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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Assistive Robotics And Their Uses During The Pandemic, Thomas Klassen, Jeremy Evert Apr 2021

Assistive Robotics And Their Uses During The Pandemic, Thomas Klassen, Jeremy Evert

Student Research

• “Assistive Robotics” defines any device that can sense, process sensory information, and perform actions that benefit people with disabilities.

• This form of technology can be used on a much higher scale with a greater number of uses.

• We have an opportunity to expand the usage of assistive robotics to help combat COVID-19.


Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff Mar 2021

Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), “excimer” UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0 ...


Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks Feb 2021

Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, (4 ...


Radiation‐Induced Oral Mucositis Hamster Model Using A Linear Accelerator Enhances Clinical Relevance Of Preclinical Studies For Treatment Strategy Investigation, Carolyn T. Jordan, Emily M. Bradford, Dennis C. Cheek, Mahesh R. Kudrimoti, Craig S. Miller, Molly H. Smith, J. Zach Hilt, Thomas D. Dziubla Jan 2021

Radiation‐Induced Oral Mucositis Hamster Model Using A Linear Accelerator Enhances Clinical Relevance Of Preclinical Studies For Treatment Strategy Investigation, Carolyn T. Jordan, Emily M. Bradford, Dennis C. Cheek, Mahesh R. Kudrimoti, Craig S. Miller, Molly H. Smith, J. Zach Hilt, Thomas D. Dziubla

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Translational animal models for oral mucositis (OM) are necessary to simulate and assess the bioclinical effects and response in humans. These models should simulate high levels of radiation exposure that leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory‐initiated tissue changes. Hamster models have been extensively studied to observe pathological effects of radiation exposure and help in the development of effective treatments. To successfully evaluate the potential for treatment regimens with consistency and relevance, a radiation‐induced OM hamster model was developed using a clinical linear accelerator utilized by cancer patients daily. The dose exposure to the isolated, everted cheek pouch of ...


Broad Kinase Inhibition Mitigates Early Neuronal Dysfunction In Tauopathy, Shon A. Koren, Matthew J. Hamm, Ryan Cloyd, Sarah N. Fontaine, Emad Chishti, Chiara Lanzillotta, Jennifer Rodriguez-Rivera, Alexandria Ingram, Michelle Bell, Sara M. Galvis-Escobar, Nicholas Zulia, Fabio Di Domenico, Duc Duong, Nicholas T. Seyfried, David K. Powell, Moriel Vandsburger, Tal Frolinger, Anika M. S. Hartz, John Koren Iii, Jeffrey M. Axten, Nicholas J. Laping, Jose F. Abisambra Jan 2021

Broad Kinase Inhibition Mitigates Early Neuronal Dysfunction In Tauopathy, Shon A. Koren, Matthew J. Hamm, Ryan Cloyd, Sarah N. Fontaine, Emad Chishti, Chiara Lanzillotta, Jennifer Rodriguez-Rivera, Alexandria Ingram, Michelle Bell, Sara M. Galvis-Escobar, Nicholas Zulia, Fabio Di Domenico, Duc Duong, Nicholas T. Seyfried, David K. Powell, Moriel Vandsburger, Tal Frolinger, Anika M. S. Hartz, John Koren Iii, Jeffrey M. Axten, Nicholas J. Laping, Jose F. Abisambra

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Tauopathies are a group of more than twenty known disorders that involve progressive neurodegeneration, cognitive decline and pathological tau accumulation. Current therapeutic strategies provide only limited, late-stage symptomatic treatment. This is partly due to lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking tau and cellular dysfunction, especially during the early stages of disease progression. In this study, we treated early stage tau transgenic mice with a multi-target kinase inhibitor to identify novel substrates that contribute to cognitive impairment and exhibit therapeutic potential. Drug treatment significantly ameliorated brain atrophy and cognitive function as determined by behavioral testing and a sensitive imaging ...


