Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Materials Science and Engineering

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 5040

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Impact Of Chain Architecture On The Thickness Dependence Of Physical Aging Rate Of Thin Polystyrene Films, Gregory Brown, Elizabeth Lewis, Bryan D. Vogt Jan 2020

Impact Of Chain Architecture On The Thickness Dependence Of Physical Aging Rate Of Thin Polystyrene Films, Gregory Brown, Elizabeth Lewis, Bryan D. Vogt

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The dynamics of polymer thin films have been demonstrated to be significantly altered from the bulk, but the origins of such differences are not well defined. In this work, we seek to understand the differences in the structural dynamics (or physical aging) of polystyrene (PS) through branching and other well defined architectures (comb and centipede). The aging dynamics of ultrathin films (< 30 nm) differ from relatively thick films (100-150nm) with linear PS thin films aging more rapidly than the relatively “bulk-like” thick films. Ellipsometric measurements are used to characterize the physical aging rate of the films. The change in film thickness and refractive index as the films are held below the glass transition temperature (Tg) provides a simple measure of the physical aging. In this study, four different architectures (linear, comb, 4 arm star, and centipede) will be investigated. For each PS architecture, the aging rate will be determined for film thickness ranging ...


Mandela Splash Pad Pre-Construction Plan, Levi Sandbulte Dec 2019

Mandela Splash Pad Pre-Construction Plan, Levi Sandbulte

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

In the construction industry, it is the responsibility of the general contractor to take the architect’s ideas and turn it into a real building. Many times this requires ample communication and several drafts. This efficient execution of this process is vital to the completion of a successful project. In this project, I practice this communication process. The challenge presented by the owner is to build an affordable splash pad, and without impacting the construction schedule of the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) that is being built on the same property at the same time. This proposal gives the owner ...


Effect Of Ion Implantation On The Mechanical Properties Of The Grain And Grain Boundary Regions Of Inconel X750, Maisaa Nezar Tawfeeq Oct 2019

Effect Of Ion Implantation On The Mechanical Properties Of The Grain And Grain Boundary Regions Of Inconel X750, Maisaa Nezar Tawfeeq

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Annulus gas spacers in CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactors are made from the heat-treated Inconel X750 Nickel-based alloy. This alloy is designed to have high strength and creep resistance at elevated temperature. Unlike other reactor designs, the CANDU reactor has a high thermal neutron fluence, which results in an enhancement of the radiation damage and the internal production of helium and hydrogen. They are thus susceptible to microstructural instability and mechanical property degradation with time. Studies of ex-service spacers have indicated that they display intergranular embrittlement and lower ultimate tensile strength compared to nonirradiated Inconel X750. The primary degradation ...


Vanadium-Based Nanomaterials For Improved Zn Ion Storage, Jianwei Lai Oct 2019

Vanadium-Based Nanomaterials For Improved Zn Ion Storage, Jianwei Lai

LSU Master's Theses

Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) have been intensively studied as novel promising large-scale energy storage systems recently, owing to their advantages of high abundance, cost effectiveness, and high safety. However, the development of suitable cathode materials with superior performance are severely hampered by the sluggish kinetics of Zn2+ with divalent charge in the host structure.

Our Work demonstrates boosting the electrochemical performances of nanostructured cathode materials for aqueous ZIBs. The first project is focused on the interlayer-expanded V6O13∙nH2O nanosheets as promising cathodes. Benefiting from the synthetic merits of its favorable architecture and expanded ...


Design Of Cell-Instructive Biomaterial Scaffolds For Intervertebral Disc Regeneration, Nadia Sharma Sep 2019

Design Of Cell-Instructive Biomaterial Scaffolds For Intervertebral Disc Regeneration, Nadia Sharma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomaterials-based therapies targeting the nucleus pulposus (NP) have the potential to promote regeneration and restore mechanical function to the intervertebral disc. This study developed composite hydrogels incorporating decellularized NP (DNP) and assessed its effects on viability, retention and differentiation of U-CH1 cells, an NP progenitor-like cell line. A minimal protocol was developed to decellularize bovine NP that reduced nuclear content while preserving key extracellular matrix components predicted to be favourable for bioactivity. The resulting DNP demonstrated cell-instructive effects, supporting U-CH1 viability and retention within the hydrogels, and promoted the differentiation of the progenitor-like cells towards an NP-like phenotype. These studies ...


