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Theses/Dissertations

University of New Mexico

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

"A Comparison Of Variable Selection Methods Using Bootstrap Samples From Environmental Metal Mixture Data", Paul-Yvann Djamen 4785403, Paul-Yvann Djamen Jul 2020

"A Comparison Of Variable Selection Methods Using Bootstrap Samples From Environmental Metal Mixture Data", Paul-Yvann Djamen 4785403, Paul-Yvann Djamen

Mathematics & Statistics ETDs

In this thesis, I studied a newly developed variable selection method SODA, and three customarily used variable selection methods: LASSO, Elastic net, and Random forest for environmental mixture data. The motivating datasets have neuro-developmental status as responses and metal measurements and demographic variables as covariates. The challenges for variable selections include (1) many measured metal concentrations are highly correlated, (2) there are many possible ways of modeling interactions among the metals, (3) the relationships between the outcomes and explanatory variables are possibly nonlinear, (4) the signal to noise ratio in the real data may be low. To compare these methods ...


Optimal Control Strategies For Complex Biological Systems, Afroza Shirin Aug 2019

Optimal Control Strategies For Complex Biological Systems, Afroza Shirin

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

To better understand and to improve therapies for complex diseases such as cancer or diabetes, it is not sufficient to identify and characterize the interactions between molecules and pathways in complex biological systems, such as cells, tissues, and the human body. It also is necessary to characterize the response of a biological system to externally supplied agents (e.g., drugs, insulin), including a proper scheduling of these drugs, and drug combinations in multi drugs therapies. This obviously becomes important in applications which involve control of physiological processes, such as controlling the number of autophagosome vesicles in a cell, or regulating ...


Reducing Threading Dislocation In Gasb Epilayer Grown On Gaas Substrate For Photovoltaic And Thermophotovoltaic Application, Ahmad Mansoori Jul 2019

Reducing Threading Dislocation In Gasb Epilayer Grown On Gaas Substrate For Photovoltaic And Thermophotovoltaic Application, Ahmad Mansoori

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

GaSb based photovoltaic devices have been demonstrated on GaAs substrates by an inducing interfacial array of 90° misfit dislocations. Despite the beneficial qualities of the highly stable 90° misfit dislocation, there is a significant density of residual threading dislocations in the GaSb layer, resulting in the degradation of the electrical performance of such photovoltaic cells compared to lattice matched devices. We aim to reduce threading dislocation density by optimizing growth temperature and by using an AlSb dislocation filtering layer. The growth temperature optimization results in a reduction of the threading dislocation density to 1.3 × 108 cm−2. Adding ...


Application Of Cation Exchange And Nanofiltration To Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater, Ayush R. Shahi Jul 2019

Application Of Cation Exchange And Nanofiltration To Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater, Ayush R. Shahi

Civil Engineering ETDs

Application of Cation Exchange and Nanofiltration to Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater

Ayush Raj Shahi

Bachelor’s in engineering in Civil Engineering

Master of Science in Civil Engineering

ABSTRACT

Flue gas emitted from coal-fired power plants is one of the major sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides emissions to the atmosphere. Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a pollution prevention method that is employed to meet regulatory requirements using scrubbers.

FGD wastewater contains high concentrations of dissolved salts which limit options for recycling and reuse. This thesis focused on treating FGD wastewater with a combination of ion exchange (IX), precipitation, and nanofiltration ...


Evaluating Sustainable & Equitable Financing For Pedestrian Infrastructure Maintenance And How The Quality Of Pedestrian Infrastructure Affects The Choice To Walk, Alexis Corning Padilla Jul 2019

Evaluating Sustainable & Equitable Financing For Pedestrian Infrastructure Maintenance And How The Quality Of Pedestrian Infrastructure Affects The Choice To Walk, Alexis Corning Padilla

Civil Engineering ETDs

In many communities, pedestrian infrastructure is poorly maintained. One challenge is finding sustainable and equitable funding since many municipalities across the country require adjacent property to maintain and repair sidewalks adjacent to their property. These policies are difficult to enforce, may place a high cost on lower-income households, and may be partly responsible for the poor condition of many sidewalks. Therefore, in the first part of this research, we evaluated three alternatives for financing the maintenance of sidewalks in Albuquerque, New Mexico: increasing the gross receipts tax, the gasoline excise tax, or the property tax. We concluded that any of ...


