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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Economic Efficiency And Carbon Emissions In Mes With Flexible Buildings, Zach Lawrence Hurwitz Jan 2020

Economic Efficiency And Carbon Emissions In Mes With Flexible Buildings, Zach Lawrence Hurwitz

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Multi-energy systems offer an opportunity to leverage energy conversion processes and temporary energy storage mechanisms to reduce costs and emissions during operation of campuses, cities, and buildings. With increasing options for flexibility in demand-side resources it is possible to meet demand without sacrificing comfort and convenience of MES occupants.

This Thesis develops a multi-period, linear optimization model of an MES with flexible buildings that captures nonlinearities in the efficiency of energy conversion processes. The flexible buildings are parametrized, in part, based on historical data from a college campus in Vermont, USA. The idea of the MES model is to investigate ...


Load Flow Analysis Of 138/69kv Substation Using Electrical Transient & Analysis Program (Etap), Vanessa Abadia Gomez Dec 2019

Load Flow Analysis Of 138/69kv Substation Using Electrical Transient & Analysis Program (Etap), Vanessa Abadia Gomez

Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper examines the load flow analysis of a high-voltage substation using ETAP, and explores options for improving the voltage profile of the system. This study yields critical information about the system, such as the voltage drop at each feeder, the voltage at each bus, as well as real and reactive power losses at the different branches and feeders. In this power flow examination, the system’s performance is evaluated for different operating conditions, so that control measurements can be applied if necessary. The experimental results are used for proposing a plan of using fixed and switched shunt capacitor banks ...


Swarm Behavior To Mitigate Rebound In Air Conditioning Demand Response Events, Jason Yasuto Kuwada Aug 2019

Swarm Behavior To Mitigate Rebound In Air Conditioning Demand Response Events, Jason Yasuto Kuwada

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) have shown great potential for Demand Response (DR) events. However, it has been commonly seen that DR events using TCLs may cause demand rebound, especially in homogeneous populations. To further explore the potential for DR events, as well as the negative effects, a stability and resilience analysis were performed on multiple populations and verified with agent based modeling simulations.

At the core of this study is an added thermostat criterion created from the combination of a proportional gain and the average compressor operating state of neighboring TCLs. Where DR events in TCLs are commonly controlled by ...


Triple-Junction Solar Cells : In Parallel., Levi C Mays Aug 2019

Triple-Junction Solar Cells : In Parallel., Levi C Mays

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper looks into the current inefficiency of solar cells and attempts a few alternative solar cell structures in order to provide a more effective source of renewable energy. Currently, multi-junction solar cells are being developed to capture the sun’s light more efficiently. One of the ideas in this paper is to add a window to see if the addition of such a layer into a junction will increase the voltage while maintaining nearly the same current output. Central to this paper is the rearranging of the conducting layers of the multi-junction cell so that the junctions can be ...


Five-Level Flying Capacitor Converter Used As A Static Compensator For Current Unbalances In Three-Phase Distribution Systems, Rafael Franceschi Aug 2019

Five-Level Flying Capacitor Converter Used As A Static Compensator For Current Unbalances In Three-Phase Distribution Systems, Rafael Franceschi

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents and evaluates a solution for unbalanced current loading in three-phase distribution systems. The proposed solution uses the flying capacitor multilevel converter as its main topology for an application known as Unbalanced Current Static Compensator. The fundamental theory, controller design and prototype construction will be presented along with the experimental results. The Unbalanced Current Static Compensator main objective is the balancing of the up-stream currents from the installation point to eliminate the negative- and zero-sequence currents originated by unbalanced single-phase loads.

Three separate single-phase flying capacitor converters are controlled independently using a d-q rotating reference frame algorithm to ...


Backstepping Control And Transformation Of Multi-Input Multi-Output Affine Nonlinear Systems Into A Strict Feedback Form, Khalid Salim D. Alharbi Aug 2019

Backstepping Control And Transformation Of Multi-Input Multi-Output Affine Nonlinear Systems Into A Strict Feedback Form, Khalid Salim D. Alharbi

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents an improved method for controlling multi-input multi-output affine nonlinear systems. A method based on Lie derivatives of the system's outputs is proposed to transform the system into an equivalent strict feedback form. This enables using backstepping control approaches based on Lyapunov stability and integrator backstepping theory to be applied. The geometrical coordinate transformation of multi-input multi-output affine nonlinear systems into strict feedback form has not been detailed in previous publications. In this research, a new approach is presented that extends the transformation process of single-input single-output nonlinear. A general algorithm of the transformation process is formulated ...


