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University of Central Florida

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Fluctuations In Walking Speeds And Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters When Walking On A Self-Paced Treadmill At Level, Incline, And Decline Slopes, Cesar Castano May 2019

Fluctuations In Walking Speeds And Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters When Walking On A Self-Paced Treadmill At Level, Incline, And Decline Slopes, Cesar Castano

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

On a daily basis, humans walk over a variety of terrains. Studies have shown that spatiotemporal gait parameters, such as stride length, stride frequency, stride variability, etc., change when humans walk down a decline and up an incline compared to level ground. However, these studies have been limited to using fixed speed treadmills or analyzing a small number of strides when conducted over ground. Thus, there is a need to investigate the fluctuations in spatiotemporal gait parameters of humans walking at their self-selected speed, which requires recording hundreds of strides. Here we hypothesized that subjects will walk with a slower ...


Energy Expenditure And Stability During Self-Paced Walking On Different Slopes, Alanna Raffaelli May 2019

Energy Expenditure And Stability During Self-Paced Walking On Different Slopes, Alanna Raffaelli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic power and cost of transport (COT) are common quantifiers for effort when performing tasks including walking and running. Most studies focus on using a range of normal walking speeds over level ground or varied slopes. However, these studies use fixed-speed conditions. Fatigue, stability, metabolic expenditure, heart rate, and many other factors contribute to normal walking speed varying over time. This study aimed to show that allowing a subject to walk with a self-paced speed should correlate to a minimum COT at a given slope. This study also aimed to determine if a preferred slope exists based on minimizing metabolic ...


Conceptualization And Fabrication Of A Bioinspired Mobile Robot Actuated By Shape Memory Alloy Springs, Lietsel Richardson May 2019

Conceptualization And Fabrication Of A Bioinspired Mobile Robot Actuated By Shape Memory Alloy Springs, Lietsel Richardson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work is an experimental study and fabrication of design concepts to validate the feasibility of smart materials and their applications in bio-inspired robotics. Shape-Memory Alloy (SMA) springs are selected as the smart material actuators of interest to achieve locomotion in the proposed mobile robot. Based on a previous design of the robot, this work focuses on both implementing a new locomotion concept and reducing size and weight of the previous design, both using SMA based actuators. Objectives are met in consideration of the conceptual mechanics of circular robot locomotion. The first prototype is a variation of the original design ...


Streamflow Prediction In Ungauged Basins Located Within Data-Scarce Regions, Mohammadhossein Alipour May 2019

Streamflow Prediction In Ungauged Basins Located Within Data-Scarce Regions, Mohammadhossein Alipour

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Preservation and or restoration of riverine ecosystem requires quantification of alterations inflicted by water resources development projects. Long records of streamflow data are the first piece of information required in order to enable this analysis. Ungauged catchments located within data-scarce regions lack long records of streamflow data. In this dissertation, a multi-objective framework named Streamflow Prediction under Extreme Data-scarcity (SPED) is proposed for streamflow prediction in ungauged catchments located within large-scale regions of minimal hydrometeorologic observation. Multi-objective nature of SPED allows for balancing runoff efficiency with selection of parameter values that resemble catchment physical characteristics. Uncertain and low-resolution information are ...


Point Cloud Technology For Analysis Of Existing Structures, Jacob Cano May 2019

Point Cloud Technology For Analysis Of Existing Structures, Jacob Cano

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For this thesis, a study was completed on two different structures on the UCF Orlando campus through the use of both structural plans and point cloud technology. The results sought to understand the viability of point cloud technology as an accurate tool for the static and dynamic modal analysis of existing structures. For static analysis, a portion of the framing of Spectrum Stadium was rendered, modeled, analyzed and compared to a previous case study. The results emphasized how different users can render dissimilar member sizes and lengths due to human judgment on point cloud visuals. The study also found that ...


Applications Of Deep Learning Models For Traffic Prediction Problems, Rezaur Rahman May 2019

Applications Of Deep Learning Models For Traffic Prediction Problems, Rezaur Rahman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Deep learning coupled with existing sensors based multiresolution traffic data and future connected technologies has immense potential to improve traffic operation and management. But to deal with complex transportation problems, we need efficient modeling frameworks for deep learning models. In this study, we propose two different modeling frameworks using Deep Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network (LSTM NN) model to predict future traffic state (speed and signal queue length). In our first problem, we present a modeling framework using deep LSTM NN model to predict traffic speeds in freeways during regular traffic condition as well as under extreme traffic demand, such ...