An Efficient Multiple-Place Foraging Algorithm For Scalable Robot Swarms, Qi Lu Jul 2019

An Efficient Multiple-Place Foraging Algorithm For Scalable Robot Swarms, Qi Lu

Computer Science ETDs

Searching and collecting multiple resources from large unmapped environments is an important challenge. It is particularly difficult given limited time, a large search area and incomplete data about the environment. This search task is an abstraction of many real-world applications such as search and rescue, hazardous material clean-up, and space exploration. The collective foraging behavior of robot swarms is an effective approach for this task. In our work, individual robots have limited sensing and communication range (like ants), but they are organized and work together to complete foraging tasks collectively. An efficient foraging algorithm coordinates robots to search and collect ...


Post-Polymerization Modification Of Kapton Using Electron Beam Irradiation, Luis A. Hernandez Jul 2019

Post-Polymerization Modification Of Kapton Using Electron Beam Irradiation, Luis A. Hernandez

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

In the present study, the feasibility of chemical modification of electron-irradiated Kapton is investigated. Characterization techniques determined the changes between a pristine, electron irradiated, and a chemically treated, i.e., fluorinated, sample of Kapton. Kapton is a common material in space application as it serves as the exterior surface for space vehicles. Highly aged Kapton have significant material property changes, making them prone to electro-static discharge (ESD) damage. Understanding how Kapton material behaves under space conditions and the possibility of improving its structure and properties is of utmost important. To this end, changes to the physical properties of the material ...


Experimental Investigation Of Steady-State And Transient Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux, Soon Kyu Lee Jul 2019

Experimental Investigation Of Steady-State And Transient Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux, Soon Kyu Lee

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) causes a rapid reduction of heat transfer coefficient with a rapid increase of cladding temperature, which may induce physical failure of the heated material. Understanding CHF phenomena and reliable prediction of the boiling behavior are needed to design a heat transfer system including nuclear reactors. Due to the complex nature of CHF, it is still an active research topic of interest. With an increasing interest in Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF), CHF of ATF is essential topic of study for the detailed design of the fuel – cladding element and for the reactor safety analysis.

In this ...


Identification Of The Corona Point In Point-To-Plane Geometries In Atmospheric Air, Leonardo Rossetti Jul 2019

Identification Of The Corona Point In Point-To-Plane Geometries In Atmospheric Air, Leonardo Rossetti

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

The minimum sustaining electric field for streamer propagation is directly correlated to the minimum electric field at the corona point. Corona is a product of non-uniform electric fields; the onset of corona occurs before electrical breakdown. As electric fields become increasingly uniform the required field strength to produce corona is increased as well. The field uniformity can be increased until a critical point in which electrical breakdown coincides with the onset of a positive corona, this is known as the corona point.

An experimental setup with a point to plane configuration allows precise changes in electric field uniformity, by gradually ...


Application Of Cation Exchange And Nanofiltration To Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater, Ayush R. Shahi Jul 2019

Application Of Cation Exchange And Nanofiltration To Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater, Ayush R. Shahi

Civil Engineering ETDs

Flue gas emitted from coal-fired power plants is one of the major sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides emissions to the atmosphere in the world today. Although coal use has decreased, it is still a major contributor to such emissions. The Clean Air Act in the United States established regulations for coal-fired power plants to limit SOx and NOx emissions into the atmosphere. To meet regulatory requirements, power plants have been using scrubbers to limit their air emissions. Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a pollution prevention method that is employed to limit sulfur dioxide emissions directly in the environment ...


