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Mining Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Numerical Model Of The Subaerial Landslide Generated Waves Of The Berkeley Pit, Matthew Mchugh Apr 2019

A Numerical Model Of The Subaerial Landslide Generated Waves Of The Berkeley Pit, Matthew Mchugh

Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science Undergraduate Theses

Southwestern Montana has a very rich history because of its mining activities. Butte, home to the richest hill on earth, is no exception. Underground operations resulted in 10,000 miles of horizontal underground workings [1]. In 1950s the mining methods converted from underground to surface open-pit mining with the opening of the Berkeley Pit. In 1982 the pumps shut down and the Pit began receiving groundwater discharge. Slope instabilities along the Pit0s slopes result in occasional soil sloughs; in some instances, the sloughing generates a large enough volume of soil to propagate a wave across the Pit Lake. This is ...


Wall Control Blasting At The Orphan Boy Mine – Butte, Montana, Jewel Sakyi Apr 2019

Wall Control Blasting At The Orphan Boy Mine – Butte, Montana, Jewel Sakyi

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Blasting is often conducted to produce desirable fragment sizes to minimize production cost and energy consumption in downstream processes, including loading, hauling, and crushing. However, the venting of explosive energy in the rock formation sometimes causes unwanted damage beyond the desired perimeter of the blast area. Control blasting has mainly been used in surface mining operations to minimalize blast damage. To explore the applicability of control blasting in underground mining operations, protect the safety of students, faculty, and staff, prevent overbreak, and to ensure the stability of openings and workings, four experimental control blasts, comprising of three smooth blasts and ...


Developing Trees Tolerant To Degraded Mine Soils, Francis Inkoom Apr 2019

Developing Trees Tolerant To Degraded Mine Soils, Francis Inkoom

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The project discussed in this thesis is part of a larger project developing trees that can tolerate and withstand heavy metals and acidic soils from historic mining operations in Butte Montana as a solution to re-establishing long-term tree growth on those sites. The project involved growing tree seedlings native to Butte, Montana and planting them on degraded mine soils, tailings, and processing wastes (mine waste) located within the Butte Priority Soil Operable Unit (BPSOU). The seedlings were grown for 34 weeks in a greenhouse located on Montana Tech’s campus before being transplanted to a contaminated site (the Clark Mill ...


Feed Control: Composite Recycle, Rosy Perez Jan 2019

Feed Control: Composite Recycle, Rosy Perez

All Undergraduate Projects

The Boeing Company gave Central Washington University an opportunity for students to research and come up with an idea to reduce costs and landfill waste caused by the trimmings from the 777x composite wing pieces. The engineering and manufacturing for this project is about transporting composite material through to the delamination and chipper process. The delamination process uses a ram to press two claw shaped devices together that bends and deforms the material in opposite directions. The chipper process uses counter rotating saw blades spaced 1/8” apart to produce small shredded material. It is important for this newly designed ...


Investigation Of Long Term Pillar Stability In An Abandoned Gypsum Mine Based On Dissolution Models, Mohammadhossein Sadeghiamirshahidi Jan 2019

Investigation Of Long Term Pillar Stability In An Abandoned Gypsum Mine Based On Dissolution Models, Mohammadhossein Sadeghiamirshahidi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The abandoned Domtar Mine in Grand Rapids, MI underlies Interstate I-196. The mine operated for over 140 years, mining a 30-meter-deep, four-meter thick gypsum seam. In 2000, the mine was abandoned with the removal of the mine’s dewatering pumps allowing groundwater to flood the mine. The initial flooding resulted in saturating the mine pillars along with some amount of pillar dissolution. Overtime, gypsum dissolution would cease as the water becomes saturated with the gypsum dissolution products. The mine, however, is located adjacent to the Grand River and has groundwater moving through the mine resulting in the potential for continuing ...


Predictive Modeling Of Dc Arc Flash In 125 Volt System, Austin Cody Gaunce Jan 2019

Predictive Modeling Of Dc Arc Flash In 125 Volt System, Austin Cody Gaunce

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Arc flash is one of the two primary hazards encountered by workers near electrical equipment. Most applications where arc flash may be encountered are alternating current (AC) electrical systems. However, direct current (DC) electrical systems are becoming increasingly prevalent with industries implementing more renewable energy sources and energy storage devices. Little research has been performed with respect to arc flash hazards posed by DC electrical systems, particularly energy storage devices. Furthermore, current standards for performing arc flash calculations do not provide sufficient guidance when working in DC applications. IEEE 1584-2002 does not provide recommendations for DC electrical systems. NFPA 70E ...


