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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Application Of Photothermal Floats For Mine Water Disposal, Ross Monasmith Jul 2019

Application Of Photothermal Floats For Mine Water Disposal, Ross Monasmith

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Photothermal materials can efficiently translate incoming solar radiation into water evaporation. The application of photothermal materials to enhance evaporative water disposal may be limited by material durability, scale formation, and interactions between the photothermal materials and variable water chemistries. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was chosen as a photothermal material based on previous results (Monasmith et al. 2019, pending review). Using a custom-built bench-scale evaporation platform, evaporation trials were performed to determine the effect of water quality, GAC grain sizes, and float adhesives on water evaporation rates. Adhesives to attach the GAC to HDPE floats were tested for bond strength and ...


Investigation Of The Toppling Of Rectangular Rigid Blocks Using A Shake Table And Distinct Element Models, Sara Magallon Jul 2019

Investigation Of The Toppling Of Rectangular Rigid Blocks Using A Shake Table And Distinct Element Models, Sara Magallon

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Understanding the engineering principles of failure modes in rock formations from seismic activity continues to be a challenging problem for engineers and geologists. The complexity of the geology, geometry, discontinuities, and earthquake ground motions contribute to the difficulty in estimating the stability of rock slopes. In this study, one classic rock slope failure mode is examined: the toppling behavior of a single rigid rectangular block under dynamic loading. An investigation employing experimental and numerical modeling techniques was performed to observe the response of wooden blocks with different aspect (width/height) ratios subjected to loading at the base and compared to ...


Mineralogy And Fluid Inclusion Study Of The Crystal Mountain Fluorite Mine, Ravalli County, Montana, Francis Grondin Jul 2019

Mineralogy And Fluid Inclusion Study Of The Crystal Mountain Fluorite Mine, Ravalli County, Montana, Francis Grondin

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Crystal Mountain Fluorite Mine, known for its vast amounts of massively grown fluorite and rare accessory minerals including fergusonite (YNbO4) and thortveitite (Sc2Si2O7), is located in the Sapphire Mountains 22 km east of the town of Darby, Montana. This site has been mined previously between the years of 1954 through 1973. The Taber collection of drill core, thin sections, mine maps and miscellaneous reports on Crystal Mountain was recently donated to the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology for future studies. The purpose of the present study has been to use modern methods ...


Enhancing The Efficiency Of Electrokinetic Remediation Through The Use Of Complexing Agents, Timothy Driscoll Jul 2019

Enhancing The Efficiency Of Electrokinetic Remediation Through The Use Of Complexing Agents, Timothy Driscoll

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Electrokinetic remediation was accessed as a viable remediation technology for heavy metal contamination modeled after contamination present in Butte, MT caused by over a century of hard rock mining. The remediation technology was assessed at a laboratory scale using copper sulfate (CuSO4) as a model compound of mine tailing contamination, and an artificial soil to control for variables outside the scope of work. This thesis designed a laboratory scale experiment that produced consistent results and could be easily repeated. The system design also included a method for managing the waste material produced during experiments. Following the experimental design, this ...


Evaluating Volumetric Strain As A Predictor Of Yield And Peak Strength For The Multistage Triaxial Test: A Case Study With Utah Coal Specimens, Emmanuel Orilogi Jul 2019

Evaluating Volumetric Strain As A Predictor Of Yield And Peak Strength For The Multistage Triaxial Test: A Case Study With Utah Coal Specimens, Emmanuel Orilogi

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Failure envelopes used to characterize the shear strength of geological materials are generally obtained through conventional triaxial testing of multiple specimens and most of the specimens are heterogonous and expensive to obtain. Therefore, the multistage triaxial test was introduced to make use of a single specimen for material strength characterization, compared to the conventional triaxial test that requires at least three specimens. In the multistage triaxial test, the challenge to obtaining meaningful data is identifying when to terminate each loading stage. The goal is to be as close to the peak strength of the material but below the stress threshold ...