Trabecular Bone Organoid Model For Studying The Regulation Of Localized Bone Remodeling, Yongkuk Park, Eugene Cheong, Jun-Goo Kwak, Ryan Carpenter, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Jungwoo Lee Jan 2021

Trabecular Bone Organoid Model For Studying The Regulation Of Localized Bone Remodeling, Yongkuk Park, Eugene Cheong, Jun-Goo Kwak, Ryan Carpenter, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Jungwoo Lee

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Trabecular bone maintains physiological homeostasis and consistent structure and mass through repeated cycles of bone remodeling by means of tightly localized regulation. The molecular and cellular processes that regulate localized bone remodeling are poorly understood because of a lack of relevant experimental models. A tissue-engineered model is described here that reproduces bone tissue complexity and bone remodeling processes with high fidelity and control. An osteoid-inspired biomaterial-demineralized bone paper-directs osteoblasts to deposit structural mineralized bone tissue and subsequently acquire the resting-state bone lining cell phenotype. These cells activate and shift their secretory profile to induce osteoclastogenesis in response to chemical stimulation ...


Effects Of Racing Surface And Turn Radius On Fatal Limb Fractures In Thoroughbred Racehorses, Michael L. Peterson, Wayne T. Sanderson, Nurlan Kussainov, Sarah Jane Hobbs, Patti Miles, Mary C. Scollay, Hilary M. Clayton Jan 2021

Effects Of Racing Surface And Turn Radius On Fatal Limb Fractures In Thoroughbred Racehorses, Michael L. Peterson, Wayne T. Sanderson, Nurlan Kussainov, Sarah Jane Hobbs, Patti Miles, Mary C. Scollay, Hilary M. Clayton

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

North American Thoroughbred racing is conducted on three types of surfaces—dirt, turf, and synthetic. The tracks are oval, and races are run counterclockwise. The loading on right and left limbs is expected to differ as a function of turn radius, banking, surface, and gait asymmetry. Hind limbs and forelimbs also have different functions related to propulsion and turning, respectively. This study uses the Equine Injury Database for race starts from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2014, to compare injury rates across participating North American racetracks. The data are limited to catastrophic injuries in which horses died or were ...


Dual-Functional Phosphorene Nanocomposite Membranes For The Treatment Of Perfluorinated Water: An Investigation Of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Removal Via Filtration Combined With Ultraviolet Irradiation Or Oxygenation, Joyner Eke, Lillian Banks, M. Abdul Mottaleb, Andrew J. Morris, Olga V. Tsyusko, Isabel C. Escobar Jan 2021

Dual-Functional Phosphorene Nanocomposite Membranes For The Treatment Of Perfluorinated Water: An Investigation Of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Removal Via Filtration Combined With Ultraviolet Irradiation Or Oxygenation, Joyner Eke, Lillian Banks, M. Abdul Mottaleb, Andrew J. Morris, Olga V. Tsyusko, Isabel C. Escobar

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Nanomaterials with tunable properties show promise because of their size-dependent electronic structure and controllable physical properties. The purpose of this research was to develop and validate environmentally safe nanomaterial-based approach for treatment of drinking water including removal and degradation of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFAS). PFAS are surfactant chemicals with broad uses that are now recognized as contaminants with a significant risk to human health. They are commonly used in household and industrial products. They are extremely persistent in the environment because they possess both hydrophobic fluorine-saturated carbon chains and hydrophilic functional groups, along with being oleophobic. Traditional drinking water ...


Fmri Feature Extraction Model For Adhd Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network, Senuri De Silva, Sanuwani Udara Dayarathna, Gangani Ariyarathne, Dulani Meedeniya, Sampath Jayarathna Jan 2021

Fmri Feature Extraction Model For Adhd Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network, Senuri De Silva, Sanuwani Udara Dayarathna, Gangani Ariyarathne, Dulani Meedeniya, Sampath Jayarathna

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Biomedical intelligence provides a predictive mechanism for the automatic diagnosis of diseases and disorders. With the advancements of computational biology, neuroimaging techniques have been used extensively in clinical data analysis. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder, with the symptomology of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, in which early diagnosis is crucial to prevent unwelcome outcomes. This study addresses ADHD identification using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the resting state brain by evaluating multiple feature extraction methods. The features of seed-based correlation (SBC), fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF), and regional homogeneity (ReHo) are comparatively applied to ...