Design And Fabrication Of Peel-Off And Stick Antennas, Jayakrishnan Vijayamohanan Jul 2019

Design And Fabrication Of Peel-Off And Stick Antennas, Jayakrishnan Vijayamohanan

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Antennas on multiple platforms with the capability to be reused is a novel concept in antenna technologies. This thesis explores the idea of such a flexible antenna that can be stuck on any surface using certain adhesives and be peeled off for reuse for a different purpose. This thesis specifically focuses on the application of being used on small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAVs). Three basic designs are fabricated and investigated. One of them is a reconfigurable meandering monopole, consisting of a PIN diode which resonates at two different frequencies depending on the applied external voltage. A challenge that is addressed ...


The Importance Of The Instantaneous Phase In Detecting Faces With Convolutional Neural Networks, Luis Armando Sanchez Tapia Jul 2019

The Importance Of The Instantaneous Phase In Detecting Faces With Convolutional Neural Networks, Luis Armando Sanchez Tapia

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have provided new and accurate methods for processing digital images and videos. Yet, training CNNs is extremely demanding in terms of computational resources. Also, for simple applications, the standard use of transfer learning also tends to require far more resources than what may be needed. Furthermore, the final systems tend to operate as black boxes that are difficult to interpret.

The current thesis considers the problem of detecting faces from the AOLME video dataset. The AOLME dataset consists of a large video collection of group interactions that are recorded in unconstrained classroom environments. For the thesis ...


Verification Of Stochastic Reach-Avoid Using Rkhs Embeddings, Adam J. Thorpe Jul 2019

Verification Of Stochastic Reach-Avoid Using Rkhs Embeddings, Adam J. Thorpe

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

A solution to the terminal-hitting and first-hitting stochastic reach-avoid problem for a Markov control process is presented. This solution takes advantage of a nonparametric representation of the stochastic kernel as a conditional distribution embedding within a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). Because the disturbance is modeled as a data-driven stochastic process, this representation avoids intractable integrals in the dynamic recursion of the reach-avoid problem since the expectations can be calculated as an inner product within the RKHS. An example using a high-dimensional chain of integrators is presented, as well as for Clohessy-Wiltshire-Hill (CWH) dynamics.


Is Transportation Planning Effective? A Critical Review Of Long-Range Regional Transportation Planning In The United States, Razieh Nadafianshahamabadi Jul 2019

Is Transportation Planning Effective? A Critical Review Of Long-Range Regional Transportation Planning In The United States, Razieh Nadafianshahamabadi

Civil Engineering ETDs

The Federal-Aid Highway Act requires urban areas with a population greater than 50,000 to create Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) to ensure that funding for transportation projects and programs are based on a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive planning process. A major responsibility of each MPO is the creation of a long-range transportation plan (LRTP) that addresses the transportation needs of a metropolitan region over the next twenty years or more. While long-range regional transportation planning goals have grown to include a wide range of concerns and technical methods for evaluating planning scenarios have advanced substantially over the past 50 years ...


Tauopathies, Novel Optogenetic Tools, And The Future Of Artificial Intellience In Medicine., Jessica L. Binder Jul 2019

Tauopathies, Novel Optogenetic Tools, And The Future Of Artificial Intellience In Medicine., Jessica L. Binder

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

To this day, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias (ADRD). With the daunting rise at an exponential rate of ADRD burden and related deaths, the necessity to find a new line of attack is vital. Pathological accumulation of microtubule associated protein tau in neurons is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Attempts have been made to promote clearance of pathological tau (p-Tau) from neurons via autophagy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) has shown to clear p-Tau from neurons via autophagy. However, sustained TFEB activation and autophagy can create burden ...


