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University of Kentucky

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Possible Link Between R-Wave Amplitude Alternans And T-Wave Alternans In Ecgs, Sahar Alaei Jan 2019

A Possible Link Between R-Wave Amplitude Alternans And T-Wave Alternans In Ecgs, Sahar Alaei

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is the largest cause of natural deaths in the USA, accounting for over 300,000 deaths annually. The major reason for SCD is Ventricular Arrhythmia (VA). Therefore, there is need for exploration of approaches to predict increased risk for VA. Alternans of the T wave in the ECG (TWA) is widely investigated as a potential predictor of VA, however, clinical trials show that TWA has high negative predictive value but poor positive predictive value. A possible reason that TWA has a large number of false positives is that a pattern of alternans known as concordant alternans ...


Evaluation Of Air Movement In Equestrian Facilities And On Equine Athletes, Staci Elaine Mcgill Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Air Movement In Equestrian Facilities And On Equine Athletes, Staci Elaine Mcgill

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Ventilation and air movement are important aspects of animal agriculture and is frequently neglected in equine facilities. This paper discusses three different studies that examine different components of ventilation and air movement. One is a fan orientation study which examines how fans impact the stall environment, the second is a cooling study questioning whether forced air speed across a horse increases the rate of cool out after intense exercise, and the last is a survey examining ventilation, air quality, and health concerns in indoor arenas.

The stall fan study took place over two summers with the goal of determining how ...


Connected And Autonomous Vehicles Effects On Emergency Response Times, Austin William Obenauf Jan 2019

Connected And Autonomous Vehicles Effects On Emergency Response Times, Austin William Obenauf

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Emergency response times have been shown to be directly correlated with mortality rates of out-of-hospital patients. Studies have been conducted to show the relationship between time and mortality rates until patients receive the proper treatment. With more cardiac arrests and other life threatening illnesses occurring in the United States, more emergency calls will be required as well. As of today, technological advancements have been made to reduce response times, but human factors still require certain procedures, causing delays in the run time and increasing the rate of mortality. Here we show the results of emergency response times with the market ...


A Brain-Computer Interface For Closed-Loop Sensory Stimulation During Motor Training In Patients With Tetraplegia, Sarah Helen Thomas Jan 2019

A Brain-Computer Interface For Closed-Loop Sensory Stimulation During Motor Training In Patients With Tetraplegia, Sarah Helen Thomas

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Normal movement execution requires proper coupling of motor and sensory activation. An increasing body of literature supports the idea that incorporation of sensory stimulation into motor rehabilitation practices increases its effectiveness. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) studies, in which afferent and efferent pathways are activated in tandem, have brought attention to the importance of well-timed stimulation rather than non-associative (i.e., open-loop) activation. In patients with tetraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI), varying degrees of upper limb function may remain and could be harnessed for rehabilitation. Incorporating associative sensory stimulation coupled with self-paced motor training would be a means for ...


Noninvasive Multimodal Diffuse Optical Imaging Of Vulnerable Tissue Hemodynamics, Mingjun Zhao Jan 2019

Noninvasive Multimodal Diffuse Optical Imaging Of Vulnerable Tissue Hemodynamics, Mingjun Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Measurement of tissue hemodynamics provides vital information for the assessment of tissue viability. This thesis reports three noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical systems for spectroscopic measurements and tomographic imaging of tissue hemodynamics in vulnerable tissues with the goal of disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. A hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy/diffuse correlation spectroscopy (NIRS/DCS) instrument with a contact fiber-optic probe was developed and utilized for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism in exercising gastrocnemius. Results measured by the hybrid NIRS/DCS instrument in 37 subjects (mean age: 67 ± 6) indicated that vitamin D supplement plus ...


Calibrated Short Tr Recovery Mri For Rapid Measurement Of Brain-Blood Partition Coefficient And Correction Of Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow, Scott William Thalman Jan 2019

Calibrated Short Tr Recovery Mri For Rapid Measurement Of Brain-Blood Partition Coefficient And Correction Of Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow, Scott William Thalman

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The high prevalence and mortality of cerebrovascular disease has led to the development of several methods to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in vivo. One of these, arterial spin labeling (ASL), is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with the advantage that it is completely non-invasive. The quantification of CBF using ASL requires correction for a tissue specific parameter called the brain-blood partition coefficient (BBPC). Despite regional and inter-subject variability in BBPC, the current recommended implementation of ASL uses a constant assumed value of 0.9 mL/g for all regions of the brain, all subjects, and even all ...


