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Utah State University

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Formal Verification Of The Adversarial Robustness Property Of Deep Neural Networks Through Dimension Reduction Heuristics, Refutation-Based Abstraction, And Partitioning, Joshua Smith Dec 2020

Formal Verification Of The Adversarial Robustness Property Of Deep Neural Networks Through Dimension Reduction Heuristics, Refutation-Based Abstraction, And Partitioning, Joshua Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Neural networks are tools that are often used to perform functions such as object recognition in images, speech-to-text, and general data classification. Because neural networks have been successful at approximating these functions that are difficult to explicitly write, they are seeing increased usage in fields such as autonomous driving, airplane collision avoidance systems, and other safety-critical applications. Due to the risks involved with safety-critical systems, it is important to provide guarantees about the networks performance under certain conditions. As an example, it is critically important that self driving cars with neural network based vision systems correctly identify pedestrians 100% of ...


Effects Of Short Season Irrigation On Pasture Yield And Predicting Yield With Sentinel-2 Satellite, Ihsan Bugra Bugdayci Dec 2020

Effects Of Short Season Irrigation On Pasture Yield And Predicting Yield With Sentinel-2 Satellite, Ihsan Bugra Bugdayci

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Deficit irrigation can reduce agriculture water use making additional water available for other uses. This study looked at multi-year impacts of deficit irrigation on pasture yield. The results show that that early irrigation provides the most benefit to cool season pastures and late season irrigation only had small impacts on yield. According to this research, irrigation water can be saved without impacting the yield importantly.

Remote sensing techniques are becoming a part of agriculture. Yield predictions are important for the farmers and others involved with agriculture. In this research, relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from remotely ...


Closed-Loop Propulsive Control For Very Low Perigee Orbit Energy Management And Stabilization, Tyler J. Gardner Dec 2020

Closed-Loop Propulsive Control For Very Low Perigee Orbit Energy Management And Stabilization, Tyler J. Gardner

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Within the past decade, the United States Air Force has begun exploring options for using smaller satellites, known as SmallSats and CubeSats, to decrease the time it takes to design and build new satellites. If used properly, a rapid development environment for satellites could improve the Air Force's ability to respond to new technologies and threats. Other organizations such as NASA and universities have been using SmallSats and CubeSats for research and development missions.

While smaller satellites are usually much cheaper to develop and require less time to create, limited volume strictly constrains the size of instrumentation and avionics ...


Impacts Of Beaver Dams On Mountain Stream Discharge And Water Temperature, Timothy R. Clark Aug 2020

Impacts Of Beaver Dams On Mountain Stream Discharge And Water Temperature, Timothy R. Clark

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Beaver dam complexes have been shown to affect the hydrologic processes controlling river systems. These processes include surface and groundwater exchanges, water chemistry and temperature variations, and river discharge magnitudes. Majerova et al. (2015) explored the effects of beaver dams on surface and groundwater exchanges and water temperature by evaluating three years of water discharge and temperature data recorded at multiple locations within a small stream in northern Utah. They found that beaver dams increase the water surface elevation and force water into the floodplain resulting in increased inundation and groundwater recharge. They additionally found that beaver dams increase residence ...


Formation Control Using Vehicle Operational Envelopes And Behavior-Based Dual-Mode Model Predictive Control, Brian Merrell Aug 2020

Formation Control Using Vehicle Operational Envelopes And Behavior-Based Dual-Mode Model Predictive Control, Brian Merrell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents a control framework for formation control. Given an initial desired trajectory, a framework is presented to generate trajectories for each vehicle within the formation. When combined with an operational envelope, a designated area for each vehicle to maneuver, for each vehicle the multi-vehicle formation control problem can be redefined into a single vehicle problem. A single vehicle framework is presented to track the respective trajectory when possible, or stay near it when it passes through previously unknown obstacles. Arc-based motions are used to rapidly produce desirable robot controls while a trajectory tracking motion is used to ensure ...


Study Of Levee Underseepage Through Abandoned Channels And Point Bars On Curved Levee Sections Using The Response Surface-Monte Carlo Method, Tomsen Reed Aug 2020

Study Of Levee Underseepage Through Abandoned Channels And Point Bars On Curved Levee Sections Using The Response Surface-Monte Carlo Method, Tomsen Reed

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The current procedures for calculated the probability of failure of levees (earthen structures designed to prevent flooding of important locations) all have their own unique limitations. Some methods are very simplistic, and either ignore or do not allow for inclusion of complex geometries. Other methods allow for complex geometry, but do not lend themselves to large quantities of analysis because of the amount of time it takes to create or modify a model. For these reasons, previous research performed by Lourdes Polanco and Dr. John Rice developed the preliminary stages of a new method called the Response Surface-Monte Carlo method ...


