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Theses/Dissertations

University of Massachusetts Amherst

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis Jan 2019

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


Three Essays On Data-Driven Optimization For Scheduling In Manufacturing And Healthcare, Ekin Koker Jan 2019

Three Essays On Data-Driven Optimization For Scheduling In Manufacturing And Healthcare, Ekin Koker

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on data-driven optimization for scheduling in manufacturing and healthcare. In Chapter 1, we briefly introduce the optimization problems tackled in these essays. The first of these essays deals with machine scheduling problems. In Chapter 2, we compare the effectiveness of direct positional variables against relative positional variables computationally in a variety of machine scheduling problems and we present our results. The second essay deals with a scheduling problem in healthcare: the team primary care practice. In Chapter 3, we build upon the two-stage stochastic integer programming model introduced by Alvarez Oh (2015) to solve ...


Sustainable Travel Incentives Optimization In Multimodal Networks, Hossein Ghafourian Jan 2019

Sustainable Travel Incentives Optimization In Multimodal Networks, Hossein Ghafourian

Masters Theses

Tripod, an integrated bi-level transportation management system, is a smartphone application from the potential user’s point of view which would be instantly accessed prior to performing the trip. Since there are constantly several alternatives for any trip, Tripod considers a series and combination of various parameters, including departure time, mode and route, and rewards for each alternative with a number of redeemable points for goods and services called “Tokens”. The framework responsible for computing the optimized number of tokens awarded to the set of available alternatives in order to minimize the system-wide energy consumption under a constrained Token budget ...


Advanced Virtual Reality Headset Based Training To Improve Young Drivers’ Latent Hazard Anticipation Ability, Ravi Agrawal Jan 2019

Advanced Virtual Reality Headset Based Training To Improve Young Drivers’ Latent Hazard Anticipation Ability, Ravi Agrawal

Masters Theses

Driving safety among young novice driver is one of the largest concern in the transportation domain. Many Paper-based or PC- based training program have been developed over the years to train the young novice driver to improve their driving skills (Hazard Anticipation). This training programs does help young novice driver to improve their situational awareness and so the hazard anticipation skills. But, there is one common problem with most of the currently available training programs. They are not very immersive, because such training program mostly provide plain view of the training scenario’s along with some description about the scenario ...


A Study On Controlling Power Supply Ramp-Up Time In Sram Pufs, Harshavardhan Ramanna Jan 2019

A Study On Controlling Power Supply Ramp-Up Time In Sram Pufs, Harshavardhan Ramanna

Masters Theses

With growing connectivity in the modern era, the risk of encrypted data stored in hardware being exposed to third-party adversaries is higher than ever. The security of encrypted data depends on the secrecy of the stored key. Conventional methods of storing keys in Non-Volatile Memory have been shown to be susceptible to physical attacks. Physically Unclonable Functions provide a unique alternative to conventional key storage. SRAM PUFs utilize inherent process variation caused during manufacturing to derive secret keys from the power-up values of SRAM memory cells.

This thesis analyzes the effect of supply ramp-up times on the reliability of SRAM ...


Calculation Of Scalar Isosurface Area And Applications, Kedar Prashant Shete Jan 2019

Calculation Of Scalar Isosurface Area And Applications, Kedar Prashant Shete

Masters Theses

The problem of calculating iso-surface statistics in turbulent flows is interesting for a number of reasons, some of them being combustion modeling, entrainment through turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces, calculating mass flux through iso-scalar surfaces and mapping of scalar fields. A fundamental effect of fuid turbulence is to wrinkle scalar iso-surfaces. A review of the literature shows that iso-surface calculations have primarily been done with geometric methods, which have challenges when used to calculate surfaces that have high complexity, such as in turbulent flows. In this thesis, we propose an alternative integral method and test it against analytical solutions. We present a ...


A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana Jan 2019

A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana

Doctoral Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) hold great potential for the renewable energy industry, but capital costs remain high. In efforts to increase FOWT substructure efficiency and reduce costs, this thesis investigates a novel multiline anchor concept in which FOWTs share anchors instead of being moored separately. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the force dynamics, design, and potential cost reduction of the system. Anchor forces are simulated using the NREL 5 MW reference turbine and OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, and multiline anchor force is computed as the vector sum of the contributing mooring line tensions.

