019

Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez

Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was first described in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kranner in a case study published in The Nervous Child. It is a neurodevelopment disorder, with a range of clinical symptoms. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), used by clinicians to diagnose mental disorders, a child needs to have persistent social deficits, language impairments, and repetitive behaviors, that cannot be explained by neurological damage or intellectual disability. It is known that children diagnosed with ASD are often are developmentally delayed therefore alterations in the typical developmental trajectory should be a major factor in ...


Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh Aug 2019

Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh

Dissertations

Boron has received much attention as a potential additive to explosives and propellants due to its high theoretical gravimetric and volumetric heating values. The challenge, however, is that boron particles tend to agglomerate, have lengthy ignition delays and very low combustion rates. Prior research indicates that boron’s long ignition delays are due to its inhibiting naturally occurring oxide layer, impeding the diffusion of reactants for oxidation. For combustion, current studies report that boron particles have two consecutive stages, but the actual reaction mechanism is poorly understood. Despite many years of relevant research, quantitative combustion data on micron-sized boron particles ...


Optimal Sampling Paths For Autonomous Vehicles In Uncertain Ocean Flows, Andrew J. De Stefan Aug 2019

Optimal Sampling Paths For Autonomous Vehicles In Uncertain Ocean Flows, Andrew J. De Stefan

Dissertations

Despite an extensive history of oceanic observation, researchers have only begun to build a complete picture of oceanic currents. Sparsity of instrumentation has created the need to maximize the information extracted from every source of data in building this picture. Within the last few decades, autonomous vehicles, or AVs, have been employed as tools to aid in this research initiative. Unmanned and self-propelled, AVs are capable of spending weeks, if not months, exploring and monitoring the oceans. However, the quality of data acquired by these vehicles is highly dependent on the paths along which they collect their observational data. The ...


Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu Aug 2019

Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu

Dissertations

Recently, some researchers have attempted to find a relationship between the evolution of rare events and temporal-spatial patterns of social media activities. Their studies verify that the relationship exists in both time and spatial domains. However, few of those studies can accurately deduce a time point when social media activities are most highly affected by a rare event because producing an accurate temporal pattern of social media during the evolution of a rare event is very difficult. This work expands the current studies along three directions. Firstly, we focus on the intensity of information volume and propose an innovative clustering ...


Effects Of Electro-Osmotic Consolidation Of Clays And Its Improvement Using Ion Exchange Membranes, Lucas Martin Aug 2019

Effects Of Electro-Osmotic Consolidation Of Clays And Its Improvement Using Ion Exchange Membranes, Lucas Martin

Dissertations

Electro-osmosis is an established method of expediting consolidation of soft, saturated clayey soils compared to commonly used methods, such as preloading with wick drains. In electro-osmotic consolidation a direct current (DC) is applied via inserted electrodes. This causes hydrated ions in the interstitial fluid to migrate to oppositely charged electrodes. Because the clay particles have a negative surface charge, the majority of ions in the interstitial fluid are positively charged. Therefore, the net flow will be towards the negatively charged electrode (cathode), where the water can be removed and thus consolidation is achieved. Certain problems, such as pH changes in ...


Interventions Of Waterjet Technology In Skin Incisions, Nadi Atalla May 2019

Interventions Of Waterjet Technology In Skin Incisions, Nadi Atalla

Dissertations

This research explores the use of waterjet (WJ) technology in performing skin incisions. The study defines the analytical relationships between the skin properties and the operating parameters of the WJ which include the skin thickness, its elastic modulus, the WJ pressure, the nozzle’s orifice diameter, its stand-off distance and the traverse speed of the WJ as well as the duration of applying the WJ pressure. An analytical model is developed to measure the depth incision of the skin, the water pressure and the water velocity, while using a WJ. Systemization and optimization models that determine the optimal operating parameters ...


Supercapacitors With Gate Electrodes, Tazima Selim Chowdhury May 2019

Supercapacitors With Gate Electrodes, Tazima Selim Chowdhury

Dissertations

A new approach to improve the capacitance of supercapacitors (SC) is proposed in this study. A typical SC is composed of an anode and a cathode; a separator in between them assures an unintentional discharge of the capacitor. The study focuses on a family of structured separators, either electronically active or passive which are called gates. An active structured separator layer has been fabricated and analyzed. The structured separator has characteristics of electrical diode and is fabricated out of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT). Improvement of the overall capacitance of SC, equipped with either active or passive structured separators demonstrated a ...