Low Loading Gold Vapor Deposited Electrode For High Sensitivity As (Iii) Detection, Tybur Casuse Jul 2019

Low Loading Gold Vapor Deposited Electrode For High Sensitivity As (Iii) Detection, Tybur Casuse

Civil Engineering ETDs

The objective of this thesis is to develop a method for detection of arsenite, As (III), using a thin film of gold (Au) vapor deposited onto carbon paper as an electrode. Currently, availability of drinking water arsenic (As) concentration information for rural communities is diminished due to high cost per sample analysis and limited access to analytical laboratories which can accurately determine concentrations near the 10 maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of a minimal amount of gold aids in decreasing the cost of an electrode ...


Characterization Of Single- And Multi-Phase Shock-Accelerated Flows, Patrick John Wayne Jul 2019

Characterization Of Single- And Multi-Phase Shock-Accelerated Flows, Patrick John Wayne

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Experiments conducted in the Shock Tube Facility at the University of New Mexico are focused on characterization of shock-accelerated flows. Single-phase (gaseous) initial conditions consist of a heavy gas column of sulfur hexafluoride seeded with approximately 11% acetone gas by mass. Visualization of the image plane for gaseous initial conditions is accomplished via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) with a high-powered Nd:YAG ultraviolet laser and an Apogee Alta U-42 monochrome CCD camera, with a quantum efficiency > 90%. Multi-phase (gas-solid) initial conditions consist of glass micro-beads deposited on small 1-cm diameter discs of specific surface chemistry, mounted flush with the bottom ...


Large Scale Electronic Health Record Data And Echocardiography Video Analysis For Mortality Risk Prediction, Alvaro Emilio Ulloa Cerna Jul 2019

Large Scale Electronic Health Record Data And Echocardiography Video Analysis For Mortality Risk Prediction, Alvaro Emilio Ulloa Cerna

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Electronic health records contain the clinical history of patients. The enormous potential for discovery in such a rich dataset is hampered by their complexity. We hypothesize that machine learning models trained on EHR data can predict future clinical events significantly better than current models. We analyze an EHR database of 594,862 Echocardiography studies from 272,280 unique patients with both unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques.

In the unsupervised approach, we first develop a simulation framework to evaluate a family of different clustering pipelines. We apply the optimized approach to 41,645 patients with heart failure without providing any ...


Nonpolar Gan-Based Vcsels With Lattice-Matched Nanoporous Distributed Bragg Reflector Mirrors, Saadat M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih Jul 2019

Nonpolar Gan-Based Vcsels With Lattice-Matched Nanoporous Distributed Bragg Reflector Mirrors, Saadat M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Wide-bandgap optoelectronic devices have undergone significant advancements with the advent of commercial light-emitting diodes and edge-emitting lasers in the violet-blue spectral region. They are now ubiquitous in several lighting, communication, data storage, display, and sensing applications. Among the III-nitride emitters, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their inherent advantages over edge-emitting lasers. The small active volume enables single-mode operation with low threshold currents and high modulation bandwidths. Their surface-normal device geometry is conducive to the cost-effective formation of high-density 2D arrays while simplifying on-chip wafer testing. Furthermore, the low beam divergence and circular ...


The Collison Floating Evaporation Pan: Design, Validation, And Comparison, Jacob William Collison Jun 2019

The Collison Floating Evaporation Pan: Design, Validation, And Comparison, Jacob William Collison

Civil Engineering ETDs

Accurate tracking of open-water evaporative losses, one of the largest consumptive uses of water in the Southwestern USA, is increasingly important with anticipated climate shifts toward longer and more severe droughts. A new open-water evaporation technique, the Collison Floating Evaporation Pan, (CFEP), was tested on Cochiti Lake, New Mexico, USA for one year with objectives being: identify the limitations and potential solutions to evaporation techniques; deploy, test the reliability, and validity of the CFEP and evaluate uncertainties in standard evaporation techniques; and improvements over prior evaporation techniques. The CFEP provided reliable evaporation measurements during sustained winds greater than 20 m ...