Venturi Flowmeter Performance Installed Downstream Of The Branch Of A Tee Junction, Benjamin G. Sandberg Aug 2020

Venturi Flowmeter Performance Installed Downstream Of The Branch Of A Tee Junction, Benjamin G. Sandberg

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of a tee junction on flow rate measurement of a Venturi flowmeter installed downstream of the branch of a tee. Accuracy in flow measurement is important to organizations where miscalculated flow rates can add up to be millions of dollars in either lost revenue, overcharges to the client, or improper system operation. This research used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to determine ratios by which the manufacturer’s straight-line calibrated 𝐶𝑑 (discharge coefficient) can be adjusted to improve the accuracy of the flow measurement when the Venturi is installed on ...


Indoor Source Localization Of Radio Frequency Transmitters Using Blind Channel Identification Techniques, Madison L. Rose Aug 2020

Indoor Source Localization Of Radio Frequency Transmitters Using Blind Channel Identification Techniques, Madison L. Rose

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Locating transmitters is a research area that is becoming increasingly relevant as technology advances. It is especially useful for determining the location of livestock, drones, keys, phones, tablets, etc. As a result of this push for locating devices, many algorithms have been developed to determine source locations. Most source location algorithms and techniques rely on a “line of sight”, or a direct path between the source and the receivers to provide accurate results.

Indoor environments pose a challenge to locating transmitters due to the many surfaces that allow radio waves to interact (reflect, refract, and generally distort) with them. Because ...


The Role Of Carbonate Minerals In Arsenic Mobility In A Shallow Aquifer Influenced By A Seasonally Fluctuating Groundwater Table, Jeremy Jensen Aug 2020

The Role Of Carbonate Minerals In Arsenic Mobility In A Shallow Aquifer Influenced By A Seasonally Fluctuating Groundwater Table, Jeremy Jensen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic (As) is a poison historically used to great effect before modern detection methods rendered it obsolete. However, the largest mass poisoning in human history occurred due to groundwater in the Bengal Basin contaminated by natural sources of As. Since that time, research has determined that As is found in groundwater worldwide. This includes aquifers located in basin-filled valleys of the western United States. One of these valleys is the Cache Valley Basin located in Northern Utah. This semi-arid region contains carbonate-rich soils and is heavily influenced by snowmelt and seasonal runoff. Previous studies have found that 15% of private ...


Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth Aug 2020

Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects worldwide and leads to a variety of complications. Ganciclovir is the most common anti-CMV drug used but often causes severe side effects. Quercetin, a plant pigment, shows anti-CMV activity that may provide a less toxic alternative to ganciclovir, or when co-administered, reduce ganciclovir treatments. However, a drug carrier is needed to deliver quercetin for CMV treatment. In this study, three Pluronic polymers (P123, F127, and F68) were investigated as a quercetin drug delivery system (DDS) for CMV treatment.

All selected Pluronics successfully encapsulated quercetin at varying degrees of efficacy ...


Design Of A Sweeping Impedance Probe For The Sport Mission, Caleb W. Young Aug 2020

Design Of A Sweeping Impedance Probe For The Sport Mission, Caleb W. Young

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In our modern world satellite systems are an evermore common part of day to day life. Reliable communication from the ground to these satellites is becoming more and more necessary. Plasma scintillations in the ionosphere can make these communications difficult or even impossible. By gaining a better understanding of these scintillations, times of bad satellite connection can be predicted in the same way terrestrial weather gets predicted and reported today. The objective of the SPORT mission is to gain a better understanding of these plasma scintillations. In order to measure plasma density, and gain a better understanding of plasma scintillations ...


Evaluating The Hydraulic Performance Of Digital Photogrammetry-Derived 3-Dimensional Models Of A Hydraulic Structure Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Tyler J. Ashby Aug 2020

Evaluating The Hydraulic Performance Of Digital Photogrammetry-Derived 3-Dimensional Models Of A Hydraulic Structure Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Tyler J. Ashby

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the combination of aerial imagery, photogrammetry, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two 3D models of an 8-ft ramp flume were developed from aerial imagery using a commercial photogrammetry software. The GCP model was developed using ground control points (GCP) to improve and measure the model’s accuracy. The Non-GCP model used GCPs as check points, which only measure the model’s accuracy. The horizontal and vertical errors were, respectively, 0.39 in. and 0.73 in. for the GCP model, and 5.37 in. and 2.80 in. for the Non-GCP model.