Graphene Channels Interfaced With Distributed Quantum Dots, Xin Miao Aug 2019

Graphene Channels Interfaced With Distributed Quantum Dots, Xin Miao

Dissertations

Previous research has elucidated the remarkable electrical and optical characteristics of graphene and pointed to the various applications of graphene-based devices. One of such applications is electro-optical graphene-based elements. In this work, the optoelectronic properties of field-effect transistors are explored. These are composed of surface graphene guides, which are interfaced with an array of individual semiconductor quantum dots. The graphene guide also serves as a channel for the field-effect transistor (FET) while the dots provide for fluorescence markers. They may be placed either within the capacitor formed between the graphene and the gate electrode, or on top of the graphene ...


Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh Aug 2019

Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh

Dissertations

Boron has received much attention as a potential additive to explosives and propellants due to its high theoretical gravimetric and volumetric heating values. The challenge, however, is that boron particles tend to agglomerate, have lengthy ignition delays and very low combustion rates. Prior research indicates that boron’s long ignition delays are due to its inhibiting naturally occurring oxide layer, impeding the diffusion of reactants for oxidation. For combustion, current studies report that boron particles have two consecutive stages, but the actual reaction mechanism is poorly understood. Despite many years of relevant research, quantitative combustion data on micron-sized boron particles ...


Investigation Of The Electrode Polarization Effect For Biosensor Applications, Anil Koklu Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Electrode Polarization Effect For Biosensor Applications, Anil Koklu

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

My research focuses on electrokinetic transport. Particularly, in this dissertation, we focus on fabrication and testing of micro electrodes with nanostructured surfaces to minimize the electrode polarization (EP) effects for biosensor applications. In the first study, electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on to planar gold electrodes was used to generate rough surfaces. Dendritic nanostructures that reduced EP up to two orders of magnitude was obtained by optimizing the deposition conditions. These structures also enhanced dielectrophoresis (DEP) response of our bio-chips, making them usable in physiological buffers. In further studies we discovered a universal scaling of EP in the frequency domain ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of Cold In-Place Recycling Asphalt Mixtures Using A Balanced Mix Design, Ahmed Saidi Aug 2019

Laboratory Evaluation Of Cold In-Place Recycling Asphalt Mixtures Using A Balanced Mix Design, Ahmed Saidi

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research study is to present a procedure for designing Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) mixtures through balancing cracking and rutting for these mixtures. Eight CIR mixtures were prepared using two recycling agents (foamed and emulsified asphalts), then cured for three days at two temperatures (140oF and 50oF), and compacted at two gyration levels (30 and 70 gyrations). The CIR mixtures were prepared at constant dosages of water and cement, 3% and 1%, respectively. Air void of each CIR performance test specimen was determined using the CoreLok device. The rutting susceptibility of these mixtures was then evaluated using ...


General Nonlinear-Material Elasticity In Classical One-Dimensional Solid Mechanics, Ronald Joseph Giardina Jr Aug 2019

General Nonlinear-Material Elasticity In Classical One-Dimensional Solid Mechanics, Ronald Joseph Giardina Jr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

We will create a class of generalized ellipses and explore their ability to define a distance on a space and generate continuous, periodic functions. Connections between these continuous, periodic functions and the generalizations of trigonometric functions known in the literature shall be established along with connections between these generalized ellipses and some spectrahedral projections onto the plane, more specifically the well-known multifocal ellipses. The superellipse, or Lam\'{e} curve, will be a special case of the generalized ellipse. Applications of these generalized ellipses shall be explored with regards to some one-dimensional systems of classical mechanics. We will adopt the Ramberg-Osgood ...