Investigating The Feasibility Of Using Mesoporous Silica Particles To Deliver Glucose During Anaerobic Fermentation, Megan E. Walz Jan 2019

Investigating The Feasibility Of Using Mesoporous Silica Particles To Deliver Glucose During Anaerobic Fermentation, Megan E. Walz

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

The study presented herein investigated a potential low-energy method to separate and concentrate glucose from a lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The motivation for this method was twofold: 1) to provide the fermentation microorganism an optimal glucose concentration and 2) to supply a fermentation media free of inhibitory compounds. Two sizes of porous silica particles (with 7 nm and 2.3 nm pores) were synthesized and their ability to adsorb glucose from solution confirmed. Next, the ability of two different microorganisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Streptococcus bovis, to utilize sugars adsorbed to the porous silica particles was investigated.

Both the 7 nm and 2 ...


Evaluating The Influence Of The Forestry Reclamation Approach On The Hydrology Of Appalachian Coal Mined Lands, Morgan F. Gerlitz Jan 2019

Evaluating The Influence Of The Forestry Reclamation Approach On The Hydrology Of Appalachian Coal Mined Lands, Morgan F. Gerlitz

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

The Appalachian Region is a rich and diverse forest ecosystem impacted by present and past mining activities. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 was enacted to resolve many of the environmental problems caused by surfacing mining, such as landslides, erosion, flooding, and poor water quality. As with many solutions, this one came with its own set of environmental problems due to compaction and the introduction of aggressive non-native grasses and shrubs altering hydrologic processes and ecosystem function. The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method for re-establishing forested ecosystems on mined lands. This project evaluated the ...


Design And Testing Of A Wind Energy Harnessing System For Forced Convective Drying Of Grain In Low Wind Speed, Warm And Humid Climates, Francis Akumabi Agbali Jan 2019

Design And Testing Of A Wind Energy Harnessing System For Forced Convective Drying Of Grain In Low Wind Speed, Warm And Humid Climates, Francis Akumabi Agbali

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Forced convective drying using a wind turbine mechanically connected to a ventilation fan was hypothesized for low cost and rapid grain drying in developing countries. The idea was tested using an expandable wind turbine blade system with variable pitch, at low wind speeds in a wind tunnel. The design was based on empirical and theoretical models embedded in a graphical user interface (GUI) created to estimate airflow-power requirements for drying ear corn. Output airflow (0.0016 - 0.0052 m3kg-1s-1) increased within the study wind speed range (2.0 - 5.5 m/s). System efficiency peak ...


Removing Vehicle Speed From Apparent Wind Velocity, Austin M. Weiss Jan 2019

Removing Vehicle Speed From Apparent Wind Velocity, Austin M. Weiss

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Variable-rate technologies for sprayer applications stand to increase efficacy by ensuring the right amount of chemical is applied at the right location. However, external environmental factors such as droplet drift caused by variable ambient condition, are not yet integrated into modern sprayer systems. Real-time wind velocity measurements can be used to control droplet spectra for reducing spray drift by actuating a variable-orifice nozzle. This work aimed to develop data processing methods needed to filter noise and remove vehicle speed from wind velocity measurements collected with an ultrasonic anemometer aboard a moving platform. Using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), vehicle ...


Investigation Of Atmospheric Effects On Vapor Intrusion Processes Using Modelling Approaches, Elham Shirazi Jan 2019

Investigation Of Atmospheric Effects On Vapor Intrusion Processes Using Modelling Approaches, Elham Shirazi

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Most people in the United States (US) spend considerable amount of time indoors—about 90% of their time as compared to outdoors, which makes the US population vulnerable to adverse health effects of indoor air contaminants. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations are well-known to be higher in indoor air than outdoor air. One source of VOC concentrations in indoor air that has gained considerable attention in public health and environmental regulatory communities is vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion is the process by which subsurface vapors enter indoor spaces from contaminated soil and groundwater. It has been documented to cause indoor air ...


Adapting Crash Modification Factors For The Connected And Autonomous Vehicle Environment, Federico Valentin Lause Iii Jan 2019

Adapting Crash Modification Factors For The Connected And Autonomous Vehicle Environment, Federico Valentin Lause Iii

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

The Crash Modification Factor (CMF) clearinghouse can be used to estimate benefits for specific highway safety countermeasures. It assists safety professionals in the allocation of investments. The clearinghouse contains over 7000 entries of which only 446 are categorized as intelligent transportation systems or advanced technology, but none directly address connected or autonomous vehicles (CAVs). Further, the effectiveness of highway safety countermeasures is assumed to remain constant over time, an assumption that is particularly problematic as new technologies are introduced. For example, for the existing fleet of human-driven vehicles, installation of rumble strip can potentially reduce “run-off-road” crashes by 40%. If ...