In addition to the GCP ...


Submerged And Floating Woody Debris-Blocking Sensitivity Of Labyrinth Weirs, Taylor Vaughn Aug 2020

Submerged And Floating Woody Debris-Blocking Sensitivity Of Labyrinth Weirs, Taylor Vaughn

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accumulation of floating and submerged woody debris at flow control structures can result in reduced discharge efficiency (higher upstream head for a given weir discharge). Labyrinth weirs are more prone to debris blockage than less efficient control structures due to their ability to pass large amounts of flow with relatively small heads. Labyrinth weirs also have geometric properties that are more likely to prevent debris from passing over the weir than linear weirs.

A laboratory study was performed to evaluate the interaction between labyrinth weirs and debris sizes. The individual debris tests indicated that debris blockage probability is influenced by ...


Transient Thermal Modeling Of Bioprocessing Equipment, Cody M. Cummings Aug 2020

Transient Thermal Modeling Of Bioprocessing Equipment, Cody M. Cummings

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bioprocessing is leveraging cells to produce high value, lifesaving products. Precise environmental control is needed to maintain integrity of the bioprocessing production process. Temperature control requires both appropriate equipment choice and correct control parameter selection. To aid in the equipment selection process, enable better understanding of equipment capacity, and enable optimization of control parameters, a transient thermal model of both heat transfer characteristics and control systems was created in silico.


Weber Basin Water Conservancy District Bottom-Up Climate Vulnerability Study Using Riverware, Jacob Everitt Aug 2020

Weber Basin Water Conservancy District Bottom-Up Climate Vulnerability Study Using Riverware, Jacob Everitt

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

With so much uncertainty of what the future has in store for us, how can we prepare for what lies ahead? The Weber Basin Water Conservancy District (WBWCD) needs to know how they can best prepare for future climate changes and future growth, and where their water system is vulnerable. A bottom-up approach can be used to consider how factors and subfactors effect the vulnerability of their water system's storage and delivery. This approach is accomplished with the use of RiverWare, an advanced water system modeling program. Scenarios to represent the factors are as follows: range of future stream ...


Trisiloxane Surfactant Adjuvants In Pollen, Autumn Slade Aug 2020

Trisiloxane Surfactant Adjuvants In Pollen, Autumn Slade

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chemicals are often added to agricultural pesticide mixes to help increase the efficiency of the field spray solution, and one of the main groups of chemicals used for this purpose are trisiloxane surfactants (TSSs). Normally TSSs are considered non-toxic, but recent studies have shown TSSs to have negative impacts on organisms like honey bees. Though TSSs have recently been found in environmental sources like water, pollen, and beeswax, little is known about how TSSs behave in the environment or affects active ingredients, like pesticides.

To help determine the environmental prevalence and fate of TSSs, several studies were performed. Pollen was ...


Protecting Crops From Abiotic Stress: Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Effects On Wheat And A Beneficial Rhizobacterium, Matthew Potter Aug 2020

Protecting Crops From Abiotic Stress: Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Effects On Wheat And A Beneficial Rhizobacterium, Matthew Potter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. CuO NPs have possible applications in agriculture as micronutrient sources, pesticides, and enhancers of crop stress tolerance. Here, three aspects of CuO NP agricultural applications are studied: 1) the potential of CuO NPs to prevent wheat lodging-when crops irreversibly fall over; 2) CuO NP-induced drought tolerance in wheat seedlings; and 3) the effects of CuO NPs on outer membrane vesicle (OMV) production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6), a plant-health promoting bacterium.

Wheat grown 7 d exposed to CuO NPs in the growth matrix exhibited increased ...


Pitched Baseballs And The Seam Shifted Wake, Andrew W. Smith Aug 2020

Pitched Baseballs And The Seam Shifted Wake, Andrew W. Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect that seams have on the way a baseball moves through the air. An examination of the airflow around a baseball led to the understanding that when seams are in certain areas on the baseball's surface the airflow changes. A subsequent experiment was performed which showed that when these changes in airflow were on one side of the baseball more than the other, the ball moved away from the side with the seams. This movement is in a different direction than the movement direction caused by a ball's spin. These experiments ...