Downhole Rf Communication: Characterization And Modeling Of Waveguide Propagation In A Fluid-Filled Drill Pipe, Patrick Cote Jul 2019

Downhole Rf Communication: Characterization And Modeling Of Waveguide Propagation In A Fluid-Filled Drill Pipe, Patrick Cote

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Current technologies for downhole communication in oil and gas drilling applications are severely limited in data rate and latency. This work proposes that a system based upon guided wave propagation could be designed to utilize a wireless, radio frequency (RF) signal to yield tens of megabits per second of data transfer. To determine the feasibility of the proposed system, a test setup was built to measure attenuation of RF signals transmitted through a pipe filled with various drilling fluids. A finite element analysis model was also built to further investigate waveguide propagation of electromagnetic signals in a fluid filled pipe ...


Wall Control Blasting At The Orphan Boy Mine – Butte, Montana, Jewel Sakyi Apr 2019

Wall Control Blasting At The Orphan Boy Mine – Butte, Montana, Jewel Sakyi

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Blasting is often conducted to produce desirable fragment sizes to minimize production cost and energy consumption in downstream processes, including loading, hauling, and crushing. However, the venting of explosive energy in the rock formation sometimes causes unwanted damage beyond the desired perimeter of the blast area. Control blasting has mainly been used in surface mining operations to minimalize blast damage. To explore the applicability of control blasting in underground mining operations, protect the safety of students, faculty, and staff, prevent overbreak, and to ensure the stability of openings and workings, four experimental control blasts, comprising of three smooth blasts and ...


Dynamic Mechanical Response Of Additively Manufactured 316l And Alsi10mg, Kristofer Kuelper Apr 2019

Dynamic Mechanical Response Of Additively Manufactured 316l And Alsi10mg, Kristofer Kuelper

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a layer by layer method for the fabrication of end use parts. Its utilization in the production of metallic materials, while relatively new, is promising as an alternative technique to build custom or small batch parts with much greater agility than traditional manufacturing methods. The laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) AM technique offers a combination of high geometric accuracy and good mechanical properties for a variety of materials even without post-processing. It can do this by adjusting a number of processing parameters including the intensity of the laser and the thickness of the ...


Development Of A Methodology For The Evalutation Of Uav-Based Photogrammetry: Implementation At An Underground Mine, Rachel Becker Apr 2019

Development Of A Methodology For The Evalutation Of Uav-Based Photogrammetry: Implementation At An Underground Mine, Rachel Becker

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Autonomous systems in underground mining are increasingly being implemented as tools to collect data in inaccessible areas and improve the safety of mine personnel. There are many areas in the underground mining environment that cannot be accessed by personnel due to the high potential for ground fall and insufficient ground support. By combining unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with technologies such as photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) scanners, 3D point clouds can be created for inaccessible sites. A 3D digital point cloud can provide valuable geotechnical information such as the ability to measure discontinuities, inspect rock conditions, generate accurate ...


Raspberry Pi Cluster For Parallel And Distributed Computing, Ngoc Ha Apr 2019

Raspberry Pi Cluster For Parallel And Distributed Computing, Ngoc Ha

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Parallel and distributed computing have become an essential part of the ‘Big Data’ processing and analysis, especially for geophysical applications. The main goal of this project was to build a 4-node distributed computing cluster system using the Raspberry Pi single-board computers for educational and research purposes. After assembling together the system, a standard test was performed to check the system functionality. A Monte Carlo simulation to calculate π (pi) was used to demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of parallelization and distribution of tasks and data within the cluster. Challenges encountered during installation of the software and testing phase, and their ...


Resource Estimation And Simulation At West Butte In The Mcdonald Gold Deposit Near Lincoln, Montana, Jonathan Szarkowski Apr 2019

Resource Estimation And Simulation At West Butte In The Mcdonald Gold Deposit Near Lincoln, Montana, Jonathan Szarkowski

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The McDonald gold deposit is located in Lewis and Clark County near Lincoln, Montana and is divided into two regions: East Butte and West Butte. Approximately 90% of gold mineralization at McDonald is hosted by quartz-adularia-altered lithic tuff. Low-grade, stratabound, disseminated mineralization within permeable volcanic tuff is the dominant style of mineralization at McDonald. Higher-grade mineralization at West Butte is interpreted to be controlled by subvertical, intersecting vein systems that occur along the 9800’ E-W fault. Preliminary gold estimates at West Butte indicated the possibility of a 500 koz gold orebody at an average grade of 7.2 grams per ...