Value-Of-Information Based Data Collection In Underwater Sensor Networks, Fahad Khan May 2019

Value-Of-Information Based Data Collection In Underwater Sensor Networks, Fahad Khan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Underwater sensor networks are deployed in marine environments, presenting specific challenges compared to sensor networks deployed in terrestrial settings. Among the major issues that underwater sensor networks face is communication medium limitations that result in low bandwidth and long latency. This creates problems when these networks need to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. A possible solution to address this issue is to use mobile sinks such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to offload these large quantities of data. Such mobile sinks are called data mules. Often it is the case that a sensor network is deployed to ...


Leveraging The Intrinsic Switching Behaviors Of Spintronic Devices For Digital And Neuromorphic Circuits, Steven Pyle May 2019

Leveraging The Intrinsic Switching Behaviors Of Spintronic Devices For Digital And Neuromorphic Circuits, Steven Pyle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With semiconductor technology scaling approaching atomic limits, novel approaches utilizing new memory and computation elements are sought in order to realize increased density, enhanced functionality, and new computational paradigms. Spintronic devices offer intriguing avenues to improve digital circuits by leveraging non-volatility to reduce static power dissipation and vertical integration for increased density. Novel hybrid spintronic-CMOS digital circuits are developed herein that illustrate enhanced functionality at reduced static power consumption and area cost. The developed spin-CMOS D Flip-Flop offers improved power-gating strategies by achieving instant store/restore capabilities while using 10 fewer transistors than typical CMOS-only implementations. The spin-CMOS Muller C-Element ...


Game-Theoretic Frameworks And Strategies For Defense Against Network Jamming And Collocation Attacks, Ahmed Hemida May 2019

Game-Theoretic Frameworks And Strategies For Defense Against Network Jamming And Collocation Attacks, Ahmed Hemida

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Modern networks are becoming increasingly more complex, heterogeneous, and densely connected. While more diverse services are enabled to an ever-increasing number of users through ubiquitous networking and pervasive computing, several important challenges have emerged. For example, densely connected networks are prone to higher levels of interference, which makes them more vulnerable to jamming attacks. Also, the utilization of software-based protocols to perform routing, load balancing and power management functions in Software-Defined Networks gives rise to more vulnerabilities that could be exploited by malicious users and adversaries. Moreover, the increased reliance on cloud computing services due to a growing demand for ...


Resource Optimization In Visible Light Communication Using Internet Of Things, Akash Dey May 2019

Resource Optimization In Visible Light Communication Using Internet Of Things, Akash Dey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the modern day, there is a serious spectrum crunch in the legacy radio frequency (RF) band, for which visible light communication (VLC) can be a promising option. VLC is a short-range wireless communication variant which uses the visible light spectrum. In this thesis, we are using a VLC-based architecture for providing scalable communications to Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices where a multi-element hemispherical bulb is used that can transmit data streams from multiple light emitting diode (LED) boards. The essence of this architecture is that it uses a Line-of-Sight (LoS) alignment protocol that handles the hand-off issue created by the movement ...


Characterization Of Florida Landfills With Elevated Temperatures, Ryan Joslyn May 2019

Characterization Of Florida Landfills With Elevated Temperatures, Ryan Joslyn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of elevated temperatures within landfills is a very challenging issue for landfill operators to detect and correct. Little is known regarding the causes of elevated temperatures (ETs) and the number of landfills currently operating under such conditions. Therefore, the goal of this research was to determine which landfills within Florida have been impacted by ETs, and to develop a more complete understanding of the factors that may lead to these landfills becoming elevated temperature landfills (ETLFs). Historical landfill gas wellhead data, waste deposition reports, and landfill site geometry were collected for 27 landfill cells through the FDEP OCULUS ...


A Study Of Nonlinear Dynamics Of Eeg Responses To Simulated Unmanned Vehicle Tasks, Ziqing Xu May 2019

A Study Of Nonlinear Dynamics Of Eeg Responses To Simulated Unmanned Vehicle Tasks, Ziqing Xu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the contemporary world, mental workload becomes higher as technology evolves and task demand becomes overwhelming. The operators of a system are usually required to complete tasks with higher complicity within a shorter period of time. Continuous operation under a high level of mental workload can be a major source of risk and human error, thus put the operator in a hazardous working environment. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor and assess mental workload. In this study, an unmanned vehicle operation with visual detection tasks was investigated by means of nonlinear analysis of EEG time series. Nonlinear analysis is considered ...