Optimal Decentralized Coordination Of Sources In Islanded And Grid-Connected Microgrids, Mithun Mallick Jul 2019

Optimal Decentralized Coordination Of Sources In Islanded And Grid-Connected Microgrids, Mithun Mallick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rising climate change concerns in recent years have instigated the emergence of sustainable sources to reduce dependence on high-emission, isolated bulk generation systems. The microgrid framework relies on integrating these distributed energy resources (DERs) to achieve regional energy independence that leads to a reliable and environment-friendly power grid. In this work, highly granular and decentralized coordination schemes are proposed that will enable fast computation of source dispatch set-points, thereby appropriately accounting for frequent changes in regional load-supply configuration of a microgrid. The mathematical models utilized in the study sufficiently represent the steady-state electrical interdependencies and feasibility limits in islanded or ...


Aggregation Of Electric Water Heaters For Peak Shifting And Frequency Response Services, Thomas Leighton Clarke Jun 2019

Aggregation Of Electric Water Heaters For Peak Shifting And Frequency Response Services, Thomas Leighton Clarke

Dissertations and Theses

The increased penetration of renewable energy sources poses new challenges for grid stability. The stochastic and uncontrollable generation of solar and wind power cannot be adjusted to match the load profile, and the transition away from traditional synchronous generators is reducing the grid capacity to arrest and recover from frequency disturbances.

Additionally, the distributed nature of many renewable energy sources makes centralized control of generation more complicated. The traditional power system paradigm balances the supply and demand of electricity on the grid by regulating generation. As this becomes more difficult, one alternative is to adjust the load instead. This is ...


Smart Management Strategies Of Utility-Scale Energy Storage Systems In Power Networks, Choton Kanti Das Jun 2019

Smart Management Strategies Of Utility-Scale Energy Storage Systems In Power Networks, Choton Kanti Das

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Power systems are presently experiencing a period of rapid change driven by various interrelated issues, e.g., integration of renewables, demand management, power congestion, power quality requirements, and frequency regulation. Although the deployment of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) has been shown to provide effective solutions to many of these issues, misplacement or non-optimal sizing of these systems can adversely affect network performance. This present research has revealed some novel working strategies for optimal allocation and sizing of utility-scale ESSs to address some important issues of power networks at both distribution and transmission levels. The optimization strategies employed for ESS placement ...


Dc House Smart Pathway Lighting System, Benjamin H. Tan, Rafael Santiago, Brendan Schoemehl Jun 2019

Dc House Smart Pathway Lighting System, Benjamin H. Tan, Rafael Santiago, Brendan Schoemehl

Electrical Engineering

The Student Experimental Farm (SEF) is a two-acre site where students are able to create projects and experiments. It is also the location of the DC House project, a house with electricity provided by DC power as opposed to the traditional AC power. The motive of the DC house project is to provide affordable and renewable electricity for people living in remote areas where ac power grids are not available. Currently, the SEF does not have any lighting, so students would have to work in the dark after the sun sets. By creating a smart lighting system for the pathway ...


Apollo Photovoltaic Overview And Assessment, Andrew S. Hollis, James P. Tran, Andes Le, Regita Soetandar Jun 2019

Apollo Photovoltaic Overview And Assessment, Andrew S. Hollis, James P. Tran, Andes Le, Regita Soetandar

Electrical Engineering

This senior project aims to take the various data sheets provided to us by PIVVIR Solar, the organization in charge of Apollo photovoltaic power plant, and perform an overall assessment as well as condensing the information into a more digestible and concise document. Currently, the documents provided to us by PIVVIR Solar are scattered and disorganized. Our goal is to take what we understand about photovoltaic power plants and combine it with the Apollo plant’s datasheets and summarize everything into one focused document that more readers can understand.


Dc-Dc Buck-Boost Converter For Energy Harvesting From Exercise Equipment, David T. Bolla Jun 2019

Dc-Dc Buck-Boost Converter For Energy Harvesting From Exercise Equipment, David T. Bolla

Electrical Engineering

This senior project helps harvest the excess energy that exercise equipment generates. Sustainable energy acts as the main target for this project, and it attempts this through reusing the energy created when exercising on elliptical machines. An elliptical machine outputs voltages between approximately 5V and 60V, and a micro-inverter requires an input voltage of about 36V. This DC-DC converter takes the variable output voltage of an elliptical machine and brings it to approximately 36V. Re-purposing the excess energy an elliptical user creates for the grid provides a sustainable alternative to dissipating the energy as heat. This project, along with other ...


