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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie Jan 2020

Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie

Theses and Dissertations

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition that causes diffuse alveolar damage and a loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This leads to pulmonary edema and lung function deterioration. Our lab has created decellularized porcine lung, electrosprayed ECM nanoparticles that have been previously shown to have pro-regenerative capabilities in vitro.

In this study, the ECM nanoparticle effects on young murine lungs were tested in vivo. An ECM nanoparticle suspension, previously used for the in vitro studies, was aerosolized intratracheally into the lungs using a microsprayer. 24 hours later, the lung mechanics, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and histology were ...


The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine Jan 2020

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Assessment Of Access Methods For Mobile Maps For Individuals Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired, David Parker Jan 2019

Assessment Of Access Methods For Mobile Maps For Individuals Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired, David Parker

Theses and Dissertations

When people go to a mall, museums, or other such locations they tend to rely on maps to find their way around. However, for people who are blind or visually impaired (BVI) maps are not easily accessible and they depend on other means, such as a guide, to get around. Research has only just begun to investigate providing maps for people who are BVI on touch screen devices. Many different types of feedback have been used: audio (sound), tactile (touch), audio-tactile, and multitouch. Some research has been conducted on the benefit of using multiple fingers (multitouch) and has found conflicting ...


Design And Testing Of An Agonist-Antagonist Position-Impedance Controlled Myoelectric Prosthesis, Christopher Aymonin Jan 2019

Design And Testing Of An Agonist-Antagonist Position-Impedance Controlled Myoelectric Prosthesis, Christopher Aymonin

Theses and Dissertations

Intuitive prosthetic control is limited by the inability to easily convey intention and perceive physical requirements of the task. Rather than providing haptic feedback and allowing users to consciously control every component of manipulation, relegating some aspects of control to the device may simplify operation. This study focuses on the development and testing of a control scheme able to identify object stiffness and regulate impedance. The system includes an algorithm to detect the apparent stiffness of an object, a proportional nonlinear EMG control algorithm for interpreting a user’s desired grasp aperture, and an antagonistically acting impedance controller. Performance of ...


The Role Of Kras In Mechanosensing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Krista M. Powell Jan 2019

The Role Of Kras In Mechanosensing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Krista M. Powell

Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer related death worldwide, with more than 1.6 million fatalities each year. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancers, with KRAS being one of the most prevalent oncogenic driver mutations. Therapeutic approaches for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have been extensively explored due to the US National Cancer Institute RAS Initiative, but methods of directly targeting KRAS or downstream effectors, such as MEK, still have poor results. Previous reports have shown that KRAS-mutated NSCLC activate distinct receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) depending on the epithelial or mesenchymal state. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition ...


Cell Type And Substrate Dependence Of Fibronectin Properties And Mechanotransduction, Navpreet S. Saini Jan 2019

Cell Type And Substrate Dependence Of Fibronectin Properties And Mechanotransduction, Navpreet S. Saini

Theses and Dissertations

Fibronectin is an important protein that is able to bind to other fibronectin molecules and to cell surface receptors. In doing so, the interactions fibronectin can perform is important for the processes of cell migration and tissue formation. Understanding the properties of fibronectin and fibril assembly is useful for areas such as wound healing, where fibronectin molecules are assembled to protect the tissue and to perform other tasks. Because of these reasons, it is important to understand how fibronectin is assembled and how its properties affect the fibril assembly, which in return affects the way the cell matrix operates. Previously ...


Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz Jan 2019

Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz

Theses and Dissertations

In cases of compromised bone remodeling like osteoporosis, insufficient osseointegration occurs and results in implant failure. Implant retention relies on proper secondary fixation, which is developed during bone remodeling. This process is disrupted in metastatic bone diseases like osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized low bone mass and bone strength resulting from either accelerated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or impaired osteoblast-mediated bone formation. These two processes are not independent phenomena. In fact, osteoporosis can be viewed as a breakdown of the cellular communication connecting bone resorption to bone formation. Because bone remodeling occurs at temporally generated specific anatomical sites and at different times ...


The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link Jan 2019

The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link

Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a complex process coordinating cell migration, proliferation, and lumen formation. Changes to the microenvironment regulate angiogenesis through mechanotransduction and cytokine signals. In pulmonary hypertension, something in the process becomes abnormal, resulting in changes to the microenvironment and the formation of a glomerulus of dysfunctional capillaries, called a plexiform lesion. Endothelial cells, expressing CD117 (CD117+ EC clones) increase in the plexiform lesions of pulmonary hypertension, independent of pro-angiogenic VEGF signaling. We hypothesize that the mechanical environment and the macromolecular composition of the extracellular matrix, both, contribute to the aberrant angiogenesis. When we changed the mechanical environment, we changed the ...