Hybrid Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment-Based Multi-Objective Optimization: A Case For Sustainable Fleet Mix, Burak Sen May 2019

Hybrid Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment-Based Multi-Objective Optimization: A Case For Sustainable Fleet Mix, Burak Sen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable transportation idea includes not only switching from conventional energy sources to alternative fuel resources, but also diverging from private vehicle use and shifting to alternative transportation modes. As a part of alternative transportation mode, utilizing alternative fuels in public transportation operation supports sustainable transportation at it full-glance. Given their implications in terms of air quality and sustainable movement of people, transit buses, which provide the primary public transportation service, are considered an ideal domain for the deployment of alternative fuels. An input-output (IO) model is developed based on Eora database – a detailed IO database that consists of national IO ...


Fundamental Core Effects In Co-Cr-Fe-Ni Based High Entropy Alloys, Abhishek Mehta May 2019

Fundamental Core Effects In Co-Cr-Fe-Ni Based High Entropy Alloys, Abhishek Mehta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

High entropy alloys (HEAs) are near equiatomic multi-principal-element-alloys (MPEAs) which are different from traditional solvent-based multicomponent alloys. Based on initial work by Yeh and Co-workers, they were proposed to exhibit four "core" effects: high entropy, sluggish diffusion, lattice distortion, and cocktail effect. Present work investigates two of the four "core" effects, i.e. high entropy and sluggish diffusion effects, in Co-Cr-Fe-Ni based transition metal high entropy alloys. Solid-to-solid diffusion couple approach was adopted to investigate, these core effects. Experimental results contradicts the "high entropy" effect based on thermodynamics analysis: that the HEAs with low entropy of mixing may be thermodynamically ...


Dynamic Behavior And Performance Of Different Types Of Multi-Effect Desalination Plants, Mohamed Abdelkareem May 2019

Dynamic Behavior And Performance Of Different Types Of Multi-Effect Desalination Plants, Mohamed Abdelkareem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Water and energy are two of the most vital resources for the socio-economic development and sustenance of humanity on earth. Desalination of seawater has been practiced for some decades and is a well-established means of water supply. However, this process consumes large amounts of energy and the global energy supply is also faced with some challenges. In this research, multi-effect desalination (MED) has been selected due to lower cost, lower operating temperature and efficient in terms of primary energy and electricity consumption compared to other thermal desalination systems. The motivation for this research is to address thermo-economics and dynamic behavior ...


Vibration Reduction Of Mistuned Bladed Disks Via Piezoelectric-Based Resonance Frequency Detuning, Garrett Lopp May 2019

Vibration Reduction Of Mistuned Bladed Disks Via Piezoelectric-Based Resonance Frequency Detuning, Garrett Lopp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent trends in turbomachinery blade technology have led to increased use of monolithically constructed bladed disks (blisks). Although offering a wealth of performance benefits, this construction removes the blade-attachment interface present in the conventional design, thus unintentionally removing a source of friction-based damping needed to counteract large vibrations during resonance passages. This issue is further exacerbated in the presence of blade mistuning that arises from small imperfections from otherwise identical blades and are unavoidable as they originate from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear over the lifespan of the engine. Mistuning is known to induce vibration localization with large vibration amplitudes ...


Variable Fluid Flow Regimes Alter Endothelial Adherens Junctions And Tight Junctions, Dilshan Ranadewa May 2019

Variable Fluid Flow Regimes Alter Endothelial Adherens Junctions And Tight Junctions, Dilshan Ranadewa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Variable blood flow regimes influence a range of cellular properties ranging from cell orientation, shape, and permeability: all of which are dependent on endothelial cell-cell junctions. In fact, cell-cell junctions have shown to be an integral part of vascular homeostasis through the endothelium by allowing intercellular signaling and passage control through tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions (AJs), and gap junctions (GJs). It was our objective to determine the structural response of both AJs and TJs under steady and oscillatory flow. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were cultured in a parallel plate flow chamber and exposed to separate trails of ...


Classifying And Predicting Walking Speed From Electroencephalography Data, Allen Rahrooh May 2019

Classifying And Predicting Walking Speed From Electroencephalography Data, Allen Rahrooh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electroencephalography (EEG) non-invasively records electrocortical activity and can be used to understand how the brain functions to control movements and walking. Studies have shown that electrocortical dynamics are coupled with the gait cycle and change when walking at different speeds. Thus, EEG signals likely contain information regarding walking speed that could potentially be used to predict walking speed using just EEG signals recorded during walking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking speed could be predicted from EEG recorded as subjects walked on a treadmill with a range of speeds (0.5 m/s, 0.75 m ...