Spread Spectrum Buck Converter, Summer Elise Rutherford, Kyle Brandon Halloran, Brian Taylor Arbiv Jun 2019

Spread Spectrum Buck Converter, Summer Elise Rutherford, Kyle Brandon Halloran, Brian Taylor Arbiv

Electrical Engineering

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an issue prevalent to DC-DC converters. When a system doesn’t effectively filter out external noise or signals, these signals can cause disturbances to the system at large. The switching technology of DC-DC converters (PWM in particular), lends the system susceptible to EMI because there is a prevalent peaks at the switching frequency, meaning any external signals will not be effectively attenuated at this frequency. This can cause significant issues at the input bus of the DC-DC converters because this bus is likely the input of a multitude of devices; the EMI susceptibility caused by switching ...


Dc To Dc Usb-C Charger, Nikki Gmerek, Kenneth Nguyen, Uriel Serna Jun 2019

Dc To Dc Usb-C Charger, Nikki Gmerek, Kenneth Nguyen, Uriel Serna

Electrical Engineering

The DC House USB-C Charger will convert the 48V input from the DC house, found on the Cal Poly campus, to 3 USB-C outputs: 5V, 12V, and 24 volts. The converter will deliver a total of 185 Watts out across all 3 outputs, with an efficiency greater than 82% at full load. The USB-C ports will be used to connect to compatible phones, laptops or any other device for charging/powering purposes. The goal of this project is to develop the most efficient and safe converter to deliver power to multiple outputs using USB-C, for items as small as a ...


Cal Poly Ee 518 Electric Power Protection Laboratory, Richard Terre, Vincent Tham, Austin Kurth Jun 2019

Cal Poly Ee 518 Electric Power Protection Laboratory, Richard Terre, Vincent Tham, Austin Kurth

Electrical Engineering

Facing a rapidly-changing power industry, the electrical engineering department at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo proposed Advanced Power Systems Initiatives to better prepare its students for entering the power industry. These initiatives call for the creation of a new laboratory curriculum that utilizes microprocessor-based relays to reinforce the fundamental concepts of power system protection.

The electric power protection laboratory (EPPL) senior project is the validation of lab manuals written for the planned EE-518 power system protections laboratory looking to be offered in Spring 2020 alongside the current lecture class under the same designation. This report evaluates the lab manual, verifies ...


Weight Controlled Electric Skateboard, Zachary Barram, Carson Bertozzi, Vishnu Dodballapur Jun 2019

Weight Controlled Electric Skateboard, Zachary Barram, Carson Bertozzi, Vishnu Dodballapur

Computer Engineering

Technology and the way that humans interact is becoming more vital and omnipresent with every passing day. However, human interface device designers suffer from the increasingly popular “designed for me or people like me” syndrome. This design philosophy inherently limits accessibility and usability of technology to those like the designer. This places severe limits of usability to those who are not fully able as well as leaves non-traditional human interface devices unexplored. This project set out to explore a previously uncharted human interface device, on an electric skateboard, and compare it send user experience with industry leading human interface devices.


Dc-Dc Converter For Electric Vehicle, Jason Y. Zhou, Nicholas James Mah Jun 2019

Dc-Dc Converter For Electric Vehicle, Jason Y. Zhou, Nicholas James Mah

Electrical Engineering

In this work, a DC-DC converter is designed for an electric vehicle. The DC-DC converter is designed to provide 500W with a 200-400V input and a 12-15V adjustable output. Electric vehicle sales are beginning to increase in popularity and the need for DC-DC converters to siphon power from the tractive system is not yet fully satisfied, especially for single-seater class vehicles. Additionally, improving performance in efficiency without sacrificing wide input voltage range can benefit future DC-DC converter designs. In the end, a forward active clamp DC-DC converter is designed and tested. Additionally, spreadsheet calculators, LTSpice simulations, and Matlab scripts were ...


Pv Hybrid Inverter And Bess, Jacob Sussex, William Dresser, Owen Mckenzie, Jonathan Wharton, Derek Seaman Jun 2019

Pv Hybrid Inverter And Bess, Jacob Sussex, William Dresser, Owen Mckenzie, Jonathan Wharton, Derek Seaman

Electrical Engineering

The storage of energy from renewable sources such as photovoltaic based systems is a growing market, with 36 MWh of storage installed in Q1 of 2018. A report from EnergySage earlier this year states that in 2017, 74% of residential solar owners were also interested in energy storage systems. Mainstream systems like Tesla’s Powerwall are competing with other lithium-ion based storage systems from a wide number of providers on the market today. Short term and long term data collection on a system like this could be useful in designing future systems which perform better than the current market offerings ...


