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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves Jan 2019

Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves

Doctoral Dissertations

The residual stresses and scalar fluxes are required to close the momentum and scalar transport equations in simulations of turbulence that are not fully resolved in space.

In stratified turbulence, the stress and fluxes are statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic.

In this work, a tensorial basis set is derived analytically that potentially contains sufficient information about the anisotropic interaction between resolved and residual scales.

The residual stress tensor is evaluated by ...


Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian Jan 2018

Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian

Masters Theses

The influence of symmetry breaking on the flow induced oscillations of bluff bodies in the steamwise direction is studied. First, a series of experiments is conducted on a one-degree-of-freedom circular cylinder allowed to exhibit pure translational motion in the streamwise direction over a range of reduced velocities, 1.4 < U* < 4.4, corresponding to a Reynolds number range of 970 < Re < 3370. Two distinct regions of displacements were observed in reduced velocity ranges of 1.6 < U* < 2.5 and 2.75 < U* < 3.85. Measured force coefficients in the drag and lift direction were examined, along with the wake visualization, through the range of reduced velocities, to infer the resulting wake modes. A new Alternating Symmetric (AS) mode was found. This transition from symmetric to AS shedding occurred near the end of the first region of response. Similar tests were run with a square prism in the parameter space of 2.4 < U* < 5.8 and 757 < Re < 1900 over angles of incidence of 0° ≤ α ≤ 45°. A distinct region of lock-in is observed for α = 0°, 2.5°, 5°, 7.5° over 3.2 < U* < 5.4 for α = 0°, and decreasing with increasing α. The wake structures were found to be roughly symmetric for α = 0°, but transitioned towards asymmetry with ...


A Numerical Flutter Predictor For 3d Airfoils Using The Onera Dynamic Stall Model, Pieter Boersma Jan 2018

A Numerical Flutter Predictor For 3d Airfoils Using The Onera Dynamic Stall Model, Pieter Boersma

Masters Theses

To be able to harness more power from the wind, wind turbine blades are getting longer. As they get longer, they get more flexible. This creates issues that have until recently not been of concern. Long flexible wind turbine blades can lose their stability to flow induced instabilities such as coupled-mode flutter. This type of flutter occurs when increasing wind speed causes a coupling of a bending and a torsional mode, which create limit cycle oscillations that can lead to blade failure. To be able to make the design of larger blades possible, it is important to be able to ...


Electroplating Of Copper On Tungsten Powder, Richard Berdos Jan 2018

Electroplating Of Copper On Tungsten Powder, Richard Berdos

Masters Theses

Strengthening, resistant and shielding properties, to name a few, can be achieved by implementing a surface material coating onto an engineering component. Various elements of these compounded parts can augment the functionality of the part, such as, increased life time and more interactive surfaces. Tungsten has proven to be a challenge to plate with other metals, but if done correctly, the results can allow for the cold spray of tungsten. Cold spraying tungsten particles alone provides a challenge because the powder is too hard and instead of adhering, it erodes the surface it is attempting to plate. Coating tungsten in ...


Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang Jan 2018

Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

Qualification and certification for additive and smart manufacturing systems can be uncertain and very costly. Using available historical data can mitigate some costs of producing and testing sample parts. However, use of such data lacks the flexibility to represent specific new problems which decreases predictive accuracy and efficiency. To address these compelling needs, in this dissertation modeling techniques are introduced that can proactively estimate results expected from additive and smart manufacturing processes swiftly and with practical levels of accuracy and reliability. More specifically, this research addresses the current challenges and limitations posed by use of available data and the high ...


Computational Exploration Of Flash-Boiling Internal Flow And Near-Nozzle Spray, Sampath K. Rachakonda Jan 2018

Computational Exploration Of Flash-Boiling Internal Flow And Near-Nozzle Spray, Sampath K. Rachakonda

Doctoral Dissertations

Gasoline engines operating under the principle of direct injection are susceptible to flash-boiling due to superheated nature of the fuel and the sub-atmospheric in-cylinder pressures during injection. A review of the literature on flash-boiling sprays shows that a majority of the studies have focused on the far-field regions of the spray, with limited attention given to understanding the influences of the injector geometry and the near-nozzle regions of the spray. Modeling the internal nozzle flow and the primary atomization, on which the far-field spray depends, is a challenge. This thesis, therefore, is aimed at understanding the complex flow through a ...


Incorporating Seasonal Wind Resource And Electricity Price Data Into Wind Farm Micrositing, Timothy A. Pfeiffer Jan 2017

Incorporating Seasonal Wind Resource And Electricity Price Data Into Wind Farm Micrositing, Timothy A. Pfeiffer

Masters Theses

Currently, most micrositing techniques aim to maximize annual energy production (AEP) or minimize cost of energy (COE) with no direct regard to revenue. This research study developed a method that utilizes the seasonal electricity price and wind data to microsite wind farms in terms of profitability. To accomplish this, six candidate wind farms with differing layouts and spacing were selected at a given location. They were then simulated using a wake modeling software to produce expected power outputs at different wind speeds, wind directions, and turbulence intensities. By interpolating the power output tables with wind data, a power time-series was ...


Non-Equispaced Fast Fourier Transforms In Turbulence Simulation, Aditya M. Kulkarni Jan 2017

Non-Equispaced Fast Fourier Transforms In Turbulence Simulation, Aditya M. Kulkarni

Masters Theses

Fourier pseudo-spectral method on equispaced grid is one of the approaches in turbulence simulation, to compute derivative of discrete data, using fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and gives low dispersion and dissipation errors. In many turbulent flows the dynamically important scales of motion are concentrated in certain regions which requires a coarser grid for higher accuracy. A coarser grid in other regions minimizes the memory requirement. This requires the use of Non-equispaced Fast Fourier Transform (NFFT) to compute the Fourier transform, by solving a system of linear equations.