Mechanical Properties Of Brittle Ceramics: Case Study Of Boron Rich Ceramics And Acropora Cervicornis Coral Skeleton, Alejandro Carrasco-Pena May 2019

Mechanical Properties Of Brittle Ceramics: Case Study Of Boron Rich Ceramics And Acropora Cervicornis Coral Skeleton, Alejandro Carrasco-Pena

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ceramics are ubiquitous in man-made and natural structures. Their mechanical properties highly depend on their composition, microstructure and level of defects in the bulk of the material, the latter affecting the integrity of the components; such is the case of boron-rich ceramics where large agglomerates create high stressed regions, or coral skeleton where porosity determines their strength against hydrodynamic forces present in the ocean tides. Therefore, studying the properties of ceramic materials using invasive and non-invasive methods helps in the understanding of the link between the properties and the performance of the structures. The aim of this research was to ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Anisotropic Fused Deposition Modeled Polylactic Acid Under Combined Monotonic Bending And Torsion Conditions, Aaron T. Santomauro Jan 2019

Mechanical Characterization Of Anisotropic Fused Deposition Modeled Polylactic Acid Under Combined Monotonic Bending And Torsion Conditions, Aaron T. Santomauro

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Mechanical strength of polylactic acid (PLA) is increasingly relevant with time because of its attractive mechanical properties and 3D printability. Additive manufacturing (AM) methods, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), and selective laser sintering (SLS), serve a vital role in assisting designers with cheap and efficient generation of the desired components. This document presents research to investigate the anisotropic response of multi-oriented PLA subjected to multiple monotonic loading conditions. Although empirical data has previously been captured for multi-oriented PLA under tensile and compressive loading conditions, the data has yet to be applied with regard to a representative component ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of A Novel Adsorption Bed Design For Cooling Applications, Ramy H. Mohammed Jan 2019

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of A Novel Adsorption Bed Design For Cooling Applications, Ramy H. Mohammed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A global challenge is to develop environmentally friendly, affordable, compact and sustainable technologies to provide heating and cooling power. Adsorption cooling (AC) technology is one of the most promising ways to solve the environmental issues and cut down the energy consumption related to the traditional air conditioning and refrigeration systems. However, AC systems still suffer from poor heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, which is the main obstacle to commercialization of adsorption cooling units. The main goal of this study is designing an efficient adsorption cooling cycle. In this research work, an in-depth scaling analysis of heat and ...


Improving Traffic Safety At School Zones By Engineering And Operational Countermeasures, Md Hasibur Rahman Jan 2019

Improving Traffic Safety At School Zones By Engineering And Operational Countermeasures, Md Hasibur Rahman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Safety issues at school zone areas have been one of the most important topics in the traffic safety field. Although many studies have evaluated the effectiveness of various traffic control devices (e.g., sign, flashing beacon, speed monitoring display), there is a lack of studies exploring different roadway countermeasures and the relationship between school-related factors and crashes. In this study, the most crash-prone school zone was identified in Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida, based on crash rate. Afterward, a microsimulation network was built in VISSIM environment to test different roadway countermeasures in the school zones. Three different countermeasures: two-step speed ...


Assessing The Safety And Operational Benefits Of Connected And Automated Vehicles: Application On Different Roadways, Weather, And Traffic Conditions, Md Sharikur Rahman Jan 2019

Assessing The Safety And Operational Benefits Of Connected And Automated Vehicles: Application On Different Roadways, Weather, And Traffic Conditions, Md Sharikur Rahman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies have recently drawn an increasing attention from governments, vehicle manufacturers, and researchers. Connected vehicle (CV) technologies provide real-time information about the surrounding traffic condition (i.e., position, speed, acceleration) and the traffic management center's decisions. The CV technologies improve the safety by increasing driver situational awareness and reducing crashes through vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I). Vehicle platooning with CV technologies is another key element of the future transportation systems which helps to simultaneously enhance traffic operations and safety. CV technologies can also further increase the efficiency and reliability of automated vehicles (AV) by ...


Analysis Of Residual Stress And Damage Mechanisms Of Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Ps-Pvd And Eb-Pvd, Linda Rossmann Jan 2019

Analysis Of Residual Stress And Damage Mechanisms Of Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Ps-Pvd And Eb-Pvd, Linda Rossmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical to gas turbine engines, as they protect the components in the hot section from the extreme temperatures of operation. The current industry standard method of applying TBCs for turbine blades in jet engines is electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), which results in a columnar structure that is valued for its high degree of strain tolerance. An emerging deposition method is plasma-spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD), capable of producing a variety of customizable microstructures as well as non-line-of-sight deposition, which allows more complex geometries to be coated, or even multiple parts at once. The pseudo-columnar ...