A Computational Assessment Of Lisfranc Injuries And Their Surgical Repairs, Michael Perez Jan 2019

A Computational Assessment Of Lisfranc Injuries And Their Surgical Repairs, Michael Perez

Theses and Dissertations

While Lisfranc injuries in the mid foot are less common than other ankle and mid foot injuries, they pose challenges in both properly identifying them and treating them. When Lisfranc injuries are ligamentous and do not include obvious fractures, they are very challenging for clinicians to identify unless weight bearing radiographs are used. The result is that 20%-40% of Lisfranc injuries are missed in the initial evaluation. Even when injuries are correctly identified the outcomes of surgical procedures remain poor. Existing literature has compared the different surgical procedures but has not had a standard approach or procedures across studies ...


Reducing Uncertainty In Head And Neck Radiotherapy With Plastic Robotics, Mark R. Ostyn Jan 2018

Reducing Uncertainty In Head And Neck Radiotherapy With Plastic Robotics, Mark R. Ostyn

Theses and Dissertations

One of the greatest challenges in achieving accurate positioning in head and neck radiotherapy is that the anatomy at and above the cervical spine does not act as a single, mechanically rigid body. Current immobilization techniques contain residual uncertainties that are especially present in the lower neck that cannot be reduced by setting up to any single landmark. The work presented describes the development of a radiotherapy friendly mostly-plastic 6D robotic platform for positioning independent landmarks, (i.e., allowing remote, independent positioning of the skull relative to landmarks in the thorax), including analysis of kinematics, stress, radiographic compatibility, trajectory planning ...


Decellularized Matrices Effect On The Adaptive Immune Response, Kegan Sowers Jan 2018

Decellularized Matrices Effect On The Adaptive Immune Response, Kegan Sowers

Theses and Dissertations

Decellularized extracellular matrices have been a growing area of interest in the biomedical engineering fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.As these materials move toward clinical applications, the immune response to these materials will be a driving force toward their success in clinical approaches. Fully digested decellularized matrix constructs derived from porcine liver, muscle and lung were created to test the adaptive immune response. Hydrogel characterization ensured that the materials had relatively similar stiffness levels to reduce variability, and in vitro studies were conducted. Each individual construct as well as a gelatin control were plated with a co-culture of ...


Development Of Novel Models To Study Deep Brain Effects Of Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Farheen Syeda Jan 2018

Development Of Novel Models To Study Deep Brain Effects Of Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Farheen Syeda

Theses and Dissertations

Neurological disorders require varying types and degrees of treatments depending on the symptoms and underlying causes of the disease. Patients suffering from medication-refractory symptoms often undergo further treatment in the form of brain stimulation, e.g. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). These treatments are popular and have been shown to relieve various symptoms for patients with neurological conditions. However, the underlying effects of the stimulation, and subsequently the causes of symptom-relief, are not very well understood. In particular, TMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation therapy which uses time-varying ...


Automatic Image Processing And Conversion To Tactile Graphics, Tyler Ferro Jan 2018

Automatic Image Processing And Conversion To Tactile Graphics, Tyler Ferro

Theses and Dissertations

Graphical information has become a critical method for portraying information for education, work and personal tasks and decisions. Unfortunately there are currently limited means of providing this information to individuals who are blind or visually impaired: alternate text is frequently missing, and accessible tactile diagrams tend to be time consuming to make and require expertise in order for them to be interpretable (which may be costly to the user and/or impossible to get). The aim of this project is to provide an accessible system to automatically generate tactile graphics for those who need to interpret information contained in visual ...


Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula Jan 2018

Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula

Theses and Dissertations

Cells regularly take on various types of force in the body. They have structures that are able to mediate, transfer and respond to the forces. A mutation in force regulating proteins such as lamin in the nucleus or the KASH domain which connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton of the cell can cause catastrophic events to occur. The aims of this study were to better understand the response of the nucleus when structural proteins are mutated or are not present while under force. Progeria, a rare disease where an additional farnesyl group is attached to lamin was used in this ...


Improving Realtime 3-D Tracking Of High Dose Rate Radiation Source Using A Flat Panel Detector, Leo Uchechukwu Udeji Jan 2018

Improving Realtime 3-D Tracking Of High Dose Rate Radiation Source Using A Flat Panel Detector, Leo Uchechukwu Udeji

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research 1 on this subject tracked the presumed exact path the HDR source would follow in real-time, during breast brachytherapy treatments in other to ensure accurate dose delivery and effectively confirm actual source position. As a continuation, this research has three objectives. Firstly, we will extract information from patient DICOM file which will be used to perform evaluations, then we will establish communication between our C program and the new Varex Paxscan flat panel detector (FPD). Finally, we will try to embed our C codes into a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) This research will attempt to improve the ...


