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New Jersey Institute of Technology

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Graphene Channels Interfaced With Distributed Quantum Dots, Xin Miao Aug 2019

Graphene Channels Interfaced With Distributed Quantum Dots, Xin Miao

Dissertations

Previous research has elucidated the remarkable electrical and optical characteristics of graphene and pointed to the various applications of graphene-based devices. One of such applications is electro-optical graphene-based elements. In this work, the optoelectronic properties of field-effect transistors are explored. These are composed of surface graphene guides, which are interfaced with an array of individual semiconductor quantum dots. The graphene guide also serves as a channel for the field-effect transistor (FET) while the dots provide for fluorescence markers. They may be placed either within the capacitor formed between the graphene and the gate electrode, or on top of the graphene ...


Modulation Of Corticospinal Excitability Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation Combined With Movement, Ahmad O. Alokaily Aug 2019

Modulation Of Corticospinal Excitability Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation Combined With Movement, Ahmad O. Alokaily

Dissertations

An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to undergo long-lasting morphological or functional changes in response to experiences or trauma. Advances in noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have led to increased interest in understanding neural mechanisms of neuroplasticity at the network level. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is one of the most commonly used applications for noninvasive brain stimulation because of its clinical potential as an adjuvant rehabilitative intervention. However, the optimal method for incorporating PAS into rehabilitative activities remains unknown. This dissertation explores different approaches to combining PAS with movement and investigates the enhancement of the specificity of conventional ...


Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander Aug 2019

Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander

Dissertations

A novel dissolving microneedle array system is developed to investigate permeation of a sumatriptan succinate formulations through the skin aided by iontophoresis. Three formulations consisting of hydrophilic, positively charged drug molecules encapsulated in a water-soluble biologically suitable polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), have been accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The microneedle systems are fabricated with 600 pyramid-shaped needles, each 500 µm tall, on a 0.785-cm2 circular array. In vitro transdermal studies with minipig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells show > 68% permeation of sumatriptan over a 24-hour period. A combination of microneedle and electrical current ...


Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez Aug 2019

Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez

Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was first described in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kranner in a case study published in The Nervous Child. It is a neurodevelopment disorder, with a range of clinical symptoms. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), used by clinicians to diagnose mental disorders, a child needs to have persistent social deficits, language impairments, and repetitive behaviors, that cannot be explained by neurological damage or intellectual disability. It is known that children diagnosed with ASD are often are developmentally delayed therefore alterations in the typical developmental trajectory should be a major factor in ...


Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh Aug 2019

Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh

Dissertations

Boron has received much attention as a potential additive to explosives and propellants due to its high theoretical gravimetric and volumetric heating values. The challenge, however, is that boron particles tend to agglomerate, have lengthy ignition delays and very low combustion rates. Prior research indicates that boron’s long ignition delays are due to its inhibiting naturally occurring oxide layer, impeding the diffusion of reactants for oxidation. For combustion, current studies report that boron particles have two consecutive stages, but the actual reaction mechanism is poorly understood. Despite many years of relevant research, quantitative combustion data on micron-sized boron particles ...


Optimal Sampling Paths For Autonomous Vehicles In Uncertain Ocean Flows, Andrew J. De Stefan Aug 2019

Optimal Sampling Paths For Autonomous Vehicles In Uncertain Ocean Flows, Andrew J. De Stefan

Dissertations

Despite an extensive history of oceanic observation, researchers have only begun to build a complete picture of oceanic currents. Sparsity of instrumentation has created the need to maximize the information extracted from every source of data in building this picture. Within the last few decades, autonomous vehicles, or AVs, have been employed as tools to aid in this research initiative. Unmanned and self-propelled, AVs are capable of spending weeks, if not months, exploring and monitoring the oceans. However, the quality of data acquired by these vehicles is highly dependent on the paths along which they collect their observational data. The ...


Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu Aug 2019

Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu

Dissertations

Recently, some researchers have attempted to find a relationship between the evolution of rare events and temporal-spatial patterns of social media activities. Their studies verify that the relationship exists in both time and spatial domains. However, few of those studies can accurately deduce a time point when social media activities are most highly affected by a rare event because producing an accurate temporal pattern of social media during the evolution of a rare event is very difficult. This work expands the current studies along three directions. Firstly, we focus on the intensity of information volume and propose an innovative clustering ...


Effects Of Electro-Osmotic Consolidation Of Clays And Its Improvement Using Ion Exchange Membranes, Lucas Martin Aug 2019

Effects Of Electro-Osmotic Consolidation Of Clays And Its Improvement Using Ion Exchange Membranes, Lucas Martin

Dissertations

Electro-osmosis is an established method of expediting consolidation of soft, saturated clayey soils compared to commonly used methods, such as preloading with wick drains. In electro-osmotic consolidation a direct current (DC) is applied via inserted electrodes. This causes hydrated ions in the interstitial fluid to migrate to oppositely charged electrodes. Because the clay particles have a negative surface charge, the majority of ions in the interstitial fluid are positively charged. Therefore, the net flow will be towards the negatively charged electrode (cathode), where the water can be removed and thus consolidation is achieved. Certain problems, such as pH changes in ...


Interventions Of Waterjet Technology In Skin Incisions, Nadi Atalla May 2019

Interventions Of Waterjet Technology In Skin Incisions, Nadi Atalla

Dissertations

This research explores the use of waterjet (WJ) technology in performing skin incisions. The study defines the analytical relationships between the skin properties and the operating parameters of the WJ which include the skin thickness, its elastic modulus, the WJ pressure, the nozzle’s orifice diameter, its stand-off distance and the traverse speed of the WJ as well as the duration of applying the WJ pressure. An analytical model is developed to measure the depth incision of the skin, the water pressure and the water velocity, while using a WJ. Systemization and optimization models that determine the optimal operating parameters ...


Supercapacitors With Gate Electrodes, Tazima Selim Chowdhury May 2019

Supercapacitors With Gate Electrodes, Tazima Selim Chowdhury

Dissertations

A new approach to improve the capacitance of supercapacitors (SC) is proposed in this study. A typical SC is composed of an anode and a cathode; a separator in between them assures an unintentional discharge of the capacitor. The study focuses on a family of structured separators, either electronically active or passive which are called gates. An active structured separator layer has been fabricated and analyzed. The structured separator has characteristics of electrical diode and is fabricated out of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT). Improvement of the overall capacitance of SC, equipped with either active or passive structured separators demonstrated a ...


Minimizing Vehicular Traffic Via Optimized Land Use Development For A Sustainable And Equitable Future, Babu Veeregowda May 2019

Minimizing Vehicular Traffic Via Optimized Land Use Development For A Sustainable And Equitable Future, Babu Veeregowda

Dissertations

Mixed-use developments and transit-oriented developments are becoming very common in urban areas in an effort to reduce sprawl. Numerous studies have shown that such programs would not be successful unless the mix of land uses and sizes is well-balanced and integrated with the surrounding neighborhood. Developers often ignore this aspect in favor of immediate financial gain and do not realize that there are sustainable financial benefits in land use optimization. In addition, professionals often work with limited logistics, resources, and technical knowledge and therefore struggle in setting goals and suggesting land uses that have less auto dependency based on travel ...


An Electrical Matlab Model Of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Huize Xue May 2019

An Electrical Matlab Model Of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Huize Xue

Theses

Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO), a part of Plasma electrolytic Deposition (PED), has been developing for surface modification of metallic materials in the past 20 years. During PEO process, sample always connect with anode of DC power source, under high temperature, accelerating process of oxidation reaction to from an average and dense oxidation film. A general passage, Plasma electrolysis for surface engineering, written by A.L. Yerokhin, X. Nie gives us a trend of what happened during PEO process but did not determine specific material and value. Linxin Zhu’s Development of PEO invent a new boiling system and investigated relationship ...