Procure-To-Pay Software In The Digital Age: An Exploration And Analysis Of Efficiency Gains And Cybersecurity Risks In Modern Procurement Systems, Drew Lane Jan 2019

Procure-To-Pay Software In The Digital Age: An Exploration And Analysis Of Efficiency Gains And Cybersecurity Risks In Modern Procurement Systems, Drew Lane

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

Procure-to-Pay (P2P) softwares are an integral part of the payment and procurement processing functions at large-scale governmental institutions. These softwares house all of the financial functions related to procurement, accounts payable, and often human resources, helping to facilitate and automate the process from initiation of a payment or purchase, to the actual disbursal of funds. Often, these softwares contain budgeting and financial reporting tools as part of the offering. As such an integral part of the financial process, these softwares obviously come at an immense cost from a set of reputable vendors. In the case of government, these vendors mainly ...


Decomposing A Watershed’S Nitrate Signal Using Spatial Sampling And Continuous Sensor Data, Evan Clare Jan 2019

Decomposing A Watershed’S Nitrate Signal Using Spatial Sampling And Continuous Sensor Data, Evan Clare

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Watershed features, physiographic setting, geology, climate, and hydrologic processes combine to produce a time-variant nutrient concentration signal at the watershed outlet. Anthropogenic influences, such as increased agricultural pressures and urbanization, have increased overall nutrient loadings delivered to the fluvial network. The impact of such increased nutrient loadings on Kentucky’s drinking water remains a potential threat to the region.

By coupling spatial sampling of nitrate concentrations in surface water with contemporary nutrient and water quality sensor technology, a decomposition of the Upper South Elkhorn watershed’s nitrate signal and an estimation of source timing and loading in the watershed was ...


Pathway Connectivity In An Epigenetic Fluviokarst System: Insight From A Numerical Modelling Study In Kentucky Usa, Ethan Adams Jan 2019

Pathway Connectivity In An Epigenetic Fluviokarst System: Insight From A Numerical Modelling Study In Kentucky Usa, Ethan Adams

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Fluviokarst landscapes are dominated by both fluvial and karst features. Interpreting hydrologic pathways of fluviokarst can be confounded by the unknown connectivity of the various flow regimes. A combined discrete-continuum (CDC) hybrid numeric model for simulating the surface and subsurface hydrology and hydraulics in fluviokarst basins was formulated to investigate fluviokarst pathways. This model was applied to the Cane Run Royal Springs basin in Kentucky USA. A priori constraints on parameterization were avoided via multi-stage optimization utilizing Sobol sequencing and high performance computing. Modelling results provide evidence of hydrologic pathways dominated by fracture flow, epikarst transfer and runoff. Fractures in ...


Redefining Construction “As-Built” Plans To Meet Current Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Needs, Victoria Lynn Lasley Jan 2019

Redefining Construction “As-Built” Plans To Meet Current Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Needs, Victoria Lynn Lasley

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

As-built drawings are the traditional method used by the construction industry to record changes made during construction. As-builts provide valuable information for new design projects as well as rehabilitation and remediation projects. The completeness and accuracy of these plans are essential for transportation industries and their success. While the importance of as-builts is widely recognized, the process of creating them has proven to be difficult. It is a time consuming process and entities often lack the resources necessary to complete accurate and detailed as-builts. After an investigation of current as-built operations within State Transportation Agencies, recommendations have been made to ...


E-Construction Technologies For Efficient Highway Construction Inspections, Dhaivat Patel Jan 2019

E-Construction Technologies For Efficient Highway Construction Inspections, Dhaivat Patel

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Over recent years, organizations such as the Federal Highway Administration and Departments of Transportation across the United States have showed interest in automating highway construction processes. The addition of e-Construction and other advanced technologies can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of highway paving operations, specifically paving inspections. Activities such as collecting load tickets, tracking pavement lay-down temperatures, and monitoring roller movement are antiquated practices that DOT inspectors perform during paving operations. E-Ticketing, Paver Mounted Thermal Profiling, and Intelligent Compaction were proposed to automate paving inspections and were recently tested in two resurfacing pilot projects in the state of Kentucky ...