Long-Term Performance Of Sustainable Pavements Using Ternary Blended Concrete With Recycled Aggregates, Seth M. Wagner Aug 2019

Long-Term Performance Of Sustainable Pavements Using Ternary Blended Concrete With Recycled Aggregates, Seth M. Wagner

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were to (a) design concrete pavement mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates using ternary blends of cementitious materials and a low water-to-binder ratio, (b) measure the fresh and hardened properties of the proposed concrete mixtures and (c) assess the long-term performance of the concrete implementing the use of recycled coarse aggregates. Preliminary investigation into ternary blend combinations via the compressive testing of mortar cubes and isothermal calorimetry was used to predict an optimal blend of cementitious material. Mixes using recycled concrete aggregates at varying replacement rates were tested for fresh and hardened properties using the proposed ...


Synthesis Of Amorphous Hydrogenated Boron Carbide From Orthocarborane Using Argon Bombardment: A Reaxff Molecular Dynamics Study, Nirmal Baishnab Aug 2019

Synthesis Of Amorphous Hydrogenated Boron Carbide From Orthocarborane Using Argon Bombardment: A Reaxff Molecular Dynamics Study, Nirmal Baishnab

MSU Graduate Theses

In this study, the synthesis process of a-B­xC:Hy using argon bombardment from the orthocarborane precursor was modeled by using reactive molecular dynamics (MD). Utilizing the MD simulations, the formation of free radicals as a result of ion bombardment was identified and quantified. Then, the densification process that is aided by the mixture of free radicals and orthocarborane was analyzed. The densification process by creating the initial structure composed of free radicals and orthocarborane with active sites created by partially removing some of the hydrogen atoms from the icosahedral cage was also modelled. Overall, a better understanding ...


Structure And Properties Of Zno-Zns Heterostructures, Sanchali Das Aug 2019

Structure And Properties Of Zno-Zns Heterostructures, Sanchali Das

MSU Graduate Theses

Heterostructures consisting of at least two layers of dissimilar materials have always been well studied due to potential applications in nano-electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, I have investigated the structural and physical properties of zinc oxide -zinc sulfide (ZnO-ZnS) based heterostructures of thin films and core-shell nanoparticles. Pulsed laser deposition technique was employed to grow ZnO thin film on sapphire substrate. ZnO-ZnS heterostructures were obtained using hydrothermal synthesis where thiourea has served as a precursor solution for the source of sulfur. X-ray diffraction analysis on the parent and the sulfidized samples gives the information about the crystallinity and ...


Triple-Junction Solar Cells : In Parallel., Levi C Mays Aug 2019

Triple-Junction Solar Cells : In Parallel., Levi C Mays

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper looks into the current inefficiency of solar cells and attempts a few alternative solar cell structures in order to provide a more effective source of renewable energy. Currently, multi-junction solar cells are being developed to capture the sun’s light more efficiently. One of the ideas in this paper is to add a window to see if the addition of such a layer into a junction will increase the voltage while maintaining nearly the same current output. Central to this paper is the rearranging of the conducting layers of the multi-junction cell so that the junctions can be ...


Growth Of Indium Nitride Quantum Dots By Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Steven P. Minor Aug 2019

Growth Of Indium Nitride Quantum Dots By Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Steven P. Minor

Theses and Dissertations

Over the last decade, the evolution of the global consciousness in response to decreasing environmental conditions from global warming and pollution has led to an outcry for finding new alternative/clean methods for harvesting energy and determining ways to minimize energy consumption. III-nitride materials are of interest for optoelectronic and electronic device applications such as high efficiency solar cells, solid state lighting (LEDs), and blue laser (Blu-ray Technology) applications. The wide range of direct band gaps covered by its alloys (0.7eV-6.2eV) best illustrates the versatility of III-nitride materials. This wide range has enabled applications extending from the ultraviolet ...