Fibronectin Mechanics And Signaling In Tgf-Β1-Induced Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Lauren Griggs Jan 2018

Fibronectin Mechanics And Signaling In Tgf-Β1-Induced Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Lauren Griggs

Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a dynamic process by which a distinct change in the phenotype and function of epithelial cells render them as mesenchymal cells. Characteristics of mesenchymal cells include the ability to invade, increased migratory kinetics and heightened resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, there is a strong need to fully understand the mechanism for the induction of EMT in pathological conditions such as carcinoma progression. Recent advances highlight two pivotal contributors, soluble growth factor (gf) signals, and mechanical signals, in the process. However, to date, no clear mechanism exists linking the two in epithelial transdifferentiation. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 ...


Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid Jan 2018

Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid

Theses and Dissertations

The extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin (FN) plays an important role in cell contractility, differentiation, growth, adhesion, and migration. The 12th -14th Type III repeats of FN (FNIII 12-14), also referred to as the Heparin-II domain, comprise a highly promiscuous growth factor (GF) binding region. This binding domain aids in cellular signaling initiated from the ECM. Additionally, FN has the ability to assemble into fibrils under certain conditions, mostly observed during cell contractile processes such as those that initiate due to upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) [1], [2]. Previous work from our lab has shown that self-assembly of ...


Modified Pamam Dendrimers In Tunable Drug-Delivery Systems: A Sustained-Release Dendrimer Hydrogel For Anti-Glaucoma Drugs And Surface-Engineered Macrophages As Nanoparticle Carriers For Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapy, Christopher A. Holden Jan 2017

Modified Pamam Dendrimers In Tunable Drug-Delivery Systems: A Sustained-Release Dendrimer Hydrogel For Anti-Glaucoma Drugs And Surface-Engineered Macrophages As Nanoparticle Carriers For Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapy, Christopher A. Holden

Theses and Dissertations

Two specific drug-delivery applications were sought in this work using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. One drug-delivery system used a novel dendrimer hydrogel (DH) for sustained delivery of anti-glaucoma drugs. In this work, PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers were covalently bonded with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG­12000) molecules which were subsequently acrylated, resulting in photocurable DH conjugates. For pharmacological studies, DH were loaded with a solution of intraocular pressure lowering drugs, brimonidine and timolol maleate, and were characterized for in vitro release and ex vivo transport and uptake. DH formulations were shown to increase the loading of drug molecules, increase transcorneal drug delivery ...


Investigation Of Polymeric Composites For Controlled Drug Release, Hsi-Wei Yeh Jan 2017

Investigation Of Polymeric Composites For Controlled Drug Release, Hsi-Wei Yeh

Theses and Dissertations

The Electrospray (ES) technique is a promising particle generation method for drug delivery due to its capabilities of producing monodisperse PLGA composite particles with unique configurations and high drug encapsulation efficiency. In the dissertation work, the coaxial dual capillary ES was used to generate drug-loaded core-shell PLGA particles to study the effects of particle filling materials, drug loading locations and particle shell thicknesses on the resultant in vitro release behaviors of the hydrophilic and/ or hydrophobic model drugs. Through release profile characterization of drug-loaded PLGA particles (particle size: 400 nm and 1 μm), it was confirmed that the co-encapsulation of ...


Electrospraying Extracellular Matrix To Form Nanoparticles, Patrick Link Jan 2017

Electrospraying Extracellular Matrix To Form Nanoparticles, Patrick Link

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Alveolar wall destruction is a significant contributor to COPD. Inflammatory macrophages are a major source of the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) proteolysis. ECM breakdown causes air to get trapped in the alveoli, obstructing airflow. One step in curing COPD may be to convert inflammatory to pro-regenerative macrophages. Recently, decellularized ECM scaffolds have shown the ability to induce a pro-regenerative phenotype.

Yet these scaffolds are incapable for reaching the alveolar region of the lungs. To reach the alveolar region particles need a diameter of 1-5 μm or smaller than 300 ...


Development And Validation Of A Novel Resonant Energy Transfer (Fret) Biosensor To Measure Tensile Forces At The Linc Complex In Live Cells, Paul Arsenovic Jan 2017

Development And Validation Of A Novel Resonant Energy Transfer (Fret) Biosensor To Measure Tensile Forces At The Linc Complex In Live Cells, Paul Arsenovic

Theses and Dissertations

There is a large body of evidence supporting the theory that cell physiology largely depends on the mechanical properties of its surroundings or micro-environment. More recently studies have shown that changes to intra-cellular mechanical properties can also have a meaningful impact on cell function and in some cases lead to the progression of ailments or disease. For example, small changes to the protein sequence of a structural nuclear envelope protein called lamin-A is known to cause a variety of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases referred to as laminopathies. Currently, there is little incite into how these mutations lead to disease progression ...


Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy Jan 2017

Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of individualized medicine that could be applied to dermal wounds serving as a wound dressing and synthetic extracellular matrix while delivering stem cells to the wound bed. First, fabrication parameters for electrospinning polymer fibers were determined. This involved evaluating fiber morphology with respect to polymer selection and solution concentration. Next, construct fabrication was examined to produce an integrated void space, or cargo area, suitable to maintain stem cells. In vitro studies to ensure stem cell viability and phenotype were conducted, and results supported the notion that cells could be administered ...


Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu Jan 2017

Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu

Theses and Dissertations

Implanted biomaterials often induce inflammation that frequently leads to the foreign body response, fibrosis, and the failure of the implant. Thus, it is important to evaluate how cells interact with materials to promote a more regenerative response. It is critical to determine how to modulate the response of tissue resident innate immune cells, as they are among the first cells to interact with implanted materials. Among tissue resident innate immune cells are mast cells, which are inflammatory sentinels that degranulate and orchestrate the fate of other cell populations, such as monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. Mast cells have also been reported ...


The Effect Of Vibrotactile Feedback On Remote Manual Task Performance, Matthew S. Standard Jan 2017

The Effect Of Vibrotactile Feedback On Remote Manual Task Performance, Matthew S. Standard

Theses and Dissertations

Vibrotactile feedback offers a unique opportunity to augment or reconstruct impaired tactile sensations, whether that be in the form of enhancing prosthetics or specialized protective clothing. Important information about temperature and object slippage serve to endanger the human operator or equipment. This thesis presents three experiments which investigate amplitude modulated vibrotactile signals as a scalar dimension of roughness, the effect those signals and their locations (finger pad, forearm, bicep) have on the performance of two tasks: the sensing of temperatures simulated by vibrotactile signals and gripping an object of simulated surface texture. The results show task performance increase when the ...


Eye Movement Control: An Index For Athleticism, Brittany L. Oshea Jan 2017

Eye Movement Control: An Index For Athleticism, Brittany L. Oshea

Theses and Dissertations

Athletic potential is one of the most complex human traits. An elite athlete is produced from a complex interaction of an innumerable number of traits exhibited by the athlete. However, it’s not clear whether these traits are innate, allowing the athlete to excel, or, alternatively, are a consequence of practice. To be successful, athletes rely heavily on sensory information from the visual and vestibular systems. This study investigated the relationship eye movement control has with innate athleticism by comparing the saccadic and Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) responses of former, no longer practicing, elite athletes against their age and gender matched ...


Altering A Runner’S Foot Strike Using A Modified Elliptical Trainer, Daniel Shull Jan 2017

Altering A Runner’S Foot Strike Using A Modified Elliptical Trainer, Daniel Shull

Theses and Dissertations

One possible solution to common running related injuries is to transition runners from a rearfoot strike during initial contact to a midfoot strike. Natural rearfoot strike runners were studied to see if a modified elliptical trainer could be used to alter their running pattern to that of a midfoot strike runner. Their results were compared to subjects who ran on a non-modified elliptical trainer. After training on the modified elliptical trainer, subjects demonstrated a decrease in foot angle at initial contact when attempting to run with a midfoot strike. Training did not affect all kinetic metrics or stride frequency. However ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie Jan 2016

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Efficiency Evaluation Of A Magnetically Driven Multiple Disk Centrifugal Blood Pump, Kayla H. Moody Jan 2016

Efficiency Evaluation Of A Magnetically Driven Multiple Disk Centrifugal Blood Pump, Kayla H. Moody

Theses and Dissertations

Heart failure is expected to ail over 8 million people in America by 2030 leaving many in need of cardiac replacement. To accommodate this large volume of people, ventricular assist devices (VADs) are necessary to provide mechanical circulatory support. Current VADs exhibit issues such as thrombosis and hemolysis caused by large local pressure drops and turbulent flow within the pump. Multiple disk centrifugal pumps (MDCPs) use shearing and centrifugal forces to produce laminar flow patterns and eliminate large pressure drops within the pump which greatly reduce risks that are in current VADs. The MDCP has a shaft drive system (SDS ...


Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young Jan 2016

Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic respiratory diseases affects many people worldwide with little known about the mechanisms diving the pathology, making it difficult to find a cure. Improving the understanding of smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction is key to developing a remedy to this leading cause of death. With currently no relevant or controllable in vivo or in vitro model to investigate diseased and normal interactions of small airway components, the development of a physiologically relevant in vitro model with comparable cell attachment, signaling, and organization is necessary to develop new treatments for airway disease. The goal of this study is to ...