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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Simulation Tool For Evaluating The Environmental Impacts Of Management Scenarios For Modern Broiler Production Systems, Martin Andrew Christie Aug 2019

A Simulation Tool For Evaluating The Environmental Impacts Of Management Scenarios For Modern Broiler Production Systems, Martin Andrew Christie

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to provide a simulation tool that allows broiler production practitioners and researchers to simulate the effects of farm design and management practices on resource consumption and environmental impacts. This tool allows the user to design unique farms and simulates on farm processes required to raise broiler chicks to a marketable age. The use can input data such as farm location, broiler breed, flock size, ration type, barn dimensions, and climate control equipment specifications. The algorithms used to simulate broiler breed specific feed intake, broiler weight gain, and other on farm processes such as heating ...


A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss May 2019

A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This project sought to characterize industrial hemp as a potential competitive agricultural commodity for the state of Virginia. Specifically, industrial hempseed was evaluated as a feedstock for the commercial broiler (meat-chickens) industry in Virginia.

Data were gathered to identify both the advantages and disadvantages of industrial hempseed as a nutritional resource for broilers. Key nutritional compositions were identified, quantified, and compared to several common feed ingredients, such as soybean, wheat, corn, and sorghum. Hempseed (whole seed) was found to have a considerably high amino acid content, protein, fiber, and metabolizable energy – making it an attractive alternative to conventional feedstuffs.

However ...


Automatic Identification Of Animals In The Wild: A Comparative Study Between C-Capsule Networks And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks., Joel Kamdem Teto, Ying Xie Nov 2018

Automatic Identification Of Animals In The Wild: A Comparative Study Between C-Capsule Networks And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks., Joel Kamdem Teto, Ying Xie

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

The evolution of machine learning and computer vision in technology has driven a lot of

improvements and innovation into several domains. We see it being applied for credit decisions, insurance quotes, malware detection, fraud detection, email composition, and any other area having enough information to allow the machine to learn patterns. Over the years the number of sensors, cameras, and cognitive pieces of equipment placed in the wilderness has been growing exponentially. However, the resources (human) to leverage these data into something meaningful are not improving at the same rate. For instance, a team of scientist volunteers took 8.4 ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender May 2018

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Habitat Use Of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus Limbatus) At Fishing Piers, Kelsey L. Spencer Dec 2017

Habitat Use Of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus Limbatus) At Fishing Piers, Kelsey L. Spencer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) can be observed near fishing piers throughout the summer along the northeast coast of South Carolina. These piers attract and support a wide variety of potential prey and sharks are able to forage on fishers’ discards with minimal energetic cost. I tagged 12 blacktip sharks with acoustic transmitters, monitored piers with acoustic receivers, and conducted pier-creel surveys to determine the habitat use of blacktip sharks at fishing piers, factors that influenced residence time and presence/absence at piers, and any cyclical patterns in visits to piers. Data were analyzed with pier association indices (PAI), mixed models ...


Continuing Improvements Of The Sharkduino Animal Tag System, William Laney Dec 2017

Continuing Improvements Of The Sharkduino Animal Tag System, William Laney

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Much about the movement and habits of marine animals is still unknown. This information can be found for terrestrial animals through direct observation or video surveillance; however, these optical methods are not effective in aquatic environments. To circumvent this problem, researchers “tag” aquatic animals with small sensor systems that record data about the animals movements. The researchers then recover the tag and use signal analysis to draw conclusions about the habits of the animal. Unfortunately, commercially available tags are expensive and most can only be used once. We created an inexpensive and reusable tag to be used on sandbar sharks ...


An Optimal Milk Production Model Selection And Configuration System For Dairy Cows, Fan Zhang Nov 2017

An Optimal Milk Production Model Selection And Configuration System For Dairy Cows, Fan Zhang

PhDs

Milk production forecasting in the dairy industry has been an independent research topic since the early 20th century. The accurate prediction of milk yield can benefit both the processor (creameries) and the producer (dairy farmer) through developing short-term production schedules, planning long-term road maps, facilitating trade and investment in the dairy industry, improving business operations, optimising the existing infrastructure of the dairy industry, and reducing operating costs. Additionally, due to the innate characteristics of the milk production process, the accurate prediction of milk yield has been a challenging issue in the dairy industry. With the abolishment of EU milk quotas ...