Understanding Self-Assembly And Charge Transport In Organic Solar Cells Through Efficient Computation, Evan Miller Aug 2019

Understanding Self-Assembly And Charge Transport In Organic Solar Cells Through Efficient Computation, Evan Miller

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Organic solar cells capable of sustainably generating electricity are possible if: (1) The structures assembled by photoactive molecules can be controlled, and (2) The structures favorable for charge transport can be determined. In this dissertation we conduct computational studies to understand relationships between organic solar cell compounds, processing, structure and charge transport. We advance tools for encapsulating computational workflows so that simulations are more reproducible and transferable. We find that molecular dynamic simulations using simplified models efficiently predict experimental structures. We find that the mobilities of charges through these structures—as determined by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations—match qualitative trends ...


Oxidation Behavior Of Zirconium Alloys In Transient Conditions, Jordan Lee Vandegrift Aug 2019

Oxidation Behavior Of Zirconium Alloys In Transient Conditions, Jordan Lee Vandegrift

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The effect of sample geometry, welding strategies, atmosphere, plastic deformation, and rapid heating on the oxidation behavior of zirconium alloys has been investigated in this work. The goal of this work was to determine which zirconium alloy would be best suited as nuclear fuel cladding material in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which has unique operating conditions compared to typical reactors. TREAT is air-cooled, operates at high temperatures (400-600 °C), and produces rapid transients (≤ 700 °C/s). Additionally, TREAT’s cladding geometry is unique in that it has chamfers and welds. Alloying elements ...


Functional Porous Polydimethlysiloxane As Piezoresistive And Piezoelectric Materials, Taissa Rose Michel Jul 2019

Functional Porous Polydimethlysiloxane As Piezoresistive And Piezoelectric Materials, Taissa Rose Michel

Theses and Dissertations

In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were combined to create functionalized piezoresistive and piezoelectric sensors for pressure sensing and energy harvesting. Samples were foamed to show that the increased deformability of the foam sensors makes them suitable for a range of applications including dexterous robotics, tactile sensing, energy harvesting, and biosensing. Uniform dispersion of CNTs was achieved with chloroform as the solvent. Samples were foamed using chemical blowing and scaffolding but granulated sugar at 70% porosity resulted in foamed samples with the most consistent mechanical properties. Samples underwent tensile and compressive testing for their ...


Study Of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Via Linear And Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Christopher E. Stevens Jul 2019

Study Of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Via Linear And Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Christopher E. Stevens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Beginning with the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional materials have amassed a strong interest. Like graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) can be coaxed into atomically thin sheets which have some impressive properties. Unlike graphene, TMDs also has a change in their electronic band structure causing an indirect band gap to a direct gap transition in its monolayer form. Additionally, these materials lose their inversion symmetry as a monolayer. These unique properties make TMDs a strong candidate for being used in optoelectronic and valleytronic devices. In order for these devices to be successful, the optical properties of TMDs must be thoroughly understood ...


Investigation Of Fundamental Principles Of Rigid Body Impact Mechanics, Khalid Alluhydan Jul 2019

Investigation Of Fundamental Principles Of Rigid Body Impact Mechanics, Khalid Alluhydan

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

In impact mechanics, the collision between two or more bodies is a common, yet a very challenging problem. Producing analytical solutions that can predict the post-collision motion of the colliding bodies require consistent modeling of the dynamics of the colliding bodies. This dissertation presents a new method for solving the two and multibody impact problems that can be used to predict the post-collision motion of the colliding bodies. Also, we solve the rigid body collision problem of planar kinematic chains with multiple contacts with external surfaces.

In the first part of this dissertation, we study planar collisions of Balls and ...