Probabilistic Spiking Neural Networks : Supervised, Unsupervised And Adversarial Trainings, Alireza Bagheri May 2019

Probabilistic Spiking Neural Networks : Supervised, Unsupervised And Adversarial Trainings, Alireza Bagheri

Dissertations

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), or third-generation neural networks, are networks of computation units, called neurons, in which each neuron with internal analogue dynamics receives as input and produces as output spiking, that is, binary sparse, signals. In contrast, second-generation neural networks, termed as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), rely on simple static non-linear neurons that are known to be energy-intensive, hindering their implementations on energy-limited processors such as mobile devices. The sparse event-based characteristics of SNNs for information transmission and encoding have made them more feasible for highly energy-efficient neuromorphic computing architectures. The most existing training algorithms for SNNs are based ...


Blind Separation For Intermittent Sources Via Sparse Dictionary Learning, Annan Dong May 2019

Blind Separation For Intermittent Sources Via Sparse Dictionary Learning, Annan Dong

Dissertations

Radio frequency sources are observed at a fusion center via sensor measurements made over slow flat-fading channels. The number of sources may be larger than the number of sensors, but their activity is sparse and intermittent with bursty transmission patterns. To account for this, sources are modeled as hidden Markov models with known or unknown parameters. The problem of blind source estimation in the absence of channel state information is tackled via a novel algorithm, consisting of a dictionary learning (DL) stage and a per-source stochastic filtering (PSF) stage. The two stages work in tandem, with the latter operating on ...


Workload Allocation In Mobile Edge Computing Empowered Internet Of Things, Qiang Fan May 2019

Workload Allocation In Mobile Edge Computing Empowered Internet Of Things, Qiang Fan

Dissertations

In the past few years, a tremendous number of smart devices and objects, such as smart phones, wearable devices, industrial and utility components, are equipped with sensors to sense the real-time physical information from the environment. Hence, Internet of Things (IoT) is introduced, where various smart devices are connected with each other via the internet and empowered with data analytics. Owing to the high volume and fast velocity of data streams generated by IoT devices, the cloud that can provision flexible and efficient computing resources is employed as a smart "brain" to process and store the big data generated from ...


Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu May 2019

Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu

Dissertations

Membrane filtration has been extensively used in water and wastewater treatment, desalination, dairy making, and biomass/water separation. However, membrane fouling, aging and insufficient removal efficiency for dissolved organic matters remain major challenges for wider industrial applications. In order to tackle these challenges, this doctoral dissertation investigates mechanisms of membrane fouling and development of antifouling membrane filtration technologies. Specifically, four major research areas are explored: (i) nanoscale physicochemical characterization of the chemically modified polymeric membranes; (ii) quantitative modelling between membrane properties and membrane fouling and defouling kinetics; (iii) development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for membranes that undergo thermal and chemical ...


Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua May 2019

Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua

Dissertations

Micropollution in natural waters such as rivers and groundwater aquifers is a widespread problem that prevents these potentially potable sources from being used as drinking water. In the United States, approximately two-thirds of the over 1,200 most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation are contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), a potentially carcinogenic compound. Other emerging and environmentally persistent organic micropollutants include polyromantic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Membrane filtration is one of the most efficient separation processes widely used for water treatment and pollutant removal. However, traditional ...


A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran May 2019

A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran

Dissertations

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in structural and functional neurological changes at both the brain and the level of the spinal cord. Anatomical studies indicate decreased grey matter volume in sensorimotor and non-sensorimotor regions of the cortex following SCI; whereas, neurophysiological findings mostly report altered functional activity in the sensorimotor nodes of the cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether tissue atrophy observed in non-motor related areas has any concomitant functional consequences. Furthermore, the neural underpinnings of adaptive neuroplasticity after SCI is not well-defined in the current literature. Hence, this dissertation is a pioneer study investigating ...


High-Performance Learning Systems Using Low-Precision Nanoscale Devices, Nandakumar Sasidharan Rajalekshmi May 2019

High-Performance Learning Systems Using Low-Precision Nanoscale Devices, Nandakumar Sasidharan Rajalekshmi

Dissertations

Brain-inspired computation promises a paradigm shift in information processing, both in terms of its parallel processing architecture and the ability to learn to tackle problems deemed unsolvable by traditional algorithmic approaches. The computational capability of the human brain is believed to stem from an interconnected network of 100 billion compute nodes (neurons) that interact with each other through approximately 1015 adjustable memory junctions (synapses). The conductance of synapses is modifiable allowing the network to learn and perform various cognitive functions. Artificial neural networks inspired by this architecture have demonstrated even super-human performance in many complex tasks.