Rice Hull Bioreactor For Recirculating Aquaculture, Marlon A. Greensword Aug 2017

Rice Hull Bioreactor For Recirculating Aquaculture, Marlon A. Greensword

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The engineering of floating media biofilters has been optimized over the years. The backwashing process has made them more energy and water efficient. Likewise, moving bed bioreactors (MBBR) are gaining interest and popularity because they are relatively affordable to build. Yet, developing countries’ aquaculture production remains largely excluded from the advances made in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). This discrepancy is partially driven by the high costs of media such plastic beads and Kaldnes (KMT) media, commonly used in MBBR.

This dissertation evaluates the usability and profitability of rice hulls (RH), an abundant by-product in many developing nations, as a sinking ...


Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra Aug 2017

Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra

Theses and Dissertations

Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, quantification of heat loss of the broilers loaded on trailers is important in understanding the well-being of the broilers. We have developed four electronic chickens (E-chickens) to simulate the sensible heat loss of live ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Feed And Environmental Factors On Broiler Growth In The United States, Alexandra Gulli Aug 2017

A Comparative Analysis Of Feed And Environmental Factors On Broiler Growth In The United States, Alexandra Gulli

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler production in the United States has become an important industry within the last half century. As the demand for poultry continues to increase and the concern of climate change also increases, it will become an important part of the industry to become more sustainable. This study uses a feed optimization model, a broiler growth model, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine how feed ingredients and the barn environment can affect the broiler’s growth and production emissions. A multi-criteria ration optimization model is used to produce feeds based on carbon footprint and cost. A growth model is ...


Experimental Evaluation Of Cooling Effectiveness And Water Conservation In A Poultry House Using Flow Blurring® Atomizers, Rafael M. Rodriguez Apr 2017

Experimental Evaluation Of Cooling Effectiveness And Water Conservation In A Poultry House Using Flow Blurring® Atomizers, Rafael M. Rodriguez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increases in population as well as economic improvements in developing countries are generating a larger demand for animal protein products. Current animal growth processes inherently, require the use of water in many forms throughout the growth cycle. Water is the most important natural resource on earth to sustain life, and in many developing countries is a scarce resource that must be used wisely. Studies have revealed that poultry growth can take place with less water consumption, when compared with other sources of animal protein (e.g., cattle, pork). In this research, an evaporative Flow Blurring® cooling system was considered as ...


Climate Dependent Heat Stress Mitigation Modeling For Dairy Cattle Housing, Katlyn Renea Devoe Jan 2017

Climate Dependent Heat Stress Mitigation Modeling For Dairy Cattle Housing, Katlyn Renea Devoe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Production loss due to heat stress is a major concern in the livestock industry. Dairy cattle are especially susceptible to heat stress. Milk production loss due to heat stress accounted for about 1.2 billion dollars in 2010 (Lundeen, 2014). Heat stress occurs when combinations of environmental parameters (temperature, airspeed, relative humidity, etc) reach levels where the animal struggles to release internally produced heat. Implementing mitigation strategies to reduce heat stress has been a crucial need as dairy housing has transitioned from pasture to indoor housing systems.

Currently, limited recommendations exist directing producers towards implementing one cooling system over another ...


Cfd Model For Ventilation In Broiler Holding Sheds, Christian Heymsfield May 2016

Cfd Model For Ventilation In Broiler Holding Sheds, Christian Heymsfield

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Broiler production in Arkansas was valued at over $3.6 billion in 2013 (University of Arkansas Extension of Agriculture). Consequently, improvement in any phase of the production process can have significant economic impact and animal welfare implications. From the time poultry leave the farm and until they are slaughtered, they can be exposed to harsh environmental conditions, both in winter and in summer. After road transportation, birds are left to wait in holding sheds once they arrive at the processing plant, for periods of approximately 30 minutes to two hours. This project was interested in this holding shed waiting time ...