Biofilm And Cell Adhesion Strength On Dental Implant Surfaces Via The Laser Spallation Technique, James D. Boyd, Arnold J. Stromberg, Craig S. Miller, Martha E. Grady Jan 2021

Biofilm And Cell Adhesion Strength On Dental Implant Surfaces Via The Laser Spallation Technique, James D. Boyd, Arnold J. Stromberg, Craig S. Miller, Martha E. Grady

Statistics Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to quantify the adhesion strength differential between an oral bacterial biofilm and an osteoblast-like cell monolayer to a dental implant-simulant surface and develop a metric that quantifies the biocompatible effect of implant surfaces on bacterial and cell adhesion.

METHODS: High-amplitude short-duration stress waves generated by laser pulse absorption are used to spall bacteria and cells from titanium substrates. By carefully controlling laser fluence and calibration of laser fluence with applied stress, the adhesion difference between Streptococcus mutans biofilms and MG 63 osteoblast-like cell monolayers on smooth and rough titanium substrates is obtained. The ...


Improvement Of Printing Quality For Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Based Laser-Assisted Bioprinting Process Using A Cfd-Based Numerical Model, Jie Qu, Chaoran Dou, Ben Xu, Jianzhi Li, Zhonghao Rao, Andrew Tsin Jan 2021

Improvement Of Printing Quality For Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Based Laser-Assisted Bioprinting Process Using A Cfd-Based Numerical Model, Jie Qu, Chaoran Dou, Ben Xu, Jianzhi Li, Zhonghao Rao, Andrew Tsin

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

As one of the three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques with great application potential, laser-induced-forward-transfer (LIFT) based laser assisted bioprinting (LAB) transfers the bioink through a developed jet flow, and the printing quality highly depends on the stability of jet flow regime. To understand the connection between the jet flow and printing outcomes, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was developed for the first time to accurately describe the jet flow regime and provide a guidance for optimal printing process planning. By adopting the printing parameters recommended by the CFD model, the printing quality was greatly improved by forming stable jet regime ...


Origami-Inspired Approaches For Biomedical Applications, Abdor Rahman Ahmed, Olivia C. Gauntlett, Gulden Camci-Unal Dec 2020

Origami-Inspired Approaches For Biomedical Applications, Abdor Rahman Ahmed, Olivia C. Gauntlett, Gulden Camci-Unal

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Modern day biomedical applications require progressions that combine advanced technology with the conformability of naturally occurring, complex biosystems. These advancements yield conformational interactions between the biomedical devices and the biological organisms' structures. Biomedical applications that adapt origami-inspired approaches have accrued aspired advances. Along with application-specific advantages, the most pertinent advances provided by origami-inspired strategies include voluminous structures with the ability to conform to biosystems, shape-shifting from two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) structures, and biocompatibility. Throughout this paper, the exploration of new studies, primarily within the past decade, with origami-based applications of biomedical devices, including their theories, experimental results, and plans ...


Improved Prime Editors Enable Pathogenic Allele Correction And Cancer Modelling In Adult Mice [Preprint], Pengpeng Liu, Shun-Qing Liang, Chunwei Zheng, Esther Mintzer, Yan G. Zhao, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Aamir Mir, Erik J. Sontheimer, Guangping Gao, Terence R. Flotte, Scot A. Wolfe, Wen Xue Dec 2020

Improved Prime Editors Enable Pathogenic Allele Correction And Cancer Modelling In Adult Mice [Preprint], Pengpeng Liu, Shun-Qing Liang, Chunwei Zheng, Esther Mintzer, Yan G. Zhao, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Aamir Mir, Erik J. Sontheimer, Guangping Gao, Terence R. Flotte, Scot A. Wolfe, Wen Xue

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Prime editors (PEs) mediate genome modification without utilizing double-stranded DNA breaks or exogenous donor DNA as a template. PEs facilitate nucleotide substitutions or local insertions or deletions within the genome based on the template sequence encoded within the prime editing guide RNA (pegRNA). However, the efficacy of prime editing in adult mice has not been established. Here we report an NLS-optimized SpCas9-based prime editor that improves genome editing efficiency in both fluorescent reporter cells and at endogenous loci in cultured cell lines. Using this genome modification system, we could also seed tumor formation through somatic cell editing in the adult ...