Minimizing Vehicular Traffic Via Optimized Land Use Development For A Sustainable And Equitable Future, Babu Veeregowda May 2019

Minimizing Vehicular Traffic Via Optimized Land Use Development For A Sustainable And Equitable Future, Babu Veeregowda

Dissertations

Mixed-use developments and transit-oriented developments are becoming very common in urban areas in an effort to reduce sprawl. Numerous studies have shown that such programs would not be successful unless the mix of land uses and sizes is well-balanced and integrated with the surrounding neighborhood. Developers often ignore this aspect in favor of immediate financial gain and do not realize that there are sustainable financial benefits in land use optimization. In addition, professionals often work with limited logistics, resources, and technical knowledge and therefore struggle in setting goals and suggesting land uses that have less auto dependency based on travel ...


Probabilistic Spiking Neural Networks : Supervised, Unsupervised And Adversarial Trainings, Alireza Bagheri May 2019

Probabilistic Spiking Neural Networks : Supervised, Unsupervised And Adversarial Trainings, Alireza Bagheri

Dissertations

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), or third-generation neural networks, are networks of computation units, called neurons, in which each neuron with internal analogue dynamics receives as input and produces as output spiking, that is, binary sparse, signals. In contrast, second-generation neural networks, termed as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), rely on simple static non-linear neurons that are known to be energy-intensive, hindering their implementations on energy-limited processors such as mobile devices. The sparse event-based characteristics of SNNs for information transmission and encoding have made them more feasible for highly energy-efficient neuromorphic computing architectures. The most existing training algorithms for SNNs are based ...


Blind Separation For Intermittent Sources Via Sparse Dictionary Learning, Annan Dong May 2019

Blind Separation For Intermittent Sources Via Sparse Dictionary Learning, Annan Dong

Dissertations

Radio frequency sources are observed at a fusion center via sensor measurements made over slow flat-fading channels. The number of sources may be larger than the number of sensors, but their activity is sparse and intermittent with bursty transmission patterns. To account for this, sources are modeled as hidden Markov models with known or unknown parameters. The problem of blind source estimation in the absence of channel state information is tackled via a novel algorithm, consisting of a dictionary learning (DL) stage and a per-source stochastic filtering (PSF) stage. The two stages work in tandem, with the latter operating on ...


Workload Allocation In Mobile Edge Computing Empowered Internet Of Things, Qiang Fan May 2019

Workload Allocation In Mobile Edge Computing Empowered Internet Of Things, Qiang Fan

Dissertations

In the past few years, a tremendous number of smart devices and objects, such as smart phones, wearable devices, industrial and utility components, are equipped with sensors to sense the real-time physical information from the environment. Hence, Internet of Things (IoT) is introduced, where various smart devices are connected with each other via the internet and empowered with data analytics. Owing to the high volume and fast velocity of data streams generated by IoT devices, the cloud that can provision flexible and efficient computing resources is employed as a smart "brain" to process and store the big data generated from ...


Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu May 2019

Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu

Dissertations

Membrane filtration has been extensively used in water and wastewater treatment, desalination, dairy making, and biomass/water separation. However, membrane fouling, aging and insufficient removal efficiency for dissolved organic matters remain major challenges for wider industrial applications. In order to tackle these challenges, this doctoral dissertation investigates mechanisms of membrane fouling and development of antifouling membrane filtration technologies. Specifically, four major research areas are explored: (i) nanoscale physicochemical characterization of the chemically modified polymeric membranes; (ii) quantitative modelling between membrane properties and membrane fouling and defouling kinetics; (iii) development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for membranes that undergo thermal and chemical ...


Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua May 2019

Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua

Dissertations

Micropollution in natural waters such as rivers and groundwater aquifers is a widespread problem that prevents these potentially potable sources from being used as drinking water. In the United States, approximately two-thirds of the over 1,200 most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation are contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), a potentially carcinogenic compound. Other emerging and environmentally persistent organic micropollutants include polyromantic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Membrane filtration is one of the most efficient separation processes widely used for water treatment and pollutant removal. However, traditional ...