Computational systems based ...


Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki May 2019

Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional imaging modality that is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and interventional cardiology. It is highly promising for in situ characterization of tumor tissues. OCT has high spatial resolution and high imaging speed to assist clinical decision making in real-time.

OCT can be used in both structural imaging and mechanical characterization. Malignant tumor tissue alters morphology. Additionally, structural OCT imaging has limited tissue differentiation capability because of the complex and noisy nature of the OCT signal. Moreover, the contrast of structural OCT signal derived from tissue’s light scattering properties has little chemical specificity ...


Blind Source Separation Using Dictionary Learning Over Time-Varying Channels, Anushreya Ghosh May 2019

Blind Source Separation Using Dictionary Learning Over Time-Varying Channels, Anushreya Ghosh

Theses

Distributed sensors observe radio frequency (RF) sources over flat-fading channels. The activity pattern is sparse and intermittent in the sense that while the number of latent sources may be larger than the number of sensors, only a few of them may be active at any particular time instant. It is further assumed that the source activity is modeled by a Hidden Markov Model. In previous work, the Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem solved for stationary channels using Dictionary Learning (DL). This thesis studies the effect of time-varying channels on the performance of DL algorithms. The performance metric is the probability ...


Tomato Puree Convective Heat Transfer Simulation Using Boussinesq Approximation, Matteo Fabbri May 2019

Tomato Puree Convective Heat Transfer Simulation Using Boussinesq Approximation, Matteo Fabbri

Theses

With the advance of new technologies, the food industries are requiring systems that allow to produce the desired products with faster rates at cheaper costs. In this case, the study was initiated with the purpose to better understand what happens inside a package containing tomato puree when this is heated above 343 K in a tunnel pasteurizer. If the fluid must reach the thermal and microbiological condition of “pasteurization”, the system must guarantee that the temperature (around 343° Kelvin) is kept for a certain time allowing to pasteurize even the cooler package’s fluid-particle. The faster the system can heat ...


Design And Implementation Of An Automated Oil Distribution System For A Homogenizer Machine In Gea Mechanical Equipment – Niro Soavi, Luca Gandolfi May 2019

Design And Implementation Of An Automated Oil Distribution System For A Homogenizer Machine In Gea Mechanical Equipment – Niro Soavi, Luca Gandolfi

Theses

This thesis shows the steps that have been followed and done in order to improve a critical operation of a technological process of the GEA Mechanical Equipment. The critical operation was the filling with different types of oils the homogenizing machine because it was characterized by a lot of inefficiencies and, in particular, by huge risks for job security. These critical issues gave the opportunity and the chance to realize a project in order to give a process optimization and security improvement.

After having faced all the aspects and steps needed for this project, it has been realized a system ...


Mechanics Of Binder-Particle Interactions In Composite Battery Electrodes, Richard Johnson May 2019

Mechanics Of Binder-Particle Interactions In Composite Battery Electrodes, Richard Johnson

Theses

A study into the particle level mechanics of polymer binder and active material used in composite lithium-ion batteries (LIB) has been conducted. Silicon is highly sought after material that can be used as an active material in a composite anode. Its high theoretical capacity can result in batteries that can store more energy than current LIBs, but high volume expansion of Si during charge/discharge cycles leads to rapid capacity fade and poor cyclic life. Understanding the stress that is generated in the binder and the active material due to the volume expansion has not been fully understood. In this ...