Simplifying Techniques Applied To Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Methane Explosions, Laura Steeves Jan 2019

Simplifying Techniques Applied To Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Methane Explosions, Laura Steeves

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Traditional methods of studying underground coal mine explosions are limited to observations and data collected during experimental explosions. These experiments are expensive, time-consuming, and require major facilities, such as the Lake Lynn Experimental Mine. The development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of explosions can help minimize the need for large-scale testing. This thesis utilized the commercial CFD software, SC/Tetra, to examine three case studies. The first case study modeled the combustion of methane in a scaled shock tube, measuring approximately 1 foot by 1 foot, by 20.5 feet long, with a methane cloud of 2.5 feet ...


Leaching Characteristics Of Rare Earth Elements From Bituminous Coal-Based Sources, Xinbo Yang Jan 2019

Leaching Characteristics Of Rare Earth Elements From Bituminous Coal-Based Sources, Xinbo Yang

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

The demand for rare earth elements (REEs) has increased over the last decade due to applications in high technology devices including those in the defense industry. The recovery of REEs from primary sources such as rare earth minerals are viable using physical separations followed by chemical processing. However, weak market values and environmental concerns have limited the viability of such operations. On the other hand, REE recovery from secondary sources such as apatite ore, bauxite waste, and waste recycling, provides an opportunity to take advantage of a resource that does not require mining costs as well as other associated costs ...


Influence Of Water Injection Rate On The Vortecone, An Impingement Screen, And A Conventional Filter Screen Cleaning Efficiency, Oscar Velasquez Jan 2019

Influence Of Water Injection Rate On The Vortecone, An Impingement Screen, And A Conventional Filter Screen Cleaning Efficiency, Oscar Velasquez

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Industrial produced respirable particles are known to affect the respirable tract of workers causing serious illness or even death. These particles can be found in any mining operation’s environment, new regulations by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2014 reduced the allowable limit of dust exposure for underground workers. Dust control practices have been improving over the years to lower the number of incidents caused by these particles. In underground mining, water sprays and scrubber systems have become the most used dust control methods. Water sprays create numerous fine water droplets to capture dust once it has ...


Thermodynamic Modeling And Equilibrium System Design Of A Solvent Extraction Process For Dilute Rare Earth Solutions, Alind Chandra Jan 2019

Thermodynamic Modeling And Equilibrium System Design Of A Solvent Extraction Process For Dilute Rare Earth Solutions, Alind Chandra

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 elements in the lanthanide series along with scandium and yttrium. They are often grouped together because of their similar chemical properties. As a result of their increased application in advanced technologies and electronics including electric vehicles, the demand of REEs and other critical elements has increased in recent decades and is expected to significantly grow over the next decade. As the majority of REEs are produced and utilized within the manufacturing industry in China, concerns over future supplies to support national defense technologies and associated manufacturing industries has generated interest in ...


The Redesigned Vortecone: A Maintenance-Free Wet Scrubber Device, Allison Taylor Jan 2019

The Redesigned Vortecone: A Maintenance-Free Wet Scrubber Device, Allison Taylor

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Dust creates health and safety issues in mining and there are several different ways to reduce the amount of respirable dust created. Dust particles also affect the operation and efficiency of mining equipment. One device currently used to reduce dust in a coal mine is a flooded-bed dust scrubber. These type of scrubbers are found on continuous miners and are designed to capture dust particles close to the cutting head. However, the fibrous screens on the flooded-bed dust scrubber clog easily reducing both production and the quality and quantity of air miners are exposed too. The flooded-bed dust scrubber was ...


Operation And Process Control Development For A Pilot-Scale Leaching And Solvent Extraction Circuit Recovering Rare Earth Elements From Coal-Based Sources, Douglas Kweku Addo Jan 2019

Operation And Process Control Development For A Pilot-Scale Leaching And Solvent Extraction Circuit Recovering Rare Earth Elements From Coal-Based Sources, Douglas Kweku Addo

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

The US Department of Energy in 2010 has identified several rare earth elements as critical materials to enable clean technologies. As part of ongoing research in REEs (rare earth elements) recovery from coal sources, the University of Kentucky has designed, developed and is demonstrating a ¼ ton/hour pilot-scale processing plant to produce high-grade REEs from coal sources. Due to the need to control critical variables (e.g. pH, tank level, etc.), process control is required. To ensure adequate process control, a study was conducted on leaching and solvent extraction control to evaluate the potential of achieving low-cost REE recovery ...