Using Groundwater Modeling To Assess Groundwater And Stream Connectivity In A River Restoration Application, John Joseph Lunzer Apr 2019

Using Groundwater Modeling To Assess Groundwater And Stream Connectivity In A River Restoration Application, John Joseph Lunzer

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Historic placer mining operations along the Middle Fork John Day River (MFJD) north of Galena, Oregon have left the MFJD channel straightened, incised and lacking in riverbed structure. This lack of riverbed structure makes this stretch of the MFJD poor habitat for trout and migrating salmon. In order to restore this stretch of the MFJD to better serve aquatic species, Inter-Fluve Inc. (IF), United States Forest Service (USFS) and The Freshwater Trust (TFT) will be performing restoration to both the MFJD channel as well as Bear Creek, a tributary of the MFJD. The proposed restoration work will consist of re-routing ...


Geochemistry Of Metals And Nutrients In Fine-Sediment Pore Water In Blacktail And Silver Bow Creeks, Butte, Montana, Robert Radar Apr 2019

Geochemistry Of Metals And Nutrients In Fine-Sediment Pore Water In Blacktail And Silver Bow Creeks, Butte, Montana, Robert Radar

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Historical mining in Butte, Montana has impacted surface and groundwater in the area. Although most of the known sources of contaminants of concern have been removed or remediated, metal loading continues to occur in lower Blacktail Creek and upper Silver Bow Creek. Possible sources of metals include upwelling groundwater and interaction between the stream and metal-rich sediment in the stream bed. To assess the importance of fine sediment as a source (or sink) for metals, this investigation used sediment pore water diffusion samplers (“peepers”). Peepers are ideal for capturing cm-scale vertical gradients in pore water chemistry across the sediment-water interface ...


Horizontal Flow Loop Design For The Study Of Drill String Rotation Effects On Cuttings Transport, David C. Rathgeber Apr 2019

Horizontal Flow Loop Design For The Study Of Drill String Rotation Effects On Cuttings Transport, David C. Rathgeber

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Exploration and Production companies are continually focusing more time, energy and resources into Extended Reach Drilling in order to maximize reservoir production while minimizing both environmental impact and development costs. These long laterals (2:1 Measured Depth: True Vertical Depth) are often more difficult to drill and can be severely impacted by inadequate drilling practices. Cuttings transport efficiency is a critical parameter of Extended Reach Drilling operations, and poor wellbore cleaning can lead to excessive torque, drag, and several other serious downhole problems.

Although many studies have been performed that identify the importance of drill string rotation on cuttings movement ...


Developing Trees Tolerant To Degraded Mine Soils, Francis Inkoom Apr 2019

Developing Trees Tolerant To Degraded Mine Soils, Francis Inkoom

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The project discussed in this thesis is part of a larger project developing trees that can tolerate and withstand heavy metals and acidic soils from historic mining operations in Butte Montana as a solution to re-establishing long-term tree growth on those sites. The project involved growing tree seedlings native to Butte, Montana and planting them on degraded mine soils, tailings, and processing wastes (mine waste) located within the Butte Priority Soil Operable Unit (BPSOU). The seedlings were grown for 34 weeks in a greenhouse located on Montana Tech’s campus before being transplanted to a contaminated site (the Clark Mill ...


The Geology And Geochemistry Of The Golden Chest Gold Deposit, Murray, Idaho, Alexander Brown Apr 2019

The Geology And Geochemistry Of The Golden Chest Gold Deposit, Murray, Idaho, Alexander Brown

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Golden Chest Au-W Mine has been intermittently mined since the 1880’s. Mineralized quartz veins have been deposited into the Upper Prichard Formation of the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup. The Golden Chest is located in the Summit Mining District within the Murray Gold Belt region of the greater Coeur d’Alene (CdA) Mining District. A modern geochemical study of the Golden Chest has never been conducted at the Golden Chest.