Neutronic And Cfd-Thermal Hydraulic Analyses Of Very-Small, Long-Life, Modular (Vsllim) Reactor, Luis M. Palomino May 2019

Neutronic And Cfd-Thermal Hydraulic Analyses Of Very-Small, Long-Life, Modular (Vsllim) Reactor, Luis M. Palomino

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Neutronic and CFD-thermal hydraulic analyses are performed of the Very-Small, Long-LIfe, and Modular (VSLLIM) nuclear reactor. This reactor was developed at the University of New Mexico’s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies (UNM-ISNPS) to generate 1.0 – 10 MWth for extended periods without refueling. It offers passive operation and safety features and redundant control and would be fabricated, assembled and sealed in the factory. During nominal operation and after shutdown, the VSLLIM is cooled by natural circulation of in-vessel liquid sodium, with the aid of an in-vessel chimney and annular ...


Microsphere-Based Disordered Photonic Structures: Control Of Randomness In Langmuir-Blodgett Assembly And Radiative Cooling Applications, Sarun Atiganyanun May 2019

Microsphere-Based Disordered Photonic Structures: Control Of Randomness In Langmuir-Blodgett Assembly And Radiative Cooling Applications, Sarun Atiganyanun

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Many biological photonic structures in nature exhibit a significant degree of disorder within their periodic framework that enhances their optical properties. However, how such disorder contributes to the unique photonic characteristics is not yet fully understood. To facilitate studies on this topic, we investigated self-assembly of microspheres as a method to controllably introduce randomness to photonic structures. Specifically, we examined Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, a layer-by-layer fabrication technique. We developed and experimentally verified a model for the process and determined a condition of surface pressure and substrate pulling speed that corresponds to a maximum structural order in a layer. Along the trajectory ...


Symmetry And Dopant Diffusion In Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays For Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Seok Jun Han May 2019

Symmetry And Dopant Diffusion In Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays For Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Seok Jun Han

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

In this dissertation, we enhance the efficiency of thin flexible monocrystalline silicon solar cells by breaking symmetry in light trapping nanostructures and improving homogeneity in dopant concentration profile. These thin cells are potentially less expensive than conventional thick silicon cells by using less silicon material and making the cells more convenient to be handled when supported on polymer films. Moreover, these cells are widely applicable due to their flexibility and lightweight. However, for high efficiencies, these cells require effective light trapping and charge collection. We achieve these in cells based on 14-mm-thick free-standing silicon films with light-trapping arrays of nanopyramidal ...


Fluid Transport In Porous Media For Engineering Applications, Eric M. Benner May 2019

Fluid Transport In Porous Media For Engineering Applications, Eric M. Benner

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

This doctoral dissertation presents three topics in modeling fluid transport through porous media used in engineering applications. The results provide insights into the design of fuel cell components, catalyst and drug delivery particles, and aluminum- based materials. Analytical and computational methods are utilized for the modeling of the systems of interest. Theoretical analysis of capillary-driven transport in porous media show that both geometric and evaporation effects significantly change the time dependent behavior of liquid imbibition and give a steady state flux into the medium. The evaporation–capillary number is significant in determining the time-dependent behavior of capillary flows in porous ...


Validation Of The State Based Peridynamic Lattice Model, Anima Bista May 2019

Validation Of The State Based Peridynamic Lattice Model, Anima Bista

Civil Engineering ETDs

This thesis presents a study performed to validate the State-based Peridynamic Lattice Model (SPLM) using results obtained from laboratory experiments. The SPLM is capable of modeling cracking of solids using particle lattices. We use a plane stress, elastic-plastic damage SPLM model for the simulations. The SPLM model is appropriate for computational simulations of cementitious materials as it automatically allows cracks to develop. In this study, the lattices are rotated through different angles and the variations of the cracking patterns are studied. In the laboratory, we performed nine Brazilian split cylinder tests, three anchor pullout/direct tensile tests, and eight compression ...