Bibliometric Survey On Effect Of Climate Factors On Spread Of Coronavirus (Covid-19), Seema Patil, Jay Makwana, Manish Attri Dec 2020

Bibliometric Survey On Effect Of Climate Factors On Spread Of Coronavirus (Covid-19), Seema Patil, Jay Makwana, Manish Attri

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The new SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 has spread quickly around the globe since it was first reported in Wuhan city of China, in December 2019 subsequent to being contracted from a zoonotic source. The main focus of this bibliometric survey is to recognize the few studies which have upheld the epidemiological hypothesis that the effect of climatic factors is playing a crucial role in the spreading of COVID-19. The analysis is done on the basis of 412 documents such as journals, articles, editorials, short surveys and some review papers. The United States contributes to the maximum number of publications followed by the ...


Bibliometric Survey On Effects Of Climate Change On Incidences Of Infectious Diseases, Seema Harshad Patil, Yatharth Jain, Vedant Marathe Dec 2020

Bibliometric Survey On Effects Of Climate Change On Incidences Of Infectious Diseases, Seema Harshad Patil, Yatharth Jain, Vedant Marathe

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

For understanding the influx of Infectious Diseases, research of climate change and its effects pertaining to the diseases is important. The motive of this bibliometric survey is to understand the research which has been carried out regarding the aforementioned topics. This paper summarizes the research in the 21st Century from 2001 to present. We conducted this analysis using tools such as Gephi, Researchgate, Scopus, ScienceScape, Google Scholar and Mapchart. This Bibliometric Survey on “Effects of Climate Change on Infectious Diseases” showed that maximum publications are articles. These publications are from conferences and journals related to Environmental Science. The United States ...


An Investigation Into The Response Of The Us And Eu5 To The Covid-19 Disease (Convergence Of Two Pandemics: Covid-19 And Ncds), Omar Hassan Dec 2020

An Investigation Into The Response Of The Us And Eu5 To The Covid-19 Disease (Convergence Of Two Pandemics: Covid-19 And Ncds), Omar Hassan

Publications and Research

In late December 2019, a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan China. COVID-19 was a result of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARA-CoV-2), which has resulted in a worldwide sudden and substantial increase in hospitalizations for pneumonia with multiorgan disease. As of October 6, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has affected more than 200 countries, resulting in more than 35 million identified cases with more than 1 million confirmed deaths.

This is a cross-sectional, non-interventional, observational study in patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) or Covid-19, using John Hopkins University database JHU Coronavirus map. The data collected from ...


Dynamic Body-Weight Support To Boost Rehabilitation Outcomes In Patients With Non-Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: An Observational Study, Justin P. Huber, Lumy Sawaki Nov 2020

Dynamic Body-Weight Support To Boost Rehabilitation Outcomes In Patients With Non-Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: An Observational Study, Justin P. Huber, Lumy Sawaki

Neurology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Dynamic body-weight support (DBWS) may play an important role in rehabilitation outcomes, but the potential benefit among disease-specific populations is unclear. In this study, we hypothesize that overground therapy with DBWS during inpatient rehabilitation yields greater functional improvement than standard-of-care in adults with non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NT-SCI).

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included individuals diagnosed with NT-SCI and undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. All participants were recruited at a freestanding inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Individuals who trained with DBWS for at least three sessions were allocated to the experimental group. Participants in the historical control group received standard-of-care (i.e., no ...


Covid-19_Umaine News_Umaine Students Get Immersive Experience In Engineering Education, University Of Maine Division Of Marketing And Communications Nov 2020

Covid-19_Umaine News_Umaine Students Get Immersive Experience In Engineering Education, University Of Maine Division Of Marketing And Communications

Division of Marketing & Communications

Screenshot of UMaine News press release regarding Asli Sezen-Barrie, associate professor of curriculum, assessment and instruction in the University of Maine College of Education and Human Development redesigning her class on Teaching Science in the Secondary School to provide more opportunities for preservice teachers at UMaine to learn about engineering concepts and meet with engineers.