Manipulating Fiber Orientation For The Reduction Of Warpage In Carbon Fiber Composite Sandwich Panels, Landon Burnley, Gabrielle Correia Jul 2019

Manipulating Fiber Orientation For The Reduction Of Warpage In Carbon Fiber Composite Sandwich Panels, Landon Burnley, Gabrielle Correia

Materials Engineering

Safran Cabin (Santa Maria, CA), previously known as Zodiac Aerospace, designs and manufactures interior cabin components for private and commercial aircraft. Carbon fiber face sheets have recently been incorporated in their overhead luggage bin assemblies which utilize a composite sandwich panel design, in order to provide additional stiffness to the previous glass fiber sandwich panels. Since the introduction of carbon fiber in these luggage bin panels, Safran has experienced an increase in warpage during manufacturing. When inspected by quality control, the panels are tested mimicking how they are installed in aircraft. If the panels do not meet specifications, the warped ...


Encapsulation Of Organic Thermochromic Materials With Silicon Dioxide, Mingyang Huang Jun 2019

Encapsulation Of Organic Thermochromic Materials With Silicon Dioxide, Mingyang Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, functional materials are attracting considerable attention in the effort to solve some tough challenges the world is faced with. Thermochromic (TC) materials have the potential to make buildings more energy efficient because of their ability to change color (i.e black to white) at specific temperatures. Using this property, TC materials can reflect solar radiation in the summer, to keep a building cool during daytime hours, and absorb solar radiation in the winter to keep the building warm when their color is dark. Very often, to increase their durability, thermochromic materials are encapsulated. In this work, a new process ...


Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li Jun 2019

Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As a typical type of soft electroactive materials, dielectric elastomers (DEs) are capable of producing large voltage-induced deformation, which makes them desirable materials for a variety of applications in transduction technology, including tunable oscillators, resonators, biomimetics and energy harvesters. The dynamic and energy harvesting performance of such DE-based devices is strongly affected not only by multiple failure modes such as electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss-of-tension and fatigue, but also by their material viscoelasticity. Moreover, as suggested by experiments and theoretical studies, DEs possess nonlinear relaxation processes, which makes modeling of the performance of DE-based devices more challenging.

In this thesis ...


Nano-Enhanced Composite Membranes For Water Desalination, Benjamin Fredrik Victor Sundling Von Fürstenrecht Jun 2019

Nano-Enhanced Composite Membranes For Water Desalination, Benjamin Fredrik Victor Sundling Von Fürstenrecht

Materials Engineering

In theory single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) will aid in ion rejection due hydrophobicity and smoothness of the SWCNT. An efficient means of water desalination utilizing SWCNT in a membrane seems plausible. A lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) solution was made with a synthesized polymerizable surfactant methacryloxy ethyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (C16MA) to help with vertical alignment of SWCNT. Due to SWCNT lack of solubility and tendency to agglomerate in water, a dispersion performed using an inert surfactant centrimonium bromide (CTAB) to make sure that the SWCNT were homogeneously dispersed in the solution without altering the hexagonal packing factor of ...


Erosion Resistance Of Tungsten-Carbide Coatings For Steel Pipes In Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units, Davis Vannasing, Jennifer Hulfachor Jun 2019

Erosion Resistance Of Tungsten-Carbide Coatings For Steel Pipes In Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units, Davis Vannasing, Jennifer Hulfachor

Materials Engineering

In petroleum processing, the flow of catalyst readily leads to erosion of piping in a fluid catalytic cracking unit. Advances in coating materials and processes necessitate a re-evaluation of current protection methods. Commercially available tungsten-carbide (WC) claddings and nanostructured WC-W CVD coatings were investigated as potential alternative erosion-resistant coatings. Erosion tests by solid particle impingement were conducted on 2 variations of claddings and 1 variation of WC-W coatings following ASTM standard G76. A36 steel coupons were used as reference samples. For statistical validation, 2-3 replications of the tests were performed for the claddings and WC-W coating. Testing was conducted using ...