Broadband Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs Generated Via Frequency Division, Qitian Ru Jan 2019

Broadband Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs Generated Via Frequency Division, Qitian Ru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Frequency combs have revolutionized metrology and demonstrated numerous applications in science and technology. Combs operating in the mid-infrared region could be beneficial for molecular spectroscopy for several reasons. First, numerous molecules have their spectroscopic signatures in this region. Furthermore, the atmospheric window (3-5μm and 8-14μm) is located here. Additionally, a mid-infrared frequency comb could be employed as a diagnostic tool for the many components of human breath, as well as for detection of harmful gases and contaminants in the atmosphere. In this thesis, I used synchronously pumped subharmonic optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) operating at degeneracy to produce ultra-broadband outputs near ...


Safety, Operational, And Design Analyses Of Managed Toll And Connected Vehicles' Lanes, Moatz Saad Jan 2019

Safety, Operational, And Design Analyses Of Managed Toll And Connected Vehicles' Lanes, Moatz Saad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Managed lanes (MLs) have been implemented as a vital strategy for traffic management and traffic safety improvement. The majority of previous studies involving MLs have explored a limited scope of the impact of the MLs segments as a whole, without considering the safety and operational effects of the access design. Also, there are limited studies that investigated the effect of connected vehicles (CVs) on managed lanes. Hence, this study has two main objectives: (1) the first objective is achieved by determining the optimal managed lanes access design, including accessibility level and weaving distance for an at-grade access design. (2) the ...


Implications Of Groundwater Plume Transport And Analysis Of Karst Aquifer Characteristics In Central Florida, Daljit Sandhu Jan 2019

Implications Of Groundwater Plume Transport And Analysis Of Karst Aquifer Characteristics In Central Florida, Daljit Sandhu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Groundwater aquifers make up the primary source of drinking water in Florida. It is imperative to protect and maintain water quality to ensure optimal drinking water conditions. Florida is known for being prone to sinkholes due to karst features. One sinkhole event occurred beneath a phosphogypsum stack, and leaked a large amount of radioactive waste in the Floridan aquifer, raising water quality concerns. To study the behavior of contaminant transport, the radioactive waste plume was modeled by coupling hydraulic and chemistry concepts. Adsorption was studied to see if it can serve as a potential remediation solution to the contaminant waste ...


High Performance Liquid Crystal Devices For Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality, Md Javed Rouf Talukder Jan 2019

High Performance Liquid Crystal Devices For Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality, Md Javed Rouf Talukder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

See-through augmented reality and virtual reality displays are emerging due to their widespread applications in education, engineering design, medical, retail, transportation, automotive, aerospace, gaming, and entertainment. For augmented reality and virtual reality displays, high-resolution density, high luminance, fast response time and high ambient contrast ratio are critically needed. High-resolution density helps eliminate the screen-door effect, high luminance and fast response time enable low duty ratio operation, which plays a key role for suppressing image blurs. A dimmer placed in front of AR display helps to control the incident background light, which in turn improves the image contrast. In this dissertation ...


Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antennas With Bandwidth Enhancement For High Gain, Beam-Steering Applications, Michael Trampler Jan 2019

Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antennas With Bandwidth Enhancement For High Gain, Beam-Steering Applications, Michael Trampler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Reconfigurable reflectarrays are a class of antennas that combine the advantages of traditional parabolic antennas and phased array antennas. Chapter 1 discusses the basic operational theory of reflectarrays and their design. A review of previous research and the current status is also presented. Furthermore the inherent advantages and disadvantages of the reflectarray topography are presented. In chapter 2, a BST-integrated reflectarray operating at Ka band is presented. Due to the monolithic integration of the tuning element, this design is then extended to V band where a novel interdigital gap configuration is utilized. Finally to overcome loss and phase limitations of ...


Investigation Of Flow Field Structures In A Rectangular Channel With A Pin Fin Array, Patrick Tran Jan 2019

Investigation Of Flow Field Structures In A Rectangular Channel With A Pin Fin Array, Patrick Tran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pin fin arrays are commonly found in heat exchangers, turbine blades, and electronic heat sinks. Fin arrays are extended surfaces that are used as turbulence promoters by inducing horseshoe vortex (HSV) and von Karman vortex (KV) structures. The horseshoe vortex are primarily studied in the leading edge of the blunt body, whereas the KV are formed in the trailing side. This study presents an experimental investigation of flow field structures and pressure loss on staggered pin fin array in the wake region, where KV are dominate. These flow structures increase the local levels turbulence and generate eddies that promote flow ...