Heat: Hydraulic And Electric Animation Team, Tyler J. Couvrette, Michael J. Cain, Sara T. Novell, Dexter K. Yanagisawa Jun 2019

Heat: Hydraulic And Electric Animation Team, Tyler J. Couvrette, Michael J. Cain, Sara T. Novell, Dexter K. Yanagisawa

Mechanical Engineering

Each New Years’ Day, the Cal Poly Rose Float presents a flower-covered float to the world at the Tournament of Roses parade. This floral display, paired with moving mechanical animations, shows off Cal Poly to the world. This project strove to keep Cal Poly on the cutting edge of technology both in parade floats, and in engineering, by creating a completely electric-powered animation system.

To accomplish this, a group of students set out to make the fully electric animation system that can power both the hydraulic and electric mechanisms on the Float. This was accomplished through months of planning and ...


Multiple Input, Single Output Dc-Dc Conversion Stage For Dc House, Jason Baltierrez Jun 2019

Multiple Input, Single Output Dc-Dc Conversion Stage For Dc House, Jason Baltierrez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

n this thesis project, a proposed architecture for the multiple input, single output conversion stage for the DC House was designed, simulated, and tested. This architecture allows for multiple different input sources to be used to create a single higher power output source. The design uses a DC-DC boost converter with a parallelable output which has been demonstrated to allow increased total output power as a function of the number of input sources available. The parallelable output has been shown to distribute load amongst the input sources relatively closely to optimize the system. This approach is also desirable since it ...


Gold Tree Solar Farm - Machine Learning To Predict Solar Power Generation, Jonathon T. Scott Jun 2019

Gold Tree Solar Farm - Machine Learning To Predict Solar Power Generation, Jonathon T. Scott

Computer Science and Software Engineering

Solar energy causes a strain on the electrical grid because of the uncontrollable nature of the factors that affect power generation. Utilities are often required to balance solar generation facilities to meet consumer demand, which often includes the costly process of activating/deactivating a fossil fuel facility. Therefore, there is considerable interest in increasing the accuracy and the granularity of solar power generation predictions in order to reduce the cost of grid management. This project aims to evaluate how sky imaging technology may contribute to the accuracy of those predictions.


Smart Dc Wall Outlet Design With Improved Load Voltage Detection, Patrick Donovon Granieri Jun 2019

Smart Dc Wall Outlet Design With Improved Load Voltage Detection, Patrick Donovon Granieri

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A standard home in the United States has access to the 120V AC power grid for use with home appliances. Many electronics used at home are powered by a DC power supply, which loses energy in the conversion from AC power. The DC House project avoids any conversion between AC and DC by storing energy in batteries as DC power and supplying it directly to DC appliances. While AC systems feature a standardized output voltage, no such standard exists for DC systems. The Smart DC Wall Outlet solves this by automatically adjusting its output voltage to meet any required DC ...


Operation And Planning Of Data Centers In Electricity Networks, Ali Vafamehr May 2019

Operation And Planning Of Data Centers In Electricity Networks, Ali Vafamehr

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Cloud computing provides unique opportunities for the various sectors of the economy such as the automotive industry, education, finance, and governmental entities. In-house IT infrastructures vary in quality and can often be outdated and ineffective. As an alternative, cloud computing is a popular IT model which allows various businesses to “outsource” the IT infrastructure to a more efficient model. Businesses are opting to use cloud computing in order to eliminate the capital expenses of traditional IT systems and reduce the around-the-clock expert manpower required to operate on-site IT infrastructures. Relying on cloud services gives businesses the flexibility to access a ...


Symmetry And Dopant Diffusion In Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays For Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Seok Jun Han May 2019

Symmetry And Dopant Diffusion In Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays For Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Seok Jun Han

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

In this dissertation, we enhance the efficiency of thin flexible monocrystalline silicon solar cells by breaking symmetry in light trapping nanostructures and improving homogeneity in dopant concentration profile. These thin cells are potentially less expensive than conventional thick silicon cells by using less silicon material and making the cells more convenient to be handled when supported on polymer films. Moreover, these cells are widely applicable due to their flexibility and lightweight. However, for high efficiencies, these cells require effective light trapping and charge collection. We achieve these in cells based on 14-mm-thick free-standing silicon films with light-trapping arrays of nanopyramidal ...