Incorporating Machine Vision In Precision Dairy Farming Technologies, Anthony N. Shelley Jan 2016

Incorporating Machine Vision In Precision Dairy Farming Technologies, Anthony N. Shelley

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

The inclusion of precision dairy farming technologies in dairy operations is an area of increasing research and industry direction. Machine vision based systems are suitable for the dairy environment as they do not inhibit workflow, are capable of continuous operation, and can be fully automated. The research of this dissertation developed and tested 3 machine vision based precision dairy farming technologies tailored to the latest generation of RGB+D cameras. The first system focused on testing various imaging approaches for the potential use of machine vision for automated dairy cow feed intake monitoring. The second system focused on monitoring the ...


The Development Of A Fluorescence-Based Reverse Flow Injection Analysis (Rfia) Method For Quantifying Ammonium At Nanomolar Concentrations In Oligotrophic Seawater, William Abbott Nov 2015

The Development Of A Fluorescence-Based Reverse Flow Injection Analysis (Rfia) Method For Quantifying Ammonium At Nanomolar Concentrations In Oligotrophic Seawater, William Abbott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this thesis was to adopt a reverse flow injection analysis (rFIA) technique to the fluorometric analysis of the reaction o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) with ammonium, allowing accurate measurements of ammonium concentrations lower than the detection limit of the widely used indophenol blue (IPB) colorimetric method while accounting for the background fluorescence of seawater. Ammonium is considered an essential nutrient for primary productivity, especially in the nutrient depleted surface ocean where as the most reduced form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, it is readily assimilated via metabolic pathways. Challenges in the quantification of ammonium require more sensitive analytical techniques for ...


A Cradle To Farm Gate Life Cycle Analysis Of Land Use In U.S. Pork Production, William Benjamin Putman Jul 2015

A Cradle To Farm Gate Life Cycle Analysis Of Land Use In U.S. Pork Production, William Benjamin Putman

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to conduct a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the U.S. live swine production supply chain to quantify land use requirements and to assess the impact associated with various ration compositions. The functional unit was defined as one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of live swine at the farm gate, ready for transport to the abattoir. This assessment focused on the three highest producing USDA regions, which encompassed the Midwest (Regions 5 and 7) and the Southeast (Region 4), representing 86% of U.S. market hog production.

First, a literature review was conducted to ...


Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) And Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Various Biosystems, Kun Xie Jan 2015

Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) And Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Various Biosystems, Kun Xie

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The fast-growing world population prompts researchers to evaluate both environmental and economic impacts during manufacture and service processing. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fractionation and aquaponics are two bioprocesses aiming to make full use of materials and resources. This study conducted Life cycle assessment (LCA) and Techno-economic analysis (TEA) for DDGS fractionation and tilapia-basil aquaponics.

DDGS mainly contains protein, oil, fiber, and ash. DDGS could have more economic value and wider use if it could be separated into higher protein fraction and higher fiber fraction. In our work, the optimization of three parameters of a gravity separator (side slope ...


Wildlife Deterrence Method Test Device, Garrett Tietz, Adam Webb, Dane Knutson Dec 2014

Wildlife Deterrence Method Test Device, Garrett Tietz, Adam Webb, Dane Knutson

Mechanical Engineering

The objective of the Deer Busters team is to design and build a device or system of devices that will be used to determine which method, or methods, are most effective at deer deterrence. JumpSport suspects that a method which gives the appearance of approach to the deer in an aggressive or startling manner but also changes the way it attacks so that the deer do not get used to the device will be most effective. Deer Busters is committed to the completion of the deer deterrent testing device by the end of the fall quarter of 2014.


Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson Dec 2014

Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packed-bed digesters are an alternative to covered lagoon digesters for methane production and anaerobic treatment of dilute wastewaters such as dairy barn flush water. The physical media of packed-beds retain biofilms, often allowing increased treatment rates. Previous studies have evaluated several types of media for digestion of dilute wastewaters, but cost and media fouling have setback commercial development. A major operational cost has been effluent recirculation pumping.