Dust Transportation And Settling Within The Mine Ventilation Network, Anand Kumar Jan 2019

Dust Transportation And Settling Within The Mine Ventilation Network, Anand Kumar

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Dust is ubiquitous in underground mine activities. Continuous inhalation of dust could lead to irreversible occupational diseases. Dust particles of size lower than 75.0 µm, also known as float coal dust, can trigger a coal dust explosion following a methane ignition. Ventilation air carries the float coal dust from the point of production to some distance before it’s deposited on the surfaces of underground coal mine. Sources of dust are widely studied, but study of dust transportation has been mainly based on experimental data and simplified models. An understanding of dust transportation in the mine airways is ...


Time-Dependent Deformation And Associated Failure Of Roof In Underground Mines, Yuting Xue Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Deformation And Associated Failure Of Roof In Underground Mines, Yuting Xue

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In underground coal mines, roof falls are a major contributor to injuries and fatalities. Studies have related the occurrence of roof fall to weak immediate roof, high horizontal stress, entry orientation, etc. An often-neglected factor in studies on this topic has been the influence of time-dependent behavior of the roof rock on roof falls. The time-dependent roof failure activity involves both intact and failed rocks. Numerical simulation techniques are available that include time-dependent behavior; however, they lack constitutive models that consider both the intact and the failed behavior of rock. In addition, input properties for the creep models only include ...


Fundamental Mechanism Of Time Dependent Failure In Shale, Neel Gupta Jan 2019

Fundamental Mechanism Of Time Dependent Failure In Shale, Neel Gupta

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In underground coal mines, mining activity disturbs the natural equilibrium state of in-situ stresses. The induced and in-situ stresses deform the rockmass surrounding the mine openings. Primary roof supports impede the deformation of the rockmass overlying the entries. However, failure can occur in the bolted rockmass, causing fatalities and injuries. The rockmass failure is erratic, and its occurrence often varies from a few days to months and years after the opening of the entry. One of the often-neglected factors in this process is the effect of time on the stability of mine openings, which can often be observed in the ...


Improving Base Metal Electrowinning, Charles Ebenezer Abbey Jan 2019

Improving Base Metal Electrowinning, Charles Ebenezer Abbey

Doctoral Dissertations

"In zinc electrowinning, Mn oxidizes to form MnO2 on Pb-Ag anodes, cell walls and pipes. MnO2 reduces anode corrosion but also leads to short circuits and maintenance issues. MnO2 is thought to interact with chloride ions and produce oxidized chlorine species. The interactions between Mn and Cl are not well understood. Bench scale experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the manganese to chloride ratio on anode corrosion rate and electrolyte chemistry using rolled Pb-Ag anodes. Increasing the average Mn/Cl- ratio from ~7:1 to ~11:1 reduced the anode corrosion rate. Anode scales produced ...


Pressure Versus Impulse Graph For Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury And Correlation To Observable Blast Injuries, Barbara Rutter Jan 2019

Pressure Versus Impulse Graph For Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury And Correlation To Observable Blast Injuries, Barbara Rutter

Doctoral Dissertations

"With the increased use of explosive devices in combat, blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become one of the signature wounds in current conflicts. Animal studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms in the brain and a pressure versus time graph has been produced. However, the role of impulse in bTBIs has not been thoroughly investigated for animals or human beings.

This research proposes a new method of presenting bTBI data by using a pressure versus impulse (P-I) graph. P-I graphs have been found useful in presenting lung lethality regions and building damage thresholds. To present the animal ...


Investigating Blast Fume Propagation, Concentration And Clearance In Underground Mines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (Cfd), Raymond Ninnang Tiile Jan 2019

Investigating Blast Fume Propagation, Concentration And Clearance In Underground Mines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (Cfd), Raymond Ninnang Tiile

Doctoral Dissertations

"Blasting activities using standard industry explosives is an essential component of underground hard rock mining operations. Blasting operations result in the release of noxious gases, presenting both safety and productivity threats. Overestimation of post-blast re-entry time results in production losses, while underestimation leads to injuries and fatalities. Research shows that most underground mines simply standardize post-blast re-entry times based on experiences and observations. Few underground mines use theoretical methods for calculating post-blast re-entry time. These theoretical methods, however, are unable to account for the variations in the blasting conditions. Literature review shows that: (i) there is currently no means of ...