A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran May 2019

A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran

Dissertations

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in structural and functional neurological changes at both the brain and the level of the spinal cord. Anatomical studies indicate decreased grey matter volume in sensorimotor and non-sensorimotor regions of the cortex following SCI; whereas, neurophysiological findings mostly report altered functional activity in the sensorimotor nodes of the cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether tissue atrophy observed in non-motor related areas has any concomitant functional consequences. Furthermore, the neural underpinnings of adaptive neuroplasticity after SCI is not well-defined in the current literature. Hence, this dissertation is a pioneer study investigating ...


High-Performance Learning Systems Using Low-Precision Nanoscale Devices, Nandakumar Sasidharan Rajalekshmi May 2019

High-Performance Learning Systems Using Low-Precision Nanoscale Devices, Nandakumar Sasidharan Rajalekshmi

Dissertations

Brain-inspired computation promises a paradigm shift in information processing, both in terms of its parallel processing architecture and the ability to learn to tackle problems deemed unsolvable by traditional algorithmic approaches. The computational capability of the human brain is believed to stem from an interconnected network of 100 billion compute nodes (neurons) that interact with each other through approximately 1015 adjustable memory junctions (synapses). The conductance of synapses is modifiable allowing the network to learn and perform various cognitive functions. Artificial neural networks inspired by this architecture have demonstrated even super-human performance in many complex tasks.

Computational systems based ...


Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki May 2019

Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional imaging modality that is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and interventional cardiology. It is highly promising for in situ characterization of tumor tissues. OCT has high spatial resolution and high imaging speed to assist clinical decision making in real-time.

OCT can be used in both structural imaging and mechanical characterization. Malignant tumor tissue alters morphology. Additionally, structural OCT imaging has limited tissue differentiation capability because of the complex and noisy nature of the OCT signal. Moreover, the contrast of structural OCT signal derived from tissue’s light scattering properties has little chemical specificity ...


Chemical And Physical Modification Of Thiol-Ene And Epoxy-Amine Networks For Advanced Control Of Gas Transport And Flame Retardant Behavior, Vivek Vasagar Apr 2019

Chemical And Physical Modification Of Thiol-Ene And Epoxy-Amine Networks For Advanced Control Of Gas Transport And Flame Retardant Behavior, Vivek Vasagar

Dissertations

Crosslinked polymers are widely used due to its several advantages not limited to high mechanical strength combined with the easy processability. Despite of its popular usage, the fundamental understanding of polymer structure affecting the desired properties is still lacking. This PhD thesis is in two parts, the first part is devoted to the design and developing a basic understanding of structure and chemical composition dependencies of gas transport, whereas in the second part a fundamental relationship between structure to the fire-retardant properties is established.

Membrane based gas separation technique has attracted interest of selective removal of carbon dioxide gas from ...


“Polysoaps” Via Raft Copolymerization To Form Well-Defined Micelles For Water Remediation And Targeted Drug Delivery Applications, Phillip Pickett Apr 2019

“Polysoaps” Via Raft Copolymerization To Form Well-Defined Micelles For Water Remediation And Targeted Drug Delivery Applications, Phillip Pickett

Dissertations

Amphiphilic copolymers have become increasingly important for environmental and biological applications due to their behavioral characteristics in aqueous solution. For example, structurally-tailored statistical amphiphilic copolymers or “polysoaps” can self-assemble into micelles or other architectures in water at various concentrations. Polysoaps may be differentiated from small molecule surfactant micelles in their capability to self-assemble into unimolecular associates (unimolecular micelles) with no dependence on concentration. Such micelles offer enormous potential for dispersion of hydrophobic species in water at high dilution. Importantly, each polymer chain forms its own micelle and upon dilution, these micelles remain intact and capable of dispersing hydrocarbon material in ...


Dual-Battery Empowered Green Cellular Networks, Xilong Liu Jan 2019

Dual-Battery Empowered Green Cellular Networks, Xilong Liu

Dissertations

With awareness of the potential harmful effects to the environment and climate change, on-grid brown energy consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) has drawn much attention. Cellular base stations (BSs) are among the major energy guzzlers in ICT, and their contributions to the global carbon emissions increase sustainedly. It is essential to leverage green energy to power BSs to reduce their on-grid brown energy consumption. However, in order to furthest save on-grid brown energy and decrease the on-grid brown energy electricity expenses, most existing green energy related works only pursue to maximize the green energy utilization while compromising the ...