In the present effort, a novel approach to anaerobic digestion of flush dairy water was developed at pilot-scale: broken walnut shells were used as a low-cost packed-bed medium and effluent recirculation was replaced ...


The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson Apr 2014

The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic forcing, such as ocean acidification caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions, and eutrophication due to increased nutrient loadings in run-off, are causing major changes to the biogeochemistry of the oceans. As a consequence, coastal phytoplankton are susceptible to altered biogeochemical environments. This study examined the effect of a lower pH and increased levels of nutrients on the common coastal harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Growth rates, maximal cell yields, neutral lipid accumulation and toxicity of cells grown under various pH and nutrients regimes were measured. H. akashiwo growth was near maximal when grown at lower pH levels. There was a ...


Design, Construction And Cost Analysis Of Manufacturing Horse Bits, Erica L. Timmermans Jun 2013

Design, Construction And Cost Analysis Of Manufacturing Horse Bits, Erica L. Timmermans

BioResource and Agricultural Engineering

This report discusses the design, fabrication and cost analysis of two unique horse bits. On the market today, there are many different kinds of bits to serve a multitude of purposes. However, this project explored the option of having two different shanks types made of stainless steel in addition to three mouthpieces that are able to fit in both types of shanks.


Evaluation Of A Pilot Land-Based Marine Integrated Aquaculture System, Suzanne Boxman Jan 2013

Evaluation Of A Pilot Land-Based Marine Integrated Aquaculture System, Suzanne Boxman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) produce aquaculture products on land with minimal discharge of waste products and minimal water loss. High costs associated with waste treatment for RAS have triggered the growth of integrated aquaculture systems (IAS) which incorporate macrophytes (aquatic plants) into the treatment train. The objective of this research was to examine a pilot scale inland marine IAS with three different methods for solids treatment: a sand filter followed by a plant bed, only a plant bed, and geotextile bags. Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) were grown along with Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), Black Needle Rush (Juncus romerianus), and Red ...


Evaluating Food Safety Systems Development And Implementation By Quantifying Haccp Training Durability, Marienne A. Anandappa Jan 2013

Evaluating Food Safety Systems Development And Implementation By Quantifying Haccp Training Durability, Marienne A. Anandappa

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

HACCP-based food safety programs have been widely acclaimed, accepted and implemented as an effective means of managing food safety risks. While HACCP training is a cornerstone of managing HACCP programs, there is little information about the effectiveness of HACCP training and the durability of HACCP knowledge. Findings reveal a link between involvement level in HACCP activities and the accuracy of HACCP knowledge over time. Opportunities for peer training in HACCP, irrespective of overall experience in the food industry provide favorable circumstances for maintaining accuracy of HACCP knowledge. The optimal window for engaging employees in HACCP is directly following the completion ...


Design, Acnd Construction Of A Portable Artificial Insemination Chute, Chris Herrera Mar 2012

Design, Acnd Construction Of A Portable Artificial Insemination Chute, Chris Herrera

BioResource and Agricultural Engineering

This senior project report discusses the design, construction, and evaluation of a portable artificial insemination chute for the use of the Cal Poly Beef Department. The design was based on the suggested modifications from operators of several other chutes currently in use.

The main areas considered for the design were; Ergonomics, cattle safety, factors effecting maximum breeding conception rates, and Portability.

The breeding chute proved superior over traditional chutes in a variety of ways. Improvement occurred in the areas of consideration as follows, user operation was simplified, animal stress was decreased, and maximum breeding efficiency was obtained.


Studying Milk Coagulation Kinetics With Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, Image Processing, And Computational Modeling, Richard Joseph Hennessy Jun 2011

Studying Milk Coagulation Kinetics With Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, Image Processing, And Computational Modeling, Richard Joseph Hennessy

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The kinetics of milk coagulation are complex and still not well understood. A deeper understanding of coagulation and the impact of the relevant factors would aid in both cheese manufacturing and also in determining the nutritional benefits of dairy products. A method using confocal microscopy was developed to follow the movement of milk fat globules and the formation of a milk protein network during the enzyme-induced coagulation of milk. Image processing methods were then used to quantify the rate of coagulation. It was found that the texture of the protein network is an indicator of the current status of the ...