Advancing Water Resources Systems Modeling Cyberinfrastructure To Enable Systematic Data Analysis, Modeling, And Comparisons, Adel Mohammad Kheir Abdallah Aug 2020

Advancing Water Resources Systems Modeling Cyberinfrastructure To Enable Systematic Data Analysis, Modeling, And Comparisons, Adel Mohammad Kheir Abdallah

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water resources systems models aid in managing water resources holistically considering water, economic, energy, and environmental needs, among others. Developing such models require data that represent a water system’s physical and operational characteristics such as inflows, demands, reservoir storage, and release rules. However, such data is stored and described in different formats, metadata, and terminology. Therefore, Existing tools to store, query, and visualize modeling data are model, location, and dataset-specific, and developing such tools is time-consuming and requires programming experience. This dissertation presents an architecture and three software tools to enable researchers to more readily and consistently prepare and ...


Benchmarking Of A Mobile Phone Particle Image Velocimetry System, David Armijo Aug 2020

Benchmarking Of A Mobile Phone Particle Image Velocimetry System, David Armijo

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the most important tools in a fluid dynamics laboratory is a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. This system can measure the speed of a fluid flow simply by taking high-speed images of the motion of the fluid, then applying PIV cross-correlation software to calculate speed from the resulting images. The mI-PIV project is in the process of designing a new method of performing PIV by putting the cross-correlation software on a mobile phone application, called mobile Instructional PIV (mI-PIV). This system is an innovative stepping stone in making PIV systems more widely available. It is designed to be ...


Thermal Modeling And Analysis Of Roadway Embedded Wireless Power Transfer Modules, Arden N. Barnes Aug 2020

Thermal Modeling And Analysis Of Roadway Embedded Wireless Power Transfer Modules, Arden N. Barnes

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wireless charging of electric vehicles is a developing technology which potentially increases efficiency and safety. It also allows for charging vehicles while they are moving by having charging stations embedded in the roadway. Because roadways are thermally insulating, it is important to know how the heat from the charging stations will move through the roadway, which will allow further research into whether the heat will cause damage to the components in the station or to the roadway. This thesis studies the way the heat moves through concrete with wireless charging coils embedded in it. This is accomplished by measuring the ...


Optimization Of Aileron Spanwise Size And Shape To Minimize Induced Drag In Roll With Correlating Adverse Yaw, Joshua R. Brincklow Aug 2020

Optimization Of Aileron Spanwise Size And Shape To Minimize Induced Drag In Roll With Correlating Adverse Yaw, Joshua R. Brincklow

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Most modern aircraft make use of modifying the main wing in flight to begin a roll. In many cases, this is done with a discrete control surface known as an aileron. The lift, drag, and moments for the wing are affected in part by the location and size of the ailerons along the length of the wing. The lift, drag, and moments can be found using a lifting-line theory that considers the circulation in airflow from many small sections of the wing. To minimize the drag due to lift on the wing, the ailerons must be optimized for the best ...


Fluted Films Caused By Gravity Driven Water Drainage From Vertical Tubes, Matthew B. Jones Aug 2020

Fluted Films Caused By Gravity Driven Water Drainage From Vertical Tubes, Matthew B. Jones

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

When a stationary mass of water in a vertical tube is suddenly released, it creates a variety of artistic shapes and behaviors as it escapes the tube exit. As the descending water accelerates in the tube, friction along the tube wall slows the outer radius, resulting in a moving film entrained on the tube that trails the main body of water. When this film exits the tube, surface tension, gravity, and inertia interact to cause the film to create a wide variety of shapes, including jets, tubes, water bells, champagne glasses, and bubbles; rich forms that appear in other natural ...


Characterization Of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Performance With Pentanoic Acid And N-Acetyl Cysteine Treatment, Joseph Camire Aug 2020

Characterization Of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Performance With Pentanoic Acid And N-Acetyl Cysteine Treatment, Joseph Camire

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To improve the cost of producing protein therapeutics manufacturers can attempt to increase the amount of protein produced per unit volume. Some small fatty-acids have shown the ability to increase protein concentrations in some manufacturing systems. An example system is in the industrially important cell line derived from a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO). A drawback of adding these fatty-acids is they can increase the rate of cell death.

A potential way to minimize the cell death rate, caused by adding fatty-acids, is to also add additional anti-oxidants. Through a series of studies, we demonstrate production with different fatty-acids, butanoic acid ...