Effectiveness Of Building Systems Strategies For Mitigation Of Airborne Transmission Of Sars-Cov-2, Meng Kong, Jialei Shen, Bing Dong, Jianshun Jensen Zhang Nov 2020

Effectiveness Of Building Systems Strategies For Mitigation Of Airborne Transmission Of Sars-Cov-2, Meng Kong, Jialei Shen, Bing Dong, Jianshun Jensen Zhang

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Airborne transmission has been recognized as a major transmission pathway for the infectious disease COVID-19. This study investigated the effectiveness of several indoor air quality (IAQ) control strategies on the mitigation of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The well-known airborne disease infection risk model (Wells-Riley equation) was used to estimate the infection risk of the SARS-CoV-2 in seven (7) different types of spaces including conference center/ballrooms, hotel bistro//cafeteria, hotel lobby, classrooms (lecture), conference room/small classroom, hotel or cruise ship guest rooms and open plan offices. The IAQ control strategies included increased ventilation rate ...


Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation For Post-Stroke Motor Recovery - A Phase Ii Study (Transport2), Muhammed E. Gunduz, Anant B. Shinde, Karl D. Lerud, Wayne Feng, Gottfried Schlaug Oct 2020

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation For Post-Stroke Motor Recovery - A Phase Ii Study (Transport2), Muhammed E. Gunduz, Anant B. Shinde, Karl D. Lerud, Wayne Feng, Gottfried Schlaug

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Stroke is a leading cause of disability, most commonly with motor deficit. The motor recovery is associated with the structural and/or functional degree of injury to descending motor pathways. Additionally, neuroplasticity contributes to the recovery by unmasking pre-existing connections, establishing new synaptic contacts, reorganizing peri-lesional and contralesional regions. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, enhances neuroplasticity. When combined with peripheral therapy, tDCS can enhance motor skill acquisition/consolidation by modulating afferent inputs to the cortex while concurrently receiving central stimulation. Furthermore, meta-analyses showed that bihemispheric stimulation (anodal over affected M1, cathodal over contralesional M1) is ...


Targeted Multielectrode Tdcs Increases Functional Connectivity Within The Arcuate Fasciculus Network: An Exploratory Study And Analysis, Karl D. Lerud, Anant B. Shinde, Axel Thielscher, David A. Ross, Gottfried Schlaug Oct 2020

Targeted Multielectrode Tdcs Increases Functional Connectivity Within The Arcuate Fasciculus Network: An Exploratory Study And Analysis, Karl D. Lerud, Anant B. Shinde, Axel Thielscher, David A. Ross, Gottfried Schlaug

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Non-invasive electrical stimulation can modulate not only targeted local intrinsic brain activity, but also activity in remote, yet connected brain regions. Such modulation of connected regions and/or entire networks may account for some of the treatment-induced changes in complex behaviors and cognitive processes. The current study tested whether strategically-placed electrodes delivering transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to single or several nodal cortical regions within a structurally-defined network, the arcuate fasciculus network (AF-network), have the potential to strengthen functional connectivity between network regions more effectively than a single electrode placed over an individual nodal region within that same network. Concurrent ...


Lipophilic Dye-Compatible Brain Clearing Technique Allowing Correlative Magnetic Resonance/High-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging In Rat Models Of Glioblastoma, Marco Peviani, Giorgia Spano, Antonella Pagani, Gianluca Brugnara, Cesare Covino, Rossella Galli, Alessandra Biffi, Letterio S. Politi Oct 2020

Lipophilic Dye-Compatible Brain Clearing Technique Allowing Correlative Magnetic Resonance/High-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging In Rat Models Of Glioblastoma, Marco Peviani, Giorgia Spano, Antonella Pagani, Gianluca Brugnara, Cesare Covino, Rossella Galli, Alessandra Biffi, Letterio S. Politi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

In this work we optimized a novel approach for combining in vivo MRI and ex vivo high-resolution fluorescence microscopy that involves: (i) a method for slicing rat brain tissue into sections with the same thickness and spatial orientation as in in vivo MRI, to better correlate in vivo MRI analyses with ex-vivo imaging via scanning confocal microscope and (ii) an improved clearing protocol compatible with lipophilic dyes that highlight the neurovascular network, to obtain high tissue transparency while preserving tissue staining and morphology with no significant tissue shrinkage or expansion. We applied this methodology in two rat models of glioblastoma ...