The Mechanics Of Precision Presplitting, Anthony Joseph Konya Jan 2019

The Mechanics Of Precision Presplitting, Anthony Joseph Konya

Doctoral Dissertations

"Precision Presplitting is a widely used method of presplit blasting for the mining and construction industries. In recent years considerable effort has gone into the development of empirical equations based on field data to be able to better design the Precision Presplit for various rock types and structural environments. However, the most widely discussed theory about the mechanics of the presplit formation, that of shockwave collisions, does not appear to be applicable for this method of presplitting.

This research has disproven this theory based on insufficient magnitude of the shockwave from modeling with basic wave mechanics. Other authors have suggested ...


Multi-Body Dynamic And Finite Element Modeling Of Ultra-Large Dump Truck - Haul Road Interactions For Machine Health And Haul Road Structural Integrity, Bruno Ayaga Kansake Jan 2019

Multi-Body Dynamic And Finite Element Modeling Of Ultra-Large Dump Truck - Haul Road Interactions For Machine Health And Haul Road Structural Integrity, Bruno Ayaga Kansake

Doctoral Dissertations

"Haul truck capacities have increased due to their economies of scale in large-scale surface mine production systems. Ultra-large trucks impose high dynamic loads on haul roads. The dynamic loads are exacerbated by road surface roughness and truck over-loading. The dynamic forces also subject trucks to high torsional stresses, which affect truck health. Current haul road response models are 2D and use static truckloads for low capacity trucks. Existing 3D models consider the road as a two-layer system. No models capture the truck dynamic effects on haul roads and predict strut pressures during haulage.

Lagrangian mechanics was used to formulate the ...


The Behavior Of Suas Under Explosive Loading Conditions And Implications For Safe Operating Procedures, Ashok Em Sudhakar Jan 2019

The Behavior Of Suas Under Explosive Loading Conditions And Implications For Safe Operating Procedures, Ashok Em Sudhakar

Doctoral Dissertations

"Drones are increasingly being used for tasks previously unimagined and the beneficial uses are evolving. The United States Congress has envisioned the possible uses of drones for both combating and conveying explosive threats and other harmful and destructive activities. Congress' intent is reflected in new laws (2018) and policies (2019).

All civilian available Small Unmanned Aerial Systems sUASs (Drones), weighing less than 55 pounds, in the current market are not designed for operations in explosive environments. This first of a kind research focuses on further understanding of sUASs response to explosive loading and the public policy implications. This research measured ...


Removal Of Antimony And Bismuth From Copper Electrorefining Electrolyte By Two Proprietary Solvent Extraction Extractants, Andrew Artzer Jan 2019

Removal Of Antimony And Bismuth From Copper Electrorefining Electrolyte By Two Proprietary Solvent Extraction Extractants, Andrew Artzer

Masters Theses

"Antimony and bismuth are two of the most problematic impurities in copper electrorefining (ER). Because of this, much research has been done investigating the ways to remove them. Processes that are currently being used industrially include anode additions, liberators, ion exchange (IX), and solvent extraction (SX). Of these, liberators and anode additions are the most common while SX is the least, mostly being used for arsenic removal. There are other methods that have been evaluated, but are not in commercial use. These include the use of various electrolyte additives, and adsorbents such as bentonite clay and heavy metal sulfates.

Two ...


Projectile Impact Effects On A 50 Psi Plug Type Coal Mine Seal, Bruce Albert Von Niederhäusern Jan 2019

Projectile Impact Effects On A 50 Psi Plug Type Coal Mine Seal, Bruce Albert Von Niederhäusern

Masters Theses

"The current lack of projectile damage criteria for mine seals is assessed to determine if criteria should be developed. Impact experiments were performed on a full-scale 50 psi mine seal to determine failure modes, dynamic stress state, and assess risk to existing operational mine seals. Test projectiles were selected from common underground coal mine items propelled by means of a black powder projectile generator. Projectile velocities attained in testing ranged from approximately 100 to 650 ft/s (30 to 200 m/s). Dynamic strain was measured on the non-impact face to derive the state of stress and estimate failure criteria ...


An Evaluation Of The Deployment Of A Distributed Strain And Temperature (Dst) Fiber Optic Sensing System In An Underground Facility, Calvin Kammerer Oct 2018

An Evaluation Of The Deployment Of A Distributed Strain And Temperature (Dst) Fiber Optic Sensing System In An Underground Facility, Calvin Kammerer

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

In an effort to further mine safety and utilize the recent advances in fiber optic sensors’ distributed sensing capabilities, a research project at Montana Tech has deployed fiber optic sensors in an underground environment. The method of Brillouin scattering that has documented success in a mining environment will be used because it shows the greatest potential for detecting both temperature and strain in the deployed environment, as well as the ability to differentiate between the two. The primary objective of the Montana Tech research is to create a scenario where the distributed sensing technology can be evaluated for its sensing ...