A General Approach To Lifting-Line Theory, Applied To Wings With Sweep, Jackson T. Reid Aug 2020

A General Approach To Lifting-Line Theory, Applied To Wings With Sweep, Jackson T. Reid

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lifting-line theory is one simple method of predicting the lift produced by a wing. The traditional implementation of lifting-line theory, developed in 1918, is limited to predicting the lift of traditional straight wings. In this work, lifting-line theory is extended to predict the lift produced by modern swept (or “v-shaped”) wings by strategically handling the singularities inherent to the theory. The resulting formulation is shown to be both accurate and computationally inexpensive, when compared to experimental and higher-fidelity computational results, demonstrating the method’s usefulness as an aerodynamic design tool. Because of the low computational cost and accuracy of the ...


Oxidative Protection Using Pluronic Micelles, Mitchell Glen Heap May 2020

Oxidative Protection Using Pluronic Micelles, Mitchell Glen Heap

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Methods for drug delivery are currently being researched in many different applications. One significant obstacle to drug delivery is a drug's inherent hydrophobic character. Drugs that are hydrophobic are difficult to successfully administer since the body consists mostly of water. Therefore, a greater variety of drugs could potentially be used for the treatment of disease if they could successfully be administered. Recent research in oncology and virology has attempted to overcome the obstacles posed by hydrophobic drugs by encapsulating them in micelles. Micelles form spontaneously from compounds that contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and can be used to ...


Characterization Of Rhodopseudomonas Palustrus Strains For The Production Of Fixed Nitrogen Fertilizer For Mars, Daniel Kade Derrick May 2020

Characterization Of Rhodopseudomonas Palustrus Strains For The Production Of Fixed Nitrogen Fertilizer For Mars, Daniel Kade Derrick

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The purpose of this project was to characterize the potential of various strains of purple non-sulfur bacteria for the production of fixed nitrogen fertilizers for the manned Mars missions. Six strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (CGA009, CGA010, TIE-1, NifA*, and PB23) were all investigated. Through initial growth trial experiments, R. palustris NifA* and PB23 were selected for their engineered nitrogen fixation and rapid growth respectively. Growth curves and ammonium concentrations were collected over time in pilot scale batch photobioreactors (200 mL). Biomass production was then scaled up to benchtop photobioreactors (1.5 L) and then 14 L total volume for both ...


Characterization Of Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Strains For The Production Of Fixed Nitrogen Fertilizer For Mars, Andrew James Walters May 2020

Characterization Of Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Strains For The Production Of Fixed Nitrogen Fertilizer For Mars, Andrew James Walters

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The purpose of this project was to characterize the potential of various strains of purple non-sulfur bacteria for the production of fixed nitrogen fertilizers for the manned Mars missions. Six strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (CGA009, CGA010, TIE-1, NifA*, and PB23) were all investigated. Through initial growth trial experiments, R. palustris NifA* and PB23 were selected for their engineered nitrogen fixation and rapid growth respectively. Growth curves and ammonium concentrations were collected over time in pilot scale batch photobioreactors (200 mL). Biomass production was then scaled up to benchtop photobioreactors (1.5 L). Fourteen liters of both NifA* and PB23 were ...


Designing Technology For Different Scales Of Irrigation Scheduling, Paolo Alexander Consalvo May 2020

Designing Technology For Different Scales Of Irrigation Scheduling, Paolo Alexander Consalvo

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Uncertainty in water availability is a significant challenge to the agriculture industry. Farmers and irrigators depend on novel uses of sensors and data to maximize water efficiency. Documented studies have demonstrated scheduling irrigation is a straightforward, deterministic means of achieving water efficiency. Irrigation scheduling uses several parameters to determine the moment of crop water stress due to available water in the soil. However, sensors and data for soil moisture and matric potential, a parameter describing water available to plants, have the potential to train machine learning algorithms to forecast water irrigation needs based on previous measurements. Satellite remote-sensing is another ...


Comparison Of Locational Beamforming Algorithms For Audio Targeting, Thomas Lewis Bradshaw May 2020

Comparison Of Locational Beamforming Algorithms For Audio Targeting, Thomas Lewis Bradshaw

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

In many applications it is desirable to focus on the direction a signal is coming from to isolate the signal from interfering noise coming from other directions. This is often done by focusing the receiver on a given direction. One method to accomplish this focusing is to use an array of receivers and a signal processing algorithm called beamforming. This algorithm attenuates signals coming from all other directions besides the direction of interest, which can be viewed pictorially as a beam. However, it would also benefit many applications to be able to focus on a location rather than just a ...