Quantification Of Sediment Yields From Semi-Arid Watersheds Using Unmanned Aerial Systems And Photogrammetry Techniques, Jared L. Romero May 2019

Quantification Of Sediment Yields From Semi-Arid Watersheds Using Unmanned Aerial Systems And Photogrammetry Techniques, Jared L. Romero

Civil Engineering ETDs

Sediment has long been considered an environmental pollutant, causing physical and ecological impairments linked to the detachment and transport of sediments from the land surface to downstream communities. Additionally, aging flood control and water storage detention facilities have suffered the effects of sediment accumulation, spurring new research in the field of soil erosion and sediment yield estimation. Recent advances in technology have stimulated the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and photogrammetric techniques for near-surface data collection and monitoring, with such techniques being used previously to achieve centimeter-level accuracy reconstruction of the land surface. This study seeks to apply UAS ...


Generation And Use Of Femtosecond, Gigawatt, Near Infrared Laser Pulses From An Amplified, Mode-Locked, Ti:Sapphire Laser, David Anthony Valdés May 2019

Generation And Use Of Femtosecond, Gigawatt, Near Infrared Laser Pulses From An Amplified, Mode-Locked, Ti:Sapphire Laser, David Anthony Valdés

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

This work modeled the early to middle successes achieved in the field of ultrafast, high peak power optics, beginning with the work of Nobel Prize winners Donna Strickland and Gérard Mourou in 1985. In our work, 100 fs light pulses of around 800 nm were generated by a Ti:Sapphire oscillator, then amplified to approximately 30 GW peak power using a chirped pulse amplification system that included regenerative and multi-pass amplifiers. As a verification of our pulses having high peak powers and ultrashort durations, they were then used to strike water, glass, and a Kerr Cell. Supercontinuum generation was observed ...


Interrogation Of Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks Using Cosmic-Ray Muon Computed Tomography, Daniel C. Poulson Apr 2019

Interrogation Of Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks Using Cosmic-Ray Muon Computed Tomography, Daniel C. Poulson

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Properly accounting and safeguarding spent nuclear fuel are key components in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s mission of non-proliferation. Currently, no instruments are deployed that are able to verify the spent nuclear fuel contents of dry storage casks. Cosmic-ray muons provide an ideal probe for the heavily shielded casks due to their ability to penetrate thick, dense materials. Coulombic scattering of the muons, to first order, is proportional to the Z2/A of the material; this makes it especially sensitive to actinides, such as uranium and plutonium. The combination of these traits allows muons to be used to image ...


Non-Invasive Beam Monitoring With Harmonic Cavities, Brock F. Roberts Apr 2019

Non-Invasive Beam Monitoring With Harmonic Cavities, Brock F. Roberts

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

NON INVASIVE BEAM MONITORING WITH HARMONIC CAVITIES

by

Brock Franklin Roberts

B.S PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS, 1992

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO, 2019

ABSTRACT

A cavity designed to have multiple harmonic TM0N0 modes can be used to accurately measure the longitudinal profile of a bunched charged particle beam passing through its bore, non-invasively, and in real time.

Multi-harmonic TM0N0 cavities were designed, constructed, and beamline tested in a variety of experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF or Jlab). Measurements with a sampling oscilloscope provided signals that resemble the profile of ...


Metabolon-Inspired Design Of Multi-Modal Catalytic Cascade, Madelaine Seow Chavez Apr 2019

Metabolon-Inspired Design Of Multi-Modal Catalytic Cascade, Madelaine Seow Chavez

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

Developing hybrid catalytic systems has been researched for the past decade in an effort to efficiently incorporate catalysts of different modalities in catalytic cascades. It has become imperative to design a cascade system where the catalysts are spatially organized to control the delivery of precursors, intermediates, and products. In this work, we have shown that a molecular catalyst, biocatalyst, and metallic catalyst can be co-localized using a carbonaceous support to create a hybrid catalytic system and complete the oxidation of oxalic acid to create a microchemical reactor. The molecular, pyrene-TEMPO catalyst oxidizes glyoxalic acid to oxalic acid. The enzyme oxalate ...