Mineralization Of Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Xinchen Wu, Kierra Walsh, Brianna L. Hoff, Gulden Camci-Unal Oct 2020

Mineralization Of Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Xinchen Wu, Kierra Walsh, Brianna L. Hoff, Gulden Camci-Unal

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mineralized biomaterials have been demonstrated to enhance bone regeneration compared to their non-mineralized analogs. As non-mineralized scaffolds do not perform as well as mineralized scaffolds in terms of their mechanical and surface properties, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, mineralization strategies are promising methods in the development of functional biomimetic bone scaffolds. In particular, the mineralization of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has become a promising approach for guided bone regeneration. In this paper, we review the major approaches used for mineralizing tissue engineering constructs. The resulting scaffolds provide minerals chemically similar to the inorganic component of natural bone, carbonated apatite, Ca5(PO4,CO3)3 ...


Crispr-Enhanced Human Adipocyte 'Browning' As Cell Therapy For Metabolic Disease [Preprint], Emmanouela Tsagkaraki, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Tiffany Desouza, Javier Solivan-Rivera, Anand Desai, Yuefei Shen, Mark Kelly, Adilson L. Guilherme, Felipe Henriques, Raed Ibraheim, Nadia Amrani, Kevin Luk, Stacy Maitland, Randall H. Friedline, Lauren Tauer, Xiaodi Hu, Jason K. Kim, Scot A. Wolfe, Erik J. Sontheimer, Silvia Corvera, Michael P. Czech Oct 2020

Crispr-Enhanced Human Adipocyte 'Browning' As Cell Therapy For Metabolic Disease [Preprint], Emmanouela Tsagkaraki, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Tiffany Desouza, Javier Solivan-Rivera, Anand Desai, Yuefei Shen, Mark Kelly, Adilson L. Guilherme, Felipe Henriques, Raed Ibraheim, Nadia Amrani, Kevin Luk, Stacy Maitland, Randall H. Friedline, Lauren Tauer, Xiaodi Hu, Jason K. Kim, Scot A. Wolfe, Erik J. Sontheimer, Silvia Corvera, Michael P. Czech

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with poor tissue responses to insulin [1,2], disturbances in glucose and lipid fluxes [3-5] and comorbidities including steatohepatitis [6] and cardiovascular disease [7,8]. Despite extensive efforts at prevention and treatment [9,10], diabetes afflicts over 400 million people worldwide [11]. Whole body metabolism is regulated by adipose tissue depots [12-14], which include both lipid-storing white adipocytes and less abundant 'brown' and 'brite/beige' adipocytes that express thermogenic uncoupling protein UCP1 and secrete factors favorable to metabolic health [15-18]. Application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) gene editing [19 ...


Thermostabilization Of Viruses Via Complex Coacervation, Xue Mi, Whitney C. Blocher Mctigue, Pratik Umesh Joshi, Mallory K. Bunker, Caryn L. Heldt, Sarah L. Perry Oct 2020

Thermostabilization Of Viruses Via Complex Coacervation, Xue Mi, Whitney C. Blocher Mctigue, Pratik Umesh Joshi, Mallory K. Bunker, Caryn L. Heldt, Sarah L. Perry

Michigan Tech Publications

Widespread vaccine coverage for viral diseases could save the lives of millions of people each year. For viral vaccines to be effective, they must be transported and stored in a narrow temperature range of 2–8 °C. If temperatures are not maintained, the vaccine may lose its potency and would no longer be effective in fighting disease; this is called the cold storage problem. Finding a way to thermally stabilize a virus and end the need to transport and store vaccines at refrigeration temperatures will increase access to life-saving vaccines. We explore the use of polymer-rich complex coacervates to stabilize ...