Improving Safety Performance Of Highway Maintenance Crews Through Pre-Task Safety Toolbox Talks, Zamaan Al-Shabbani Jan 2019

Improving Safety Performance Of Highway Maintenance Crews Through Pre-Task Safety Toolbox Talks, Zamaan Al-Shabbani

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

The dangerous work environment in the construction industry and the inherent high risks associated with construction work make it the focus of safety training and regulations. Highway construction and maintenance has unique hazards but seemingly less directly applicable safety standards, regulations, and programs. Department of Transportation (DOT) employees working in highway maintenance are exposed to a variety of unique hazards specifically associated with their work and not relating to the adjacent traffic. Yet, highway construction and maintenance work has not received sufficient attention in terms of safety research and programs. The lack of safety training and education in highway construction ...


Evaluate Probe Speed Data Quality To Improve Transportation Modeling, Fahmida Rahman Jan 2019

Evaluate Probe Speed Data Quality To Improve Transportation Modeling, Fahmida Rahman

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Probe speed data are widely used to calculate performance measures for quantifying state-wide traffic conditions. Estimation of the accurate performance measures requires adequate speed data observations. However, probe vehicles reporting the speed data may not be available all the time on each road segment. Agencies need to develop a good understanding of the adequacy of these reported data before using them in different transportation applications. This study attempts to systematically assess the quality of the probe data by proposing a method, which determines the minimum sample rate for checking data adequacy. The minimum sample rate is defined as the minimum ...


An Assessment Of Historical Traffic Forecast Accuracy And Sources Of Forecast Error, Jawad Mahmud Hoque Jan 2019

An Assessment Of Historical Traffic Forecast Accuracy And Sources Of Forecast Error, Jawad Mahmud Hoque

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Transportation infrastructure improvement projects are typically huge and have significant economic and environmental effects. Forecasts of demand of the facility in the form of traffic level help size the project as well as choose between several alternatives. Inaccuracy in these forecasts can thus have a great impact on the efficiency of the operational design and the benefits accrued from the project against the cost. Despite this understanding, evaluation of traffic forecast inaccuracy has been too few, especially for un-tolled roads in the United States. This study, part of a National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) funded project, bridges this gap ...


Hazard Recognition And Risk Perception Among Union Electricians, Elyas Jazayeri Jan 2019

Hazard Recognition And Risk Perception Among Union Electricians, Elyas Jazayeri

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Hazard recognition and risk perception are two important factors that are a focus of most safety training programs. According to previous research, unrecognized hazards could lead to underestimation of risks, which ultimately could lead to injuries and fatalities. The primary objective of this research was to assess hazard recognition and safety risk perception skills in the electrician trade among electricians in unions. Another goal of this study was to find possible correlation between level of engagement in safety training and hazard recognition and risk perception skills. The research objectives were accomplished by gathering data from sixty-seven apprentices and journeymen across ...


Quantifying The Impact Of Transportation Network Companies (Tncs) On Traffic Congestion In San Francisco, Sneha Roy Jan 2019

Quantifying The Impact Of Transportation Network Companies (Tncs) On Traffic Congestion In San Francisco, Sneha Roy

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

This research investigates whether Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, live up to their stated vision of reducing congestion by complementing transit and reducing car ownership in major cities. The objective of this research study is to answer the question: are TNCs are correlated to traffic congestion in the city of San Francisco? If found to be so, do they increase or decrease traffic congestion for the case of San Francisco? If and how TNC pickups and drop-offs impact traffic congestion within San Francisco? And finally, how does the magnitude of this measured command of TNCs on ...


Use Of Functionalized Bimetallic Membranes For Treatment Of Contaminated Groundwater At A Hazardous Waste Site In Kentucky, Lucy C. Pacholik Jan 2019

Use Of Functionalized Bimetallic Membranes For Treatment Of Contaminated Groundwater At A Hazardous Waste Site In Kentucky, Lucy C. Pacholik

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Providing access to clean drinking water will continue to be a challenge for civil engineers for generations to come. Since many communities around the world rely on groundwater as a source of drinking water, remediation technologies must be implemented at sites where groundwater contamination exists due to years of mismanagement of hazardous waste. Using nanosized zero-valent metals such as iron and zinc embedded within and on the surface of functionalized (PAA) membrane filters has shown to be an effective dechlorination technique for contaminated groundwater. Introducing a noble metal such as Pd or Ni increases reaction rates by acting a catalyst ...