This thesis investigates, with the collaboration of New Jersey Mining Company (NJMC), the paragenesis of ore forming minerals, the mineralogy of the deposit and the genesis of the ore forming ...


Experimental Investigation Of The Thermochemical Reduction Of Arsenite And Sulfate: Low Temperature Hydrothermal Copper, Nickel, And Cobalt Arsenide And Sulfide Ore Formation, Nicholas Allin Apr 2019

Experimental Investigation Of The Thermochemical Reduction Of Arsenite And Sulfate: Low Temperature Hydrothermal Copper, Nickel, And Cobalt Arsenide And Sulfide Ore Formation, Nicholas Allin

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Experiments were conducted to determine the relative rates of reduction of aqueous sulfate and aqueous arsenite (As(OH)3,aq) using foils of copper, nickel, or cobalt as the reductant, at temperatures of 150ºC to 300ºC. At the highest temperature of 300°C, very limited sulfate reduction was observed with cobalt foil, but sulfate was reduced to sulfide by copper foil (precipitation of Cu2S (chalcocite)) and partly reduced by nickel foil (precipitation of NiS2 (vaesite) + NiSO4·xH2O). In the 300ºC arsenite reduction experiments, Cu3As (domeykite), Ni5As2, or CoAs (langisite ...


Investigation Of Multiple Torch Paw-Based Additive Manufacturing, Nathan Huft Apr 2019

Investigation Of Multiple Torch Paw-Based Additive Manufacturing, Nathan Huft

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

PAW Print 3D (PP3D), a wire and arc additive manufacturing (AM) system was developed. PP3D comprises three plasma arc welding torches arranged radially around a central wire feed. Using three torches was hypothesized to eliminate sensitivity to travel direction. Two deposition modes were developed – continuous, which deposited continuous beads, and dabber, which deposited discreet “dabs” of material. Dabber was hypothesized to provide favorable solidification conditions that would refine the as-deposited grain structure. Three sets of process parameters for each deposition mode were developed. Ineffective workpiece melting was observed and investigated during process development. Using COMSOL Multiphysics software and experimental observations ...


Mechanism For Disodium Carboxymethyl Trithiocarbonate (Orfom® D8) Depression In Chalcopyrite-Molybdenite Flotation Systems, Simon Timbillah Apr 2019

Mechanism For Disodium Carboxymethyl Trithiocarbonate (Orfom® D8) Depression In Chalcopyrite-Molybdenite Flotation Systems, Simon Timbillah

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The chalcopyrite-molybdenite (Cu-Mo) flotation industry is increasingly turning to organic depressants as suitable replacements for inorganic reagents such as NaHS due to environmental and safety concerns as well as high consumption rates of the inorganic reagents. An opportunity arises for improving, designing and synthesizing new alternative reagents. Disodium Carboxymethyl Trithiocarbonate (Orfom® D8) depressant is an organic depressant with a carboxylate group on one end and a trithiocarbonate group at the other end. Fundamental results are shown regarding the interaction of the Orfom® D8 depressant in the bulk flotation of a Cu-Mo concentrate from an operating North American mine. Cyclic Voltammetry ...


Well-Failure Analysis Of The Devil’S Basin In Musselshell County, Mt., Alexander Koerner Oct 2018

Well-Failure Analysis Of The Devil’S Basin In Musselshell County, Mt., Alexander Koerner

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Central Montana’s Devil’s Basin is the home of the first wildcat well in Montana. However, numerous operators have failed to recover economic oil reserves in the nearly 100- year history of the play. Analysis of the geologic conditions within the Devil’s Basin leads to a modern understanding of the charge, reservoir, and trap potentials of the greater Devil’s Basin petroleum play. Primary focus within the play is the Heath and Tyler Formations. Evaluation of previous exploration guides the end narrative of recommendations to direct future production in the Devil’s Basin.

A representative geologic model describing ...