The Cooperative Effects Of Channel Length-Bias, Width Asymmetry, Gradient Steepness, And Contact-Guidance On Fibroblasts’ Directional Decision Making, Quang Long Pham Dec 2018

The Cooperative Effects Of Channel Length-Bias, Width Asymmetry, Gradient Steepness, And Contact-Guidance On Fibroblasts’ Directional Decision Making, Quang Long Pham

Dissertations

Cell migration in complex micro-environments, that are similar to tissue pores, is important for predicting locations of tissue nucleation and optimizing scaffold architectures. Firstly, how fibroblast cells - relevant to tissue engineering, affect eac


Overcoming Conventional Modeling Limitations Using Image- Driven Lattice-Boltzmann Method Simulations For Biophysical Applications, Olufemi E. Kadri Dec 2018

Overcoming Conventional Modeling Limitations Using Image- Driven Lattice-Boltzmann Method Simulations For Biophysical Applications, Olufemi E. Kadri

Dissertations

The challenges involved in modeling biological systems are significant and push the boundaries of conventional modeling. This is because biological systems are distinctly complex, and their emergent properties are results of the interplay of numerous c


Cardiac Regenerative Medicine: Insights From Healthy And Diseased Engineered Tissues, Pamela Grace Hitscherich Dec 2018

Cardiac Regenerative Medicine: Insights From Healthy And Diseased Engineered Tissues, Pamela Grace Hitscherich

Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Current tissue engineering approaches have fallen short of promoting fully functional cardiovascular cells and the post-myocardial infarction microenvironment is still not well understood. These gaps in knowledge are addressed in this dissertation through the development of in vitro engineered cardiac tissues using electroactive materials to enhance the differentiation of pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes and through the development of in vitro myocardial inflammation models dedicated to understanding cardiomyocytes and macrophages interactions.

Specifically, piezoelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) supports the attachment and survival of mouse embryonic stem cell derived ...


Impairments In Ground Moving Target Indicator (Gmti) Radar, Phuoc Doan Huu Vu Dec 2018

Impairments In Ground Moving Target Indicator (Gmti) Radar, Phuoc Doan Huu Vu

Dissertations

Radars on multiple distributed airborne or ground based moving platforms are of increasing interest, since they can be deployed in close proximity to the event under investigation and thus offer remarkable sensing opportunities. Ground moving target in


Characterization Of Self-Heating Effects And Assessment Of Its Impact On Reliability In Finfet Technology, Peter Christopher Paliwoda Dec 2018

Characterization Of Self-Heating Effects And Assessment Of Its Impact On Reliability In Finfet Technology, Peter Christopher Paliwoda

Dissertations

The systematically growing power (heat) dissipation in CMOS transistors with each successive technology node is reaching levels which could impact its reliable operation. The emergence of technologies such as bulk/SOI FinFETs has dramatically confined


Optimizing Resource Allocation In Eh-Enabled Internet Of Things, Ali Shahini Dec 2018

Optimizing Resource Allocation In Eh-Enabled Internet Of Things, Ali Shahini

Dissertations

Internet of Things (IoT) aims to bridge everyday physical objects via the Internet. Traditional energy-constrained wireless devices are powered by fixed energy sources like batteries, but they may require frequent battery replacements or recharging. Wi


Wireless Coverage Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Hazim Shakhatreh Dec 2018

Wireless Coverage Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Hazim Shakhatreh

Dissertations

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is growing rapidly across many civilian application domains including real-time monitoring, search and rescue, and wireless coverage. UAVs can be used to provide wireless coverage during emergency cases where


Load Balancing And Scalable Clos-Network Packet Switches, Oladele Theophilus Sule Dec 2018

Load Balancing And Scalable Clos-Network Packet Switches, Oladele Theophilus Sule

Dissertations

In this dissertation three load-balancing Clos-network packet switches that attain 100% throughput and forward cells in sequence are introduced. The configuration schemes and the in-sequence forwarding mechanisms devised for these switches are also int