The Use Of 3-D Highway Differential Geometry In Crash Prediction Modeling, Kiriakos Amiridis Jan 2019

The Use Of 3-D Highway Differential Geometry In Crash Prediction Modeling, Kiriakos Amiridis

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

The objective of this research is to evaluate and introduce a new methodology regarding rural highway safety. Current practices rely on crash prediction models that utilize specific explanatory variables, whereas the depository of knowledge for past research is the Highway Safety Manual (HSM). Most of the prediction models in the HSM identify the effect of individual geometric elements on crash occurrence and consider their combination in a multiplicative manner, where each effect is multiplied with others to determine their combined influence. The concepts of 3-dimesnional (3-D) representation of the roadway surface have also been explored in the past aiming to ...


Analysis Of The Pile Load Tests At The Us 68/Ky 80 Bridge Over Kentucky Lake, Edward Lawson Jan 2019

Analysis Of The Pile Load Tests At The Us 68/Ky 80 Bridge Over Kentucky Lake, Edward Lawson

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

Large diameter piles are widely used as foundations to support buildings, bridges, and other structures. As a result, it is critical for the field to have an optimized approach for quality control and efficiency purposes to measure the suggested number of load tests and the required measured capacities driven piles. In this thesis, an analysis of a load test program designed for proposed bridge replacements at Kentucky Lake is performed. It includes a detailed site exploration study with in-situ and laboratory testing. The pile load test program included monitoring of a steel H-pile and steel open ended pipe pile during ...


Spatial Augmented Reality Using Structured Light Illumination, Ying Yu Jan 2019

Spatial Augmented Reality Using Structured Light Illumination, Ying Yu

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Spatial augmented reality is a particular kind of augmented reality technique that uses projector to blend the real objects with virtual contents. Coincidentally, as a means of 3D shape measurement, structured light illumination makes use of projector as part of its system as well. It uses the projector to generate important clues to establish the correspondence between the 2D image coordinate system and the 3D world coordinate system. So it is appealing to build a system that can carry out the functionalities of both spatial augmented reality and structured light illumination.

In this dissertation, we present all the hardware platforms ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Planar-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells, Guoduan Liu Jan 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Planar-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells, Guoduan Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Currently organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is one kind of promising photovoltaic technology due to low production cost, easy fabrication method and high power conversion efficiency.

Charge transport layers are found to be critical for device performance and stability. A traditional electron transport layer (ETL), such as TiO2 (Titanium dioxide), is not very efficient for charge extraction at the interface. Compared with TiO2, SnO2 (Tin (IV) Oxide) possesses several advantages such as higher mobility and better energy level alignment. In addition, PSCs with planar structure can be processed at lower temperature compared to PSCs with other ...


Image-Based Roadway Assessment Using Convolutional Neural Networks, Weilian Song Jan 2019

Image-Based Roadway Assessment Using Convolutional Neural Networks, Weilian Song

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

Road crashes are one of the main causes of death in the United States. To reduce the number of accidents, roadway assessment programs take a proactive approach, collecting data and identifying high-risk roads before crashes occur. However, the cost of data acquisition and manual annotation has restricted the effect of these programs. In this thesis, we propose methods to automate the task of roadway safety assessment using deep learning. Specifically, we trained convolutional neural networks on publicly available roadway images to predict safety-related metrics: the star rating score and free-flow speed. Inference speeds for our methods are mere milliseconds, enabling ...


Novel Applications Of Machine Learning In Bioinformatics, Yi Zhang Jan 2019

Novel Applications Of Machine Learning In Bioinformatics, Yi Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

Technological advances in next-generation sequencing and biomedical imaging have led to a rapid increase in biomedical data dimension and acquisition rate, which is challenging the conventional data analysis strategies. Modern machine learning techniques promise to leverage large data sets for finding hidden patterns within them, and for making accurate predictions. This dissertation aims to design novel machine learning-based models to transform biomedical big data into valuable biological insights. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on three bioinformatics domains: splice junction classification, gene regulatory network reconstruction, and lesion detection in mammograms.

A critical step in defining gene structures and mRNA ...


Automated Network Security With Exceptions Using Sdn, Sergio A. Rivera Polanco Jan 2019

Automated Network Security With Exceptions Using Sdn, Sergio A. Rivera Polanco

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

Campus networks have recently experienced a proliferation of devices ranging from personal use devices (e.g. smartphones, laptops, tablets), to special-purpose network equipment (e.g. firewalls, network address translation boxes, network caches, load balancers, virtual private network servers, and authentication servers), as well as special-purpose systems (badge readers, IP phones, cameras, location trackers, etc.). To establish directives and regulations regarding the ways in which these heterogeneous systems are allowed to interact with each other and the network infrastructure, organizations typically appoint policy writing committees (PWCs) to create acceptable use policy (AUP) documents describing the rules and behavioral guidelines that all ...