Engineering Essential Genes With A "Jump Board" Strategy Using Crispr/Cas9, Ye Duan, Sungwook Choi, Charles Nelson, Victor R. Ambros Oct 2020

Engineering Essential Genes With A "Jump Board" Strategy Using Crispr/Cas9, Ye Duan, Sungwook Choi, Charles Nelson, Victor R. Ambros

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Here, we describe a platformed “jump board” strategy and its application in systematically engineering the essential microRNA let-7 (Fig. 1A-E) and protein coding gene lin-28 (Fig. 1F) in C. elegans. We chose the jump board protospacer sequence (INPP4A) which is (1) comprised of a PAM site and a protospacer antisense to a crRNA with experimentally confirmed high editing efficiency (INPP4A-crRNA), and (2) non-homologous to C. elegans genome, including the genetic balancer we used (mnDp1). Notably, the jump board protospacer contains an EcoRV restriction site, which can be utilized for rapid large-scale genotyping by which HDR events can be identified in ...


Premature Atrial And Ventricular Contraction Detection Using Photoplethysmographic Data From A Smartwatch, Dong Han, Syed Khairul Bashar, Fahimeh Mohagheghian, Eric Y. Ding, Cody Whitcomb, David D. Mcmanus, Ki H. Chon Oct 2020

Premature Atrial And Ventricular Contraction Detection Using Photoplethysmographic Data From A Smartwatch, Dong Han, Syed Khairul Bashar, Fahimeh Mohagheghian, Eric Y. Ding, Cody Whitcomb, David D. Mcmanus, Ki H. Chon

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

We developed an algorithm to detect premature atrial contraction (PAC) and premature ventricular contraction (PVC) using photoplethysmographic (PPG) data acquired from a smartwatch. Our PAC/PVC detection algorithm is composed of a sequence of algorithms that are combined to discriminate various arrhythmias. A novel vector resemblance method is used to enhance the PAC/PVC detection results of the Poincare plot method. The new PAC/PVC detection algorithm with our automated motion and noise artifact detection approach yielded a sensitivity of 86% for atrial fibrillation (AF) subjects while the overall sensitivity was 67% when normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects were also ...


Covid-19_Umaine News_Kirkmann Speaks With Wabi About Student Construction Projects At Leonard’S Mill, University Of Maine Division Of Marketing And Communications Oct 2020

Covid-19_Umaine News_Kirkmann Speaks With Wabi About Student Construction Projects At Leonard’S Mill, University Of Maine Division Of Marketing And Communications

Division of Marketing & Communications

Screenshot of UMaine in the News regarding Meredith Kirkmann, University of Maine assistant professor of Construction Engineering Technology (CET), about the outdoor projects senior CET students are working on at the Maine Forest and Logging Museum's Leonard's Mills.


The Clinical Utilities Of Multi-Pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Ilker Ozsahin, Ling Chen, Arda Konik, Michael A. King, Freek J. Beekman, Greta S. P. Mok Oct 2020

The Clinical Utilities Of Multi-Pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Ilker Ozsahin, Ling Chen, Arda Konik, Michael A. King, Freek J. Beekman, Greta S. P. Mok

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important imaging modality for various applications in nuclear medicine. The use of multi-pinhole (MPH) collimators can provide superior resolution-sensitivity trade-off when imaging small field-of-view compared to conventional parallel-hole and fan-beam collimators. Besides the very successful application in small animal imaging, there has been a resurgence of the use of MPH collimators for clinical cardiac and brain studies, as well as other small field-of-view applications. This article reviews the basic principles of MPH collimators and introduces currently available and proposed clinical MPH SPECT systems.


Effect Of Bout Length On Gait Measures In People With And Without Parkinson’S Disease During Daily Life, Vrutangkumar Shah, James Mcnames, Graham Harker, Martina Mancini, Patricia Carlson-Kuhta, John G. Nutt, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Carolin Curtze, Fay Horak Oct 2020

Effect Of Bout Length On Gait Measures In People With And Without Parkinson’S Disease During Daily Life, Vrutangkumar Shah, James Mcnames, Graham Harker, Martina Mancini, Patricia Carlson-Kuhta, John G. Nutt, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Carolin Curtze, Fay Horak

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Although the use of wearable technology to characterize gait disorders in daily life is increasing, there is no consensus on which specific gait bout length should be used to characterize gait. Clinical trialists using daily life gait quality as study outcomes need to understand how gait bout length affects the sensitivity and specificity of measures to discriminate pathological gait as well as the reliability of gait measures across gait bout lengths. We investigated whether Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects how gait characteristics change as bout length changes, and how gait bout length affects the reliability and discriminative ability of gait ...