The use of a ...


Equity And Efficiency In Multi-Modal Transportation Systems, Nicholas M. Fournier Jan 2019

Equity And Efficiency In Multi-Modal Transportation Systems, Nicholas M. Fournier

Doctoral Dissertations

The land-use pattern for many cities is a central business district surrounded by sprawling suburbs. This pattern can lead to an inefficient and congestion-prone transportation system due to a reliance on automobiles, because high-capacity transit is not efficient in low-density areas where insufficient travelers can access transit. This also poses an equity concern as the monetary cost of faster and more expensive travel disproportionately burdens low income travelers. This dissertation presents a deterministic approximation of a discrete choice model for mixed access and mainline transportation modes, meaning that travelers may use different modes to access a mainline system, such as ...


Power System Planning In Disparate Systems: Modeling Sustainability And Electricity Access, Destenie Nock Jan 2019

Power System Planning In Disparate Systems: Modeling Sustainability And Electricity Access, Destenie Nock

Doctoral Dissertations

Electricity goals around the world tend to focus on increasing social benefit through one of two avenues: (1) increasing overall system sustainability or (2) increasing access to electricity. These goals guide the transition of the power system. In pursuit of these goals decision makers will need modeling tools that can inform decisions, in a way that is flexible enough to include a wide range of preferences and goals. It is clear that the future generation mix of the power system will change, but the most sustainable solution, will change based on a country's goals. This dissertation will explore the ...


Laboratory Study Of The Geotechnical Properties Of Abraded Railway Ballast With Natural And Clay Mix Fouling, Andrew Rohrman Jan 2019

Laboratory Study Of The Geotechnical Properties Of Abraded Railway Ballast With Natural And Clay Mix Fouling, Andrew Rohrman

Doctoral Dissertations

With 140,000 miles of active track, railroad freight is the largest method of transporting goods in the United States. An important component of the railroad substructure is the gravel-size aggregate placed below the tracks, called ballast. The ballast is responsible for draining water away from the track, resisting forces from traffic loading, maintaining track position, and reducing loads to acceptable pressures for the subgrade. Ballast is typically selected to be highly angular and uniformly graded, but these characteristics are constantly changing under dynamic traffic loading. As the ballast is loaded, the particles abrade against each other, grinding off stone ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari Jan 2019

Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari

Doctoral Dissertations

Composite construction is prevalent in advanced structural systems where components of different materials are combined in the same structure to improve the performance of strong and economic structural sections. Maintaining continuity between the different structural components to produce monolithic structural behavior is challenging because of differences in the mechanical properties of these materials in terms of stiffness, strength, and ductility. The different components of the composite section are typically joined using adhesives and/or mechanical anchors to produce partial or full composite action. This dissertation discusses two types of shear interfaces intended to result in structural composite behavior. The first ...


The Promise Of Vr Headsets: Validation Of A Virtual Reality Headset-Based Driving Simulator For Measuring Drivers’ Hazard Anticipation Performance, Ganesh Pai Mangalore Jan 2019

The Promise Of Vr Headsets: Validation Of A Virtual Reality Headset-Based Driving Simulator For Measuring Drivers’ Hazard Anticipation Performance, Ganesh Pai Mangalore

Masters Theses

The objective of the current study is to evaluate the use of virtual reality (VR) headsets to measure driving performance. This is desirable because they are several orders of magnitude less expensive and, if validated, could greatly extend the powers of simulation. Out of several possible measures of performance that could be considered for evaluating VR headsets, the current study specifically examines drivers’ latent hazard anticipation behavior both because it has been linked to crashes and because it has been shown to be significantly poorer in young drivers compared to their experienced counterparts in traditional driving simulators and in open ...


Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Bridges With Closure Pour Connections And Diaphragms, Gercelino Ramos Jan 2019

Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Bridges With Closure Pour Connections And Diaphragms, Gercelino Ramos

Masters Theses

Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) has gained substantial popularity in new bridge construction and bridge deck replacement because it offers innovative construction techniques that result in time and cost savings when compared to traditional bridge construction practice. One technology commonly implemented in ABC to effectively execute its projects is the use of prefabricated bridge components (precast/prestressed bridge components). Precast/prestressed bridge components are fabricated offsite or near the site and then connected on-site using small volume closure pour connections. Diaphragms are also commonly used to strengthen the connection between certain prefabricated components used in ABC, such as beam elements. Bridges ...


Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves Jan 2019

Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves

Doctoral Dissertations

The residual stresses and scalar fluxes are required to close the momentum and scalar transport equations in simulations of turbulence that are not fully resolved in space.

In stratified turbulence, the stress and fluxes are statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic.

In this work, a tensorial basis set is derived analytically that potentially contains sufficient information about the anisotropic interaction between resolved and residual scales.

The residual stress tensor is evaluated by ...


Combining Human Factors And Data Science Methods To Evaluate The Use Of Free Text Communication Orders In Electronic Health Records, Swaminathan Kandaswamy Jan 2019

Combining Human Factors And Data Science Methods To Evaluate The Use Of Free Text Communication Orders In Electronic Health Records, Swaminathan Kandaswamy

Doctoral Dissertations

Medication errors are a leading cause of death in the United States. Electronic Health Records (EHR) along with Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) are considered promising ways to reduce these errors. However, EHR systems have not eliminated medication errors. Moreover, in some cases they have facilitated errors due to issues such as poor usability and negative effects on clinical workflows. The use of unexpected free text within a CPOE system can serve as a marker that the system does not adequately support clinical workflow. Prior studies have looked at the use of free text within medication orders, but the inclusion ...


Sparsity In Machine Learning: An Information Selecting Perspective, Siwei Feng Jan 2019

Sparsity In Machine Learning: An Information Selecting Perspective, Siwei Feng

Doctoral Dissertations

Today we are living in a world awash with data. Large volumes of data are acquired, analyzed and applied to tasks through machine learning algorithms in nearly every area of science, business, and industry. For example, medical scientists analyze the gene expression data from a single specimen to learn the underlying causes of disease (e.g. cancer) and choose the best treatment; retailers can know more about customers' shopping habits from retail data to adjust their business strategies to better appeal to customers; suppliers can enhance supply chain success through supply chain systems built on knowledge sharing. However, it is ...


Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli Jan 2019

Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli

Doctoral Dissertations

Known in the building industry throughout the world, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a massive timber building material with outstanding structural, fire, and seismic properties. CLT is a cost-competitive, sustainable construction material is a good candidate as a substitute material for concrete, masonry, and steel, in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. CLT is perpendicular layers of dimensional lumbers usually laminated together and forming a massive structural panel. This dissertation explores the viability of utilizing Massachusetts grown Eastern Hemlock and Eastern White Pine in CLT panels as pure or in conjunction with other high-value wood products. 59% of Massachusetts’ lands are covered ...


Insar Simulations For Swot And Dual Frequency Processing For Topographic Measurements, Gerard Masalias Huguet Jan 2019

Insar Simulations For Swot And Dual Frequency Processing For Topographic Measurements, Gerard Masalias Huguet

Masters Theses

In Earth remote sensing precise characterization of the backscatter coefficient is important to extract valuable information about the observed target. A system that eliminates platform motion during near-nadir airborne observations is presented in this thesis, showing an improvement on the accuracy of measurements for a Ka- band scatterometer previously developed at Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL). These very same results are used to simulate the reflectivity of such targets as seen from a spaceborne radar and estimate height errors based on mission-specific geometry. Finally, data collected from a dual-frequency airborne interferometer com- prised by the Ka-band system and an S-band ...


The Evacuation Problem In Multi-Story Buildings, Quang Hong Cung Jan 2019

The Evacuation Problem In Multi-Story Buildings, Quang Hong Cung

Masters Theses

The pressure from high population density leads to the creation of high-rise structures within urban areas. Consequently, the design of facilities which confront the challenges of emergency evacuation from high-rise buildings become a complex concern. This paper proposes an embedded program which combines a deterministic (GMAFLAD) and stochastic model (M/G/C/C State Dependent Queueing model) into one program, GMAF_MGCC, to solve an evacuation problem. An evacuation problem belongs to Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) class which will be formulated as a Quadratic Set Packing model (QSP) including the random flow out of the building and the random pairwise traffic ...


Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa Jan 2019

Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa

Masters Theses

To impede the progress of climate change, many policy makers are considering avenues to decarbonize electricity production. In addition to decarbonization, policy makers must consider how the cost of electricity will impact various stakeholders, balancing cost and social benefits. Offshore wind farms have the potential to produce affordable, carbon-free electricity, but they are a relatively new technology. The relative juvenescence of offshore wind lends itself to an uncertain future, regarding production costs. In this thesis, we seek to understand cost drivers behind offshore wind electricity by analyzing historic trends in offshore wind levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) through learning curves ...


Improving Resilience Of Communication In Information Dissemination For Time-Critical Applications, Rajvardhan Somraj Deshmukh Jan 2019

Improving Resilience Of Communication In Information Dissemination For Time-Critical Applications, Rajvardhan Somraj Deshmukh

Masters Theses

Severe weather impacts life and in this dire condition, people rely on communication, to organize relief and stay in touch with their loved ones. In such situations, cellular network infrastructure\footnote{We refer to cellular network infrastructure as infrastructure for the entirety of this document} might be affected due to power outage, link failures, etc. This urges us to look at Ad-hoc mode of communication, to offload major traffic partially or fully from the infrastructure, depending on the status of it.

We look into threefold approach, ranging from the case where the infrastructure is completely unavailable, to where it has ...


A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat Jan 2019

A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat

Masters Theses

Commonly used simulation models for predicting outbreaks of re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) take an individual-level or a population-level approach to modeling contact dynamics. These approaches are a trade-off between the ability to incorporate individual-level dynamics and computational efficiency. Agent-based network models (ABNM) use an individual-level approach by simulating the entire population and its contact structure, which increases the ability of adding detailed individual-level characteristics. However, as this method is computationally expensive, ABNMs use scaled-down versions of the full population, which are unsuitable for low prevalence diseases as the number of infected cases would become negligible during scaling-down. Compartmental models use ...


Electrospinning Nanofibers From Chitosan-Hyaluronic Acid Complex Coacervates, Juanfeng Sun Jan 2019

Electrospinning Nanofibers From Chitosan-Hyaluronic Acid Complex Coacervates, Juanfeng Sun

Masters Theses

Electrospun nanofibers have been used for many applications, but a reliance on organic solvents limits their use in biomedical fields. In this study, we successfully electrospun nanofibers from aqueous chitosan-hyaluronic acid complex coacervates. We studied how solvent’ properties affected the average nanofiber diameter by using pure water as a solvent versus ethanol-water solutions. Experimentally, we investigated the effect of electrospinning apparatus parameters, such as how the applied voltage affected fiber formation and morphology. The smallest average nanofiber diameter was determined to be around 115 ± 30 nm when 3 wt% ethanol coacervate samples were electrospun using the applied voltage of 24 ...


Modeling The Effect Of New Commuter Bus Service On Demand And The Impact On Ghg Emissions: Application To Greater Boston, Christopher Lyman Jan 2019

Modeling The Effect Of New Commuter Bus Service On Demand And The Impact On Ghg Emissions: Application To Greater Boston, Christopher Lyman

Masters Theses

The transportation sector is considered one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in metropolitan areas, and any efforts to reduce these emissions requires strategic management of multiple transportation modes. This paper presents a method to identify opportunities to reduce GHG emissions by expanding commuter bus services and incentives to shift commuters from private cars to transit. The approach uses a nested multinomial logit model for mode choice in a region that includes driving alone, carpooling, walking, cycling, and using four possible transit modes (ferry, commuter rail, rapid transit and bus) by walk access or driving access. A ...


The Umass Experimental X-Band Radar (Umaxx): An Upgrade Of The Casa Ma-1 To Support Cross-Polarization Measurements, Jezabel Vilardell Sanchez Jan 2019

The Umass Experimental X-Band Radar (Umaxx): An Upgrade Of The Casa Ma-1 To Support Cross-Polarization Measurements, Jezabel Vilardell Sanchez

Masters Theses

Ground-based radars are instruments commonly used to surveil the precipitation climate of the surrounding areas. Weather events are characterized by collecting backscatter data and analyzing computed products such as the Reflectivity Factor, the Doppler Velocity, the Spectrum Width, the Differential Reflectivity, the Co-polar Correlation Coefficient and the Differential Propagation Phase. The ability of the radar to transmit different polarization waves, such as horizontal and vertical polarization, allow for further analysis of the weather given the capability to perform co-polar and cross-polar measurements. The Linear Depolarization Ratio is another computed product based on the difference in power between the co-polarized and ...