An Evaluation Of The Deployment Of A Distributed Strain And Temperature (Dst) Fiber Optic Sensing System In An Underground Facility, Calvin Kammerer Oct 2018

An Evaluation Of The Deployment Of A Distributed Strain And Temperature (Dst) Fiber Optic Sensing System In An Underground Facility, Calvin Kammerer

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

In an effort to further mine safety and utilize the recent advances in fiber optic sensors’ distributed sensing capabilities, a research project at Montana Tech has deployed fiber optic sensors in an underground environment. The method of Brillouin scattering that has documented success in a mining environment will be used because it shows the greatest potential for detecting both temperature and strain in the deployed environment, as well as the ability to differentiate between the two. The primary objective of the Montana Tech research is to create a scenario where the distributed sensing technology can be evaluated for its sensing ...


Stratigraphy And Sedimentology Of The Black Lion Conglomerate, Eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Southwestern Montana, Vincent Spinazola Oct 2018

Stratigraphy And Sedimentology Of The Black Lion Conglomerate, Eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Southwestern Montana, Vincent Spinazola

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the age and depositional setting of the Black Lion Conglomerate in the Eastern Pioneer Mountains of southwest Montana. Located at Section 5, T3S, R11W, Beaverhead County, Montana, the Grace Lake field site is the primary focus of this study. Other field sites include Hecla, Black Lion Lake, Black Lion Creek, and Sheep Mountain. Previous studies suggested the Black Lion Conglomerate is either Cambrian or Proterozoic in age. The base of the Black Lion Conglomerate is not exposed at any location. The Black Lion Conglomerate is at least 120m (394ft) thick.

In this ...


Improving A Transient Stability Control Scheme With Wide-Area Synchrophasors And The Microwecc, A Reduced-Order Model Of The Western Interconnect, Robin Hallett Oct 2018

Improving A Transient Stability Control Scheme With Wide-Area Synchrophasors And The Microwecc, A Reduced-Order Model Of The Western Interconnect, Robin Hallett

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

This thesis is composed of two research projects. The first project investigated the feasibility of improving a generator tripping control scheme using wide-area synchrophasors and the second project focused on building a reduced-order model of the western North American power system (wNAPS) for use in a real-time digital simulator.

Transient stability is a major reliability issue for power systems. Radially-connected power plants are especially prone to transient stability problems. An example of this is the fourgenerator Colstrip power plant located in southeast Montana, USA. The Colstrip generators are protected by a tripping control system called the Acceleration Trend Relay (ATR ...


Comparison Of Salicyl Hydroxamate Adsorption On Rare Earth Phosphates To Oxides And Carbonates, Stephanie Trant Oct 2018

Comparison Of Salicyl Hydroxamate Adsorption On Rare Earth Phosphates To Oxides And Carbonates, Stephanie Trant

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Adsorption behavior of the anionic collector salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHA) on a group of selected rare earth phosphates (REPs) was studied by means of experimental methods and modeling software. These REPs were then compared to rare earth carbonates (RECs) and rare earth oxides (REOs) to develop a trend. A suite of rare earth elements (REE) were studied that included light (LREE) and middle (MREE). Results for heavy (HREE) were inferred. Synthetic phosphate, oxide and carbonate powders of the rare earth elements Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Europium (Eu) and Dysprosium (Dy) were tested for these studies. Dysprosium phosphate was the only ...


Remediation Investigation And Feasibility Study For “Inplace” Mine Waste Influenced Grove Gulch, Butte, Mt, Westley Lund Oct 2018

Remediation Investigation And Feasibility Study For “Inplace” Mine Waste Influenced Grove Gulch, Butte, Mt, Westley Lund

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Historical mining activities in Butte, Montana contributed to the deposition of heavy metal contaminated mine waste/tailings along the tributary streams of the Clark Fork River. These tributary streams, Silver Bow Creek (SBC), Blacktail Creek (BTC), and Grove Gulch make up the headwaters of the Clark Fork River, which flows through western Montana. SBC is currently impaired for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), and sedimentation (MTDEQ, 2016). BTC is the headwaters of SBC, while Grove Gulch discharges into BTC. Grove Gulch is an intermittent stream south of Butte, that is approximately 6 miles ...