The Effects Of Underground Blasting On Nearby Pre-Existing Structures, Logan Connolly Apr 2018

The Effects Of Underground Blasting On Nearby Pre-Existing Structures, Logan Connolly

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Butte, Montana holds a prestigious place in the history of mining, deemed “The Richest Hill on Earth,” containing a plethora of underground mines. The Orphan Boy/Orphan Girl underground mines, on the western side of Butte, operated from 1895-1956 producing zinc, lead, silver, and manganese. Today, the Orphan Boy mine is part of Montana Tech’s Underground Mine Education Center (UMEC) and the Orphan Girl mine houses the World Museum of Mining. Underground development in the Orphan Boy mine continues to progress as students from Montana Tech receive hands-on underground training; in addition, the UMEC is a multi-disciplinary research facility ...


Evaluating Open Pit Highwall Dig Compliance, Judith Buaba Apr 2018

Evaluating Open Pit Highwall Dig Compliance, Judith Buaba

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The mine planning process comprises three major stages: collection of relevant data, application of design methods and measurement of performance. Relevant information about the geology, structure, rock mass and hydrogeology are collected to create a geotechnical model. This information, collected by the geotechnical engineer, is used to design the pit slopes which are incorporated into the pit design by the mine planner based on mining regulations, safety and economics. Drilling, blasting, excavation and dewatering activities mainly constitute the implementation stage of the mine design. Mining to achieve design has proven to be difficult practically. Factors such as geology, blasting and ...


Implementing An Ore Reconciliation System Supported By Statistical Process Control, Bryan Nielson Apr 2018

Implementing An Ore Reconciliation System Supported By Statistical Process Control, Bryan Nielson

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

There are several stages within mine planning that utilize different block models to help predict future values. Ore reconciliation manages the variance observed between the forecasted values from these block models and actual production data. This paper primarily focuses on an ore reconciliation system that was developed for an open pit copper operation located in the Western United States. A monthly reconciliation approach has been setup in a stepwise format along the mine value chain. Mine call factors are calculated each month for each step within the operation’s mining process to measure the variance between predicted values and production ...


Developing Trees Tolerant To Degraded Mine Soils In An Underground Greenhouse, Cosmas Opoku-Ware Apr 2018

Developing Trees Tolerant To Degraded Mine Soils In An Underground Greenhouse, Cosmas Opoku-Ware

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

This project explored the potential for developing trees tolerable to degraded un-reclaimed mine site soils and tailings as a solution to re-establishing long-term tree growth on those sites. The project incorporates growing tree seedlings in an underground greenhouse grown from seeds planted in the degraded mine soils in which they will eventually be planted. The outcome of the project is expected to lead to a successful solution for re-establishing tree growth in soils and tailings containing high metal concentrations with minimal post-planting human intervention at a relatively low cost.

The research is being conducted in an underground greenhouse located 100 ...


Optimization Of Drilling And Blasting Practices At A Western Us Open Pit Copper Mine, Joel Gadikor Apr 2018

Optimization Of Drilling And Blasting Practices At A Western Us Open Pit Copper Mine, Joel Gadikor

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The mining process begins with drilling and blasting activities. The efficiency of blasting affects all downstream operations such as loading, hauling, crushing and milling. Therefore drilling and blasting activities should be designed to ensure that designed parameters produce the desired fragmentation. The Kuz-Ram model is a fragmentation prediction model and is widely used for predicting the fragmentation distribution from blasting in the mining industry. This research evaluates the performance of the Kuz-Ram and Modified Kuz-Ram models to determine the most accurate models applicable to a Western US open pit copper mine’s fragmentation data. The performance assessment was done using ...


Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht Mar 2018

Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbonaceous gold ores have the ability to adsorb gold (I) cyanide from leach solutions during processing. This phenomenon, known as preg-robbing, is responsible for poor recoveries as the carbonaceous materials of the ore compete with activated carbon used during the leaching and adsorption phase of processing. Chemical oxidation of carbonaceous materials by different reagents has been utilized to investigate and compare the mechanism of Au (CN)2 adsorption onto carbonaceous materials prior to and following the treatment.

The procedure for characterization of the carbonaceous materials (plain and modified) in the sample combines the use of several analytical techniques and test ...