Multiframe Coded Computation For Distributed Uplink Channel Decoding, Brinell F. Monteiro May 2019

Multiframe Coded Computation For Distributed Uplink Channel Decoding, Brinell F. Monteiro

Theses

The latest 5G technology in wireless communication has led to an increasing demand for higher data rates and low latencies. The overall latency of the system in a cloud radio access network is greatly affected by the decoding latency in the uplink channel. Various proposed solutions suggest using network function virtualization (NFV). NFV is the process of decoupling the network functions from hardware appliances. This provides the exibility to implement distributed computing and network coding to effectively reduce the decoding latency and improve the reliability of the system. To ensure the system is cost effective, commercial off the shelf (COTS ...


Vergence Eye Movement Parameters For Pre/Post-Obvat And Sham Therapy On Binocularly Normal Controls, Joel V. Rajah May 2019

Vergence Eye Movement Parameters For Pre/Post-Obvat And Sham Therapy On Binocularly Normal Controls, Joel V. Rajah

Theses

Vergence is the disjunctive movement of the eyes to maintain single binocular vision. Vergence eye movements are necessary to maintain the object of interest on the fovea of each eye as an individual looks from one object to another. Recent studies show that office based vergence/accommodative therapy (OBVAT) is an effective treatment for the binocular dysfunction known as convergence insufficiency. This study was performed to investigate the changes in oculomotor parameters parameter data for pre- and post-therapy subjects who are binocularly normal controls. A haploscope was used to collect eye movement data pre- and post-therapy. The analysis of the ...


The Use Of Electrical Resistance Tomography To Determine The Minimum Agitation Speed For Solids Suspension In Stirred Tank Reactors, Baran Teoman May 2019

The Use Of Electrical Resistance Tomography To Determine The Minimum Agitation Speed For Solids Suspension In Stirred Tank Reactors, Baran Teoman

Theses

Njs, the minimum agitation speed needed to just suspend all the solid particles in a solid-liquid mixture stirred in an agitated vessel, is a critical parameter to properly operate industrial tanks in a large number of industrial operations. As a result, a significant literature on Njs is available. The oldest and the most common method to measure Njs experimentally is that of Zwietering’s (Chem. Eng. Sci., 1958, 8, 244-253), where Njs can be visually obtained by determining when the solids stay at the bottom of the tank for no more than 1-2 seconds before being swept away. Although this ...


Glass Transition Temperature Of Particles For Drug Delivery, Yiqing Yang May 2019

Glass Transition Temperature Of Particles For Drug Delivery, Yiqing Yang

Theses

Drug delivery plays an important role in targeted therapies and nanoparticles which can be used as drug carriers and it’s a frequently researched topic. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a highly biocompatible polymer, has been used as a drug delivery vehicle in many studies. One of the challenges facing drug delivery particles is the problem of burst release which is when a large amount of the drug is suddenly released from the particle once it is placed in the body. This is generally undesirable as usually a slow and controlled release is preferred. The glass transition temperature has an effect ...


Longitudinal Investigation Of Disparity Vergence In Young Adult Convergence Insufficiency Patients, Patrick C. Crincoli Jan 2019

Longitudinal Investigation Of Disparity Vergence In Young Adult Convergence Insufficiency Patients, Patrick C. Crincoli

Theses

Vergence is a form of eye movement in which the eyes move in opposite directions to minimize retinal disparity. It allows an object at different distances from a viewer to appear single during binocular vision by centering the image on the fovea of each retina. Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a binocular disfunction in which blurry and double vision is a symptom. Office-based Vergence/Accommodative Therapy (OBVAT) has been shown to be effective in treating CI. A randomized clinical trial was designed to study fifty participants with CI before and after therapy using randomized therapy treatment (active and placebo), standardized clinical ...


Optical Properties Of Polymers And Their Applications, Samiha Hossain Jan 2019

Optical Properties Of Polymers And Their Applications, Samiha Hossain

Theses

The last decade has witnessed explosive growth in the world of photoactive polymers for a variety of applications in several sectors of the global economy. The need for efficient, reliable, and low-cost data acquisition, storage, processing, transmission, and display technologies has made it necessary for research aimed at addressing these needs. Recent accomplishments in this materials area represent exciting opportunities for major innovations in various fields. However, further work needs to be done to transfer the technology from fundamental R&D to manufacturing. The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of the optical properties of polymers ...