Development Of A Uav-Based System To Monitor Air Quality Over An Oil Field, Siwen Liu Oct 2018

Development Of A Uav-Based System To Monitor Air Quality Over An Oil Field, Siwen Liu

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The growth of hydraulic fracturing has pushed the whole petroleum industries forward. As a result, gas (mainly methane [CH4]) emissions have significantly increased over the past decades (Macey et al., 2014). Gas leaks can occur at almost all stages of a petroleum production process, such as drilling, fracking, and refining. For years, ground-based air quality monitoring has been conducted around production sites. An improved understanding of air quality would be enabled by supplementing ground-based with airborne monitoring. The latter would involve the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to carry a compact, portable air monitoring system. The purpose of this ...


Surface Chemistry And Modelling Of Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid Adsorption At The Surface Of Rare Earth Oxides, Carbonates And Phosphates, Marc F. Sime Oct 2018

Surface Chemistry And Modelling Of Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid Adsorption At The Surface Of Rare Earth Oxides, Carbonates And Phosphates, Marc F. Sime

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The adsorption mechanism of salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHA, C7H7O3N) on rare earth minerals was investigated using two complementary methods: precipitation studies and modelling. Precipitation studies showed that SHA adsorption occurs through a displacement of the hydroxide ion at the surface in an ion exchange mechanism, leading to surface precipitation and/or chemisorption. Surface precipitation predominates in the light rare earth oxides (LREOs), while chemisorption predominates in the heavier REOs. Modelling revealed that adsorption of SHA on the REM surface is dependent upon the orientation of SHA on the surface as well as the distance between rare earth elements sites on ...


Evaluation Of Continuous, Low-Intensity Ultraviolet Irradiation For Biofilm Prevention, Stephanie Conrad Oct 2018

Evaluation Of Continuous, Low-Intensity Ultraviolet Irradiation For Biofilm Prevention, Stephanie Conrad

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Biofilms occur when planktonic bacteria attach to a surface, forming a sticky, extracellular matrix that makes them difficult to remove. Biofilms are especially troublesome in water filtration membrane systems due to their strong adhesive properties. Once attached, biofilms cause a decrease in water production (biofouling) and an increase in membrane degradation. Traditional cleaning methods use harsh chemicals and require modules being taken offline, which reduces water production rates. Moreover, despite current cleaning efforts, irreversible biofouling inevitably leads to membrane module replacement. The implementation of low-intensity UV irradiation for biofilm prevention could decrease waste and increase production. However, while much is ...


Material Properties Of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processed 316l Stainless Steel, Steven Keckler Jul 2018

Material Properties Of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processed 316l Stainless Steel, Steven Keckler

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Laser powder bed fusion additive manufactured 316L stainless steel specimens were evaluated to establish a baseline for future research in determining an optimized energy density and build orientation. Test specimens were printed at various energy densities. At each energy density, tensile and fatigue specimens were printed at 0o (longitudinal), 45o, and 90o (transverse) orientation to the build plate. Tensile and high cycle fatigue tests were performed then representative fracture surfaces were analyzed. The apparent melt track and dendrite size were evaluated using grain analysis software. Static loading of the tensile specimens showed a marginal difference in UTS for specimens with ...


Continuous Flow Process For Recovery Of Metal Contaminants From Industrial Wastewaters With Magnetic Nanocomposites, David Hutchins Jul 2018

Continuous Flow Process For Recovery Of Metal Contaminants From Industrial Wastewaters With Magnetic Nanocomposites, David Hutchins

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Remediation of metal-containing industrial effluents presents both a technical challenge and an economic opportunity. Many industrial waste streams contain low levels of metal ions requiring treatment prior to discharge. Existing treatment technologies are frustrated by disparate compositions and low metal concentrations. Chemical precipitation is effective; however, it requires excessive reagents and discourages selective recovery. Ion-exchange enables recovery, but requires a batch process with extensive operational and maintenance demands, and is rarely implemented in large-scale applications. A continuous flow process capable of selective recovery would present many advantages over existing technologies.

This research examines and develops a continuous flow process for ...