Computational Fluid Dynamics Models Of Electromagnetic Levitation Experiments In Reduced Gravity, Gwendolyn Bracker Jan 2019

Computational Fluid Dynamics Models Of Electromagnetic Levitation Experiments In Reduced Gravity, Gwendolyn Bracker

Masters Theses

Electromagnetic levitation experiments provide a powerful tool that allows for the study of nucleation, solidification and growth in a containerless processing environment. Containerless processing allows for the study of reactive melts at elevated temperatures without chemical interactions or contamination from a container. Further, by removing the interface between the liquid and its container, this processing technique allows for greater access to the undercooled region for solidification studies. However, in these experiments it is important to understand the magnetohydrodynamic flow within the sample and the effects that this fluid flow has on the experiment.

A recent solidification study found that aluminum-nickel ...


On The Fuel Spray Applications Of Multi-Phase Eulerian Cfd Techniques, Gabriel Lev Jacobsohn Jan 2019

On The Fuel Spray Applications Of Multi-Phase Eulerian Cfd Techniques, Gabriel Lev Jacobsohn

Masters Theses

Eulerian-Eulerian Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques continue to show promise for characterizing the internal flow and near-field spray for various fuel injection systems. These regions are difficult to observe experimentally, and simulations of such regions are limited by computational expense or reliance on empiricism using other methods. The physics governing spray atomization are first introduced. Impinging jet sprays and Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) are selected as applications, and modern computational/experimental approaches to their study are reviewed. Two in-house CFD solvers are described and subsequently applied in several case studies. Accurate prediction of the liquid distribution in a like-doublet impinging ...


High Fidelity Modeling Of Cold-Formed Steel Single Lap Shear Screw Fastened Connections, Rita Kalo Jan 2019

High Fidelity Modeling Of Cold-Formed Steel Single Lap Shear Screw Fastened Connections, Rita Kalo

Masters Theses

Cold-formed steel connections are commonly fastened using self-tapping self-drilling screws. The behavior of these connections can differ based on the screw manufacturer or the cold-formed steel product used, both of which have a large selection available for use in industry. Because of their popularity and the many possible variations of these connections, researchers have frequently tested screw connections to characterize their behavior. However, repeatedly conducting this type of experiment is time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to create finite element models that can successfully predict the behavior of single lap shear screw connections, a common ...


Performance Of Concrete Tunnel Systems Subject To Fault Displacement, Michael Morano Jan 2019

Performance Of Concrete Tunnel Systems Subject To Fault Displacement, Michael Morano

Masters Theses

A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) investigation of concrete tunnel systems traversing seismic faults is carried out to determine how to effectively mitigate the stresses induced in the liner when subject to fault displacement. A parametric study of various fault parameters, both in the damage zone and competent rock, is carried out to determine the site conditions which induce the most stress on the tunnel liner system. Results indicate that friction angle, cohesion, and elastic modulus of fault zones have varying effects on the stresses induced on the liner. The width of damage zone and expected displacements are also investigated and ...


Ammonia Production From A Non-Grid Connected Floating Offshore Wind-Farm: A System-Level Techno-Economic Review, Vismay V. Parmar Jan 2019

Ammonia Production From A Non-Grid Connected Floating Offshore Wind-Farm: A System-Level Techno-Economic Review, Vismay V. Parmar

Masters Theses

According to U.S. Department of Energy, offshore wind energy has the potential to generate 7,200 TWh of energy annually, which is nearly twice the current annual energy consumption in the United States. With technical advances in the offshore wind industry, particularly in the floating platforms, windfarms are pushing further into the ocean. This creates new engineering challenges for transmission of energy from offshore site to onshore. One possible solution is to convert the energy produced into chemical energy of ammonia, which was investigated by Dr. Eric Morgan. In his doctoral dissertation, he assessed the technical requirements and economics ...