The Impact Of Preheat On 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Welds, Angelee G. Q. Breuninger, Iris I. Li, Cristian V. Sion Jun 2019

The Impact Of Preheat On 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Welds, Angelee G. Q. Breuninger, Iris I. Li, Cristian V. Sion

Materials Engineering

The goal of this project is to determine the relationship between preheat temperature and phase balance of austenite and ferrite in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a dissimilar thickness weld made of Sandvik SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS). Various preheat temperatures were applied (no preheat, 63°C, 98 °C, 141 °C, 181 °C, and 214 °C) to a 2-inch thick plate that was welded to a 0.072-inch thin sheet, with a 0.125-inch standoff, using manual gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Welding variables (voltage, amperage, and travel speed) were recorded and thermocouples were placed along the backside ...


Photooxidation Of Biopolymers, Marlon H. Dieguez Jun 2019

Photooxidation Of Biopolymers, Marlon H. Dieguez

Materials Engineering

The lack of degradation of plastic products have imposed problems in the preservation of natural environments and their ecosystems through plastic accumulation. This collection of plastics promotes toxin exposure to wildlife, finding its way into the food chain, affecting both land and marine ecosystems. The project goal is to understand the degradation mechanisms of biodegradable materials and other comparable materials through UV radiation testing. Polylactide (PLA) films and polycarbonate (PC) films will be compared for their relative deterioration from constant UV radiation in a Q-U-V accelerated weather tester for 28 days. Five 3” by 5” samples of 14 mil thick ...


Effect Of Overaging On Tensile Properties Of 2219-T852 Aluminum, Austin Bitter, Tristan Koyamatsu Jun 2019

Effect Of Overaging On Tensile Properties Of 2219-T852 Aluminum, Austin Bitter, Tristan Koyamatsu

Materials Engineering

This project investigated the overaging performance of aluminum alloy 2219-T852 for use in high temperature applications. 2219 aluminum is an alloy containing 5.8 to 6.8 percent copper, and is classified as a high strength age hardenable alloy. The sponsor for this project, Weber Metals, hopes to use 2219 Al to replace titanium in certain applications above the thermal limits of typical high strength Al. To test its performance, they manufactured round tensile samples and delivered them in peak aged, T852 condition. These samples were then overaged at a range of times and temperatures. The times in this experiment ...


Investigation Of The Encapsulation Efficiency Of Hexanal In Y-Cyclodextrin Metal Organic Frameworks, Travis J. Lang Jun 2019

Investigation Of The Encapsulation Efficiency Of Hexanal In Y-Cyclodextrin Metal Organic Frameworks, Travis J. Lang

Materials Engineering

Nanoporous materials have been extensively studied for applications such as drug delivery and organic compound storage. The nanoporous material of this study is a metal organic framework (MOF) which is a coordination of metal ions with organic binders. The structure created by this coordination can be used to absorb organic compounds, such as plant growth regulators, and subsequently release the organic compounds over a prolonged period to extend the storage life of foods. This study is examining the encapsulation efficiency of hexanal in γ-cyclodextrin metal organic frameworks (γ-CDMOFs) as a mechanism for potential active packaging applications. γ-CDMOFs were synthesized by ...


Microstructural Transformation Of Cold-Sprayed Grcop-42 For Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber Liners, Mason Souther Jun 2019

Microstructural Transformation Of Cold-Sprayed Grcop-42 For Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber Liners, Mason Souther

Materials Engineering

Rocket engines have always relied on high-conductivity copper liners to protect structural components from extreme thermal loads produced by combustion. Forged NARloy-Z has been the material of choice for decades but increasing cost of its constituent silver and high waste in the machining process has reduced the alloy’s cost effectiveness. Aerojet Rocketdyne wants to determine the viability of cold-spray additively manufactured GRCop-42 as a replacement alloy to reduce liner cost. Screening tests were performed to observe the microstructural development and microhardness changes of cold-sprayed GRCop-42 after being subjected to multiple stages of the typical heat treatment of a combustion ...