To achieve similar accuracy, the NFFT needs to return more Fourier coefficients than ...


Electroless Deposition & Electroplating Of Nickel On Chromium-Nickel Carbide Powder, Jeffrey Rigali Jan 2017

Electroless Deposition & Electroplating Of Nickel On Chromium-Nickel Carbide Powder, Jeffrey Rigali

Masters Theses

Engineered components can gain desirable properties when coated with surface materials. Wear-resistant coatings can improve the performance of contacting surfaces and allow for an extended life of the parts. Hard chromium has been the plating material of choice for certain wear and corrosion- resistant coatings because of its desirable combination of chemical resistance, adhesion, and mechanical properties. However, hexavalent chromium, a component of the process for applying hard chromium coatings, has been recognized by the EPA as having hazardous health and environmental impacts. Existing and planned environmental regulations restricts the use of process chemicals containing hexavalent chromium ions. This substantiates ...


The Rheology And Roll-To-Roll Processing Of Shear-Thickening Particle Dispersions, Sunilkumar Khandavalli Jan 2017

The Rheology And Roll-To-Roll Processing Of Shear-Thickening Particle Dispersions, Sunilkumar Khandavalli

Doctoral Dissertations

Particle dispersions are ubiquitous in our daily lives ranging from food and pharmaceutical products to inks. There has been great interest in the recent years in formulation of functional inks to fabricate myriad flexible electronic devices through high-throughput roll-to-roll technologies. The formulations often contain several functional additives or rheological modifiers that can affect the microstructure, rheology and processing. Understanding the rheology of formulations is important for tuning the formulation for optimal processing. This thesis presents investigations on the rheology of particle dispersions and their impact on roll-to-roll technologies.

Shear-thickening behavior is common in particle dispersions, particularly, concentrated particulate inks. We ...


Dynamic Wetting And Drag Reduction On Superhydrophobic And Liquid-Infused Surfaces, Jeong-Hyun Kim Jan 2016

Dynamic Wetting And Drag Reduction On Superhydrophobic And Liquid-Infused Surfaces, Jeong-Hyun Kim

Doctoral Dissertations

Reducing drag in fluid flow has been one of the most widely studied topics in fluid dynamics due to the significant impact on improving operational efficiencies and cutting cost in applications from the aerospace, automotive and naval industries. Over the past two decades, superhydrophobic surfaces have been in the spotlight due to their ability to reduce frictional drag on the wall surface in both laminar and turbulent flows. Despite the extensive work on superhydrophobic surfaces, there are still a number of open questions remaining. In this dissertation, we investigate how a moving contact line interacts with a superhydrophobic surface by ...


Numerical Simulation Of High Velocity Impact Of A Single Polymer Particle During Cold Spray Deposition, Sagar P. Shah Jan 2016

Numerical Simulation Of High Velocity Impact Of A Single Polymer Particle During Cold Spray Deposition, Sagar P. Shah

Masters Theses

Abstract

The cold spray process is an additive manufacturing technology primarily suited for ductile metals, and mainly utilized in coating surfaces, manufacturing of freeform parts and repair of damaged components. The process involves acceleration of solid micro-particles in a supersonic gas flow and coating build-up by bonding upon high velocity impact onto a substrate. Coating deposition relies on the kinetic energy of the particles. The main objective of this study was to investigate the mechanics of polymer cold spray process and deformation behavior of polymers to improve technological implementation of the process.

A finite element model was created to simulate ...


Eulerian Cfd Modeling Of Multiphase Internal Injector Flow And External Sprays, Eli T. Baldwin Jan 2016

Eulerian Cfd Modeling Of Multiphase Internal Injector Flow And External Sprays, Eli T. Baldwin

Doctoral Dissertations

The improvement of combustion systems which use sprays to atomize liquid fuel requires an understanding of that atomization process. Although the secondary break up mechanisms for the far-field of an atomizing spray have been thoroughly studied and well understood for some time, understanding the internal nozzle flow and primary atomization on which the far-field spray depends has proven to be more of a challenge. Flow through fuel injector nozzles can be highly complex and heavily influenced by factors such as turbulence, needle motion, nozzle imperfections, nozzle asymmetry, and phase change. All of this occurs within metallic injectors, making experimental characterization ...


Methods Of Engine Degradation Assessment In The Time-Scale Domain, Jeffrey Charles Simmons Feb 2014

Methods Of Engine Degradation Assessment In The Time-Scale Domain, Jeffrey Charles Simmons

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses health monitoring of aircraft engines. Two methods are offered for engine degradation assessment: (1) a direct method to isolate degradation of engine components in-flight, and (2) an inverse method to quantify the level of degradations post-flight. The noted feature of the degradation isolation method is its independence from training, which makes it suitable for on-board implementation. The degradation quantification method, on the other hand, is a multi-output method of parameter estimation with the advantage of leveraging the shape attributes of model outputs. The representation of the shape attributes of the various time series, by continuous wavelet transforms ...


Buckling Of Particle-Laden Interfaces, Theo Dias Kassuga Jan 2014

Buckling Of Particle-Laden Interfaces, Theo Dias Kassuga

Masters Theses

We study the buckling of an oil-water interface populated by micron-sized latex particles using a Langmuir trough. We extend pre-existing results to the micron-range with different capillary length and compare the experimental data to the existing theoretical framework. An unexpected trend for the dominant wavelength of buckling is observed, suggesting that there is a transition between regimes in the micron-range. A mechanism for the new regime is proposed. Cascading is reported, as well as novel kinds of transition between wavelengths within the same particle raft. Lastly, the effect of compression on the macroscopic arrangement of particles is investigated, as well ...