A Systematic Evaluation Of Laying Hen Housing For Improved Hen Welfare, Angela Renee Green Jan 2008

A Systematic Evaluation Of Laying Hen Housing For Improved Hen Welfare, Angela Renee Green

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Husbandry practices for egg production vary throughout the world. Current production systems are typically classified as caged, cage-free, or free range in terms of housing style. The research presented supplements the existing knowledge base for laying-hen housing. Where possible, a systematic assessment approach was used in the comprehensive literature review, and combined field monitoring and controlled-environment laboratory studies. The results of this research demonstrate: differing environmental conditions and hen health under different housing schemes with varying weather; no difference in heat and moisture production for varying stocking density and group size; no clear advantage of offering additional space for coping ...


Remote Characterization Of Locomotion, Grazing And Drinking Behavior In Beef Cattle Using Gps And Ruminant Temperature Dynamics, Jeremiah Delayne Davis Jan 2007

Remote Characterization Of Locomotion, Grazing And Drinking Behavior In Beef Cattle Using Gps And Ruminant Temperature Dynamics, Jeremiah Delayne Davis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A low-cost GPS herd activity and well-being kit (GPS HAWK) was developed as an alternative to commercial GPS tracking collars. The operational goal of the GPS HAWK was to collect GPS location data at a high frequency and store the data in a secure format. The use of one animal to represent herd behavior and the effect of GPS sampling rate on the characterization of the animal locomotion behavior were assessed. Though the percentage of time spent at each activity varied over days, cows spent 33.2%, 25.5%, 40.4% and 0.9% of four 8-hr visual observation periods ...


Dietary Strategies To Reduce Air Emissions From Laying Hen Operations , Wei Wu-Haan Jan 2006

Dietary Strategies To Reduce Air Emissions From Laying Hen Operations , Wei Wu-Haan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effectiveness of feeding a reduced emission diet (R) containing 6.9% of a gypsum-zeolite mixture and slightly reduced crude protein (CP) to 21-, 38-, and 59-wk old Hy-line W36 hens (trial 1, 2, and 3, respectively) on hen performance, emissions of NH3, H2S, NO, NO2, CO2 , CH4, non-methane total hydrocarbon, and apparent digestibility compared to feeding a commercial diet (C), and to compare different methods of estimating nutrient excretion from laying hens in environmental chambers. At each age, 640 hens were allocated randomly to one of eight environmental chambers for ...


A Real Time Imaging System For Assessment And Control Swine Thermal Comfort , Bin Shao Jan 2003

A Real Time Imaging System For Assessment And Control Swine Thermal Comfort , Bin Shao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A real-time bioimaging system was developed to detect movement of group-housed pigs and to classify thermal comfort state of the pigs based on their resting patterns. This dissertation describes the background, theory, image features selection and analysis, image classification techniques, system architecture, and system performance with artificial and live pigs.;The system is based on the bioimaging control method: using animal's thermal behavior as the ultimate biosensor that is used to reflect animal thermal comfortable levels. An automated real time image processing and control system is developed that monitors animal behavior and adjusts external devices according to the image ...


A Biophysical And Socio-Economic Examination Of The Use Of Shelterbelts For Swine Odor Mitigation , John Charles Tyndall Jan 2003

A Biophysical And Socio-Economic Examination Of The Use Of Shelterbelts For Swine Odor Mitigation , John Charles Tyndall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The use of shelterbelts (trees and shrubs) arranged in strategic designs near and within swine facilities potentially can play a significant incremental role in bio-physically mitigating odor in a socio-economically responsible way thereby reducing social conflict from odor nuisance. Shelterbelts of modest heights (i.e. 20--30 ft) may be ideal for plume interception, disruption, and dilution. Based on available evidence, there are five primary ways that shelterbelts can mitigate livestock odors: (1) Physical interception and capture of odor laden dust by trees/shrubs; (2) Dilution of gas concentrations of odor into the lower atmosphere; (3) Ground deposition of odor laden ...