Public Utilities' Disaster Response And Management Plans: An Evaluation Of National Grid And New York State Electric & Gas, Taylor N. Vishion May 2019

Public Utilities' Disaster Response And Management Plans: An Evaluation Of National Grid And New York State Electric & Gas, Taylor N. Vishion

Public Administration Master’s Projects

Societal dependence on electricity has rapidly increased as technological advancement has occurred, thus requiring electric utilities to advance their emergency response and repair procedures. Disaster management and response is a relatively new field for electric utilities, and despite the adoption of the Incident Command System created by FEMA, there are still opportunities for all utilities to improve. This project aims to assess the disaster response and management procedures of National Grid U.S. and NYSEG and identify opportunities for improvement. This study interviewed emergency management professionals experienced with electric utilities and found both National Grid U.S. and NYSEG can ...


Usb-C Power Adapter For Dc House Project, Tyler G. Starr, Ezzeddeen Gazali May 2019

Usb-C Power Adapter For Dc House Project, Tyler G. Starr, Ezzeddeen Gazali

Electrical Engineering

Despite the importance of electricity and the impact it has on our daily lives, many people around the world still live without this essential utility today. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), approximately 1.1 billion people in the world did not have access to electricity in 2017. The DC House Project at Cal Poly aims to provide electricity to people living in rural areas by directly utilizing DC energy generated from renewable or human powered sources without the need for DC-AC conversions. However, one significant issue is the lack of a standardized DC wall socket. Standards for AC ...


Real-Time Fault Detection And Reconfiguration Of A Three-Phase Electric Motor Drive, Danyal Mohammadi May 2019

Real-Time Fault Detection And Reconfiguration Of A Three-Phase Electric Motor Drive, Danyal Mohammadi

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Variable-frequency drives (VFDs) are widely used for control of electrical machines such as induction motors (IMs) or permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Similar to other electrical devices, these drives are subject to failure. Several types of faults are associated with VFDs. For instance, faults such as an open-switch fault, a short-circuit switch fault are the two common faults in VFDs. These faults can yield catastrophic consequences if proper remedial action is not taken.

A unique remedial topology for the post-fault period and a new pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy are proposed so that not only the motor drive can continue the ...


Exploring The Electrical Properties Of Twisted Bilayer Graphene, William Shannon May 2019

Exploring The Electrical Properties Of Twisted Bilayer Graphene, William Shannon

Senior Theses

Two-dimensional materials exhibit properties unlike anything else seen in conventional substances. Electrons in these materials are confined to move only in the plane. In order to explore the effects of these materials, we have built apparatus and refined procedures with which to create two-dimensional structures. Two-dimensional devices have been made using exfoliated graphene and placed on gold contacts. Their topography has been observed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) confirming samples with monolayer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer structure. Relative work functions of each have been measured using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) showing that twisted bilayer graphene has a surface potential ...


Manufacturing And Testing The Permanent Magnet Linear Motor, Renjie Kang May 2019

Manufacturing And Testing The Permanent Magnet Linear Motor, Renjie Kang

Senior Theses

Controlled mechanical motion is vital in many useful applications in technology. Among them, linear motors have advantages over traditional rotating motors. In this work, we built a permanent magnet linear motor to test and measure its energy efficiency. A maximum 29% total energy efficiency, and 67% energy transfer rate, were detected. In addition, a C-shape support structure was added to the moving part in order to increase the moving accuracy. The tests show that, with the support structure, the fluctuation in the vertical direction decreases significantly, but the friction of the system slightly increases.


Model Development And Assessment Of The Gate Network In A High-Performance Sic Power Module, William Austin Curbow May 2019

Model Development And Assessment Of The Gate Network In A High-Performance Sic Power Module, William Austin Curbow

Theses and Dissertations

The main objective of this effort is to determine points of weakness in the gate network of a high-performance SiC power module and to offer remedies to these issues to increase the overall performance, robustness, and reliability of the technology. In order to accomplish this goal, a highly accurate model of the gate network is developed through three methods of parameter extraction: calculation, simulation, and measurement. A SPICE model of the gate network is developed to analyze four electrical issues in a high-speed, SiC-based power module including the necessary internal gate resistance for damping under-voltage and over-voltage transients, the disparity ...