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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Restoration Of The Military Club Building In Sofia, By Micro Pile Injections, Chavdar Vassilev Kolev Apr 2013

Restoration Of The Military Club Building In Sofia, By Micro Pile Injections, Chavdar Vassilev Kolev

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The building of the Military Club is one of the most beautiful architectural monuments within the Bulgarian capital of Sofia. Construction of the club in a New Renaissance style and was initiated in 1895 according to the draft of Antonin Kolar, the famous Czech architect. It was completed in 1907 by Nikola Lazarov, a no less famous Bulgarian architect. Thereafter, a long series of cultural events, important for Bulgarian history were held on in Sofia Military Club. The building is a brick structure with three floors and a basement. Foundations are made out of massive stone blocks on the clay ...


Influence Of Relative Position Of The Tunnels: A Numerical Study On Twin Tunnels, W. Channabasavaraj, B. Visvanath Apr 2013

Influence Of Relative Position Of The Tunnels: A Numerical Study On Twin Tunnels, W. Channabasavaraj, B. Visvanath

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The development of cities requires the use of underground area for the construction of transportation infrastructure facilities. Construction of twin tunnels or new tunnel close to the existing ones may be done horizontally, vertically or in inclined manner. In the case of horizontal tunnels the distribution of tunnel load will be more in lateral direction. Since cities are densely concentrated with tall structures, laterally distributed loads will induce settlement in the foundation of the structures. For a particular orientation of tunnels, the soil movement and internal forces in the lining will be affected by both the relative position of tunnels ...


Behaviour Of Laterally Loaded Piles, Berrak Teymur, Zeynep Şekerer Apr 2013

Behaviour Of Laterally Loaded Piles, Berrak Teymur, Zeynep Şekerer

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Pile foundations are often subject to lateral loads and axial loads. Although design methods for axial loading are well developed, lateral loading cases have attracted more attention recently following reported case histories of piles damaged during earthquakes. In this work, pile design due to lateral loading in tuff soils is considered. Pile deflections, bending moment and rotation were analyzed with OpenSeesPL program, a 3D finite element tool. OpenSeesPL is used to model the properties of the piles which are embedded in tuff and laterally load tested in Izmir. The displacement calculated by OpenSeesPL of 2.25mm is close to the ...


Failure Investigation Of A Helical Anchor Tie-Down System Supporting An Olympic Size Swimming Pool, Tom Labuda, Gene W. Corley, Michael Murphy Apr 2013

Failure Investigation Of A Helical Anchor Tie-Down System Supporting An Olympic Size Swimming Pool, Tom Labuda, Gene W. Corley, Michael Murphy

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Adoption of new technologies and a push for money-saving value engineering designs may produce unpredictable and unwanted results. Particularly with shrinking budgets, proposals that reduce initial costs become more appealing. However, without careful consideration and implementation, cost-reducing measures can become more expensive in the end. This paper presents a case study of geostructural forensic analysis related to the failure of a helical anchor tie-down system selected to support an Olympic size swimming pool against hydrostatic uplift forces. The selection of helical anchors over a more expensive traditional anchorage system appeared to be a smart value engineering decision for the project ...


Observation Of Stress Distribution On Instrumented Jet Grout Columns, Berrak Teymur, Kaan Doğanışık Apr 2013

Observation Of Stress Distribution On Instrumented Jet Grout Columns, Berrak Teymur, Kaan Doğanışık

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Jet grout columns are used widely in the last decade in Turkey especially in soil improvement projects. This study is intended to understand the behavior and stress distribution of jet grout columns installed in non-cohesive soils and are under vertical loads. Design capacity of jet grout column is examined by loading tests. Stress distribution was determined by strain gauges installed inside the jet grout columns. 35cm in diameter 8m long jet grout columns were constructed in silty sand. As measured by strain gages, the stress along the column extends deeper while load increases. According to the load test results, at ...


Liquefaction Resistance Of Gravelly Soils, Michael R. Lewis, Ignacio Arango, Kenneth H. Stokoe Ii Apr 2013

Liquefaction Resistance Of Gravelly Soils, Michael R. Lewis, Ignacio Arango, Kenneth H. Stokoe Ii

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Liquefaction assessments of gravels and soils that contain a large gravel fraction are difficult. Undisturbed (intact) sampling of these soils is problematic and laboratory testing carried out on reconstituted samples or on frozen samples obtained from the field is time consuming, expensive, and interpretation of the results requires considerable judgment. Because of these and other issues, for a remote site in British Columbia, Canada (aka “Study Site”), it was decided to carry out the liquefaction potential assessment using existing published relationships and case history data on similar soils. This case history describes the approach utilized, including material mechanical properties, measured ...


Review Of The Seismic Retrofitting Of Sardis Dam, Randa Asmar, Abdul Qudoos Khan Apr 2013

Review Of The Seismic Retrofitting Of Sardis Dam, Randa Asmar, Abdul Qudoos Khan

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Most of the dams in Central United States, built in earlier part of 20th century are hydraulic fill dams. At the time of construction of these dams, earthquake engineering was still in its infancy and hence the dams lacked proper seismic design. Failure or near failure of earth dams as a consequence of earthquakes forced the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to re-evaluate the seismic performance of major earth dams in the Central United States, one of these dams was Sardis Dam. Investigations of Sardis Dam revealed a potentially liquefiable silty clay layer under the upstream shell. It ...


Stabilization Of A Failed Highway Slope: A Multi-Phased Approach, Jeffrey T. Anagnostou, Anthony S. Nestor, Purushottam Deo, Heidi Flateau Apr 2013

Stabilization Of A Failed Highway Slope: A Multi-Phased Approach, Jeffrey T. Anagnostou, Anthony S. Nestor, Purushottam Deo, Heidi Flateau

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

A county road department in Southeastern Michigan was faced with the problem of stabilizing a slope along the Clinton River supporting a heavily trafficked roadway. The roadway and supporting slope had performed satisfactorily for over 50 years. However, a reinforced concrete seawall that had partially supported the slope deteriorated over time, contributing to progressive failure of the slope and resulting damage to the roadway. The site is situated within the glacial lake plain district of Southeastern Michigan. The site geology consists of approximately 7 feet of over-consolidated clays underlain by approximately 17 feet of normally consolidated glacial-lacustrine clays. Below the ...


Susceptibility Analysis On Landslide Triggering Factors During The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Deping Guo, Masanori Hamada Apr 2013

Susceptibility Analysis On Landslide Triggering Factors During The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Deping Guo, Masanori Hamada

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake with Mw7.9 induced numerous landslides along the Longmen Mt. zone in Sichuan Province of China. The authors investigated into various influential factors on the slope stability of 119 landslides in Wenchuan County, such as horizontal peak ground acceleration, slope angle, slope height, rock materials and geological structures. The authors developed hanging wall and footwall‟s acceleration attenuation formulae from 115 seismic stations and the formulae confirmed hanging-foot wall effect had notable influence on landslide distribution density and occurrence probability. The results of multivariable analysis clarified that slope height, horizontal peak ground acceleration and ...


The Simplified Kzp6 Method For Tieback Wall Design In Granular And Cohesive Soils, Kumars Zand-Parsa, Kamran Zand-Parsa Apr 2013

The Simplified Kzp6 Method For Tieback Wall Design In Granular And Cohesive Soils, Kumars Zand-Parsa, Kamran Zand-Parsa

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Tieback retaining walls are using as temporary shoring systems for bridge footings or other structures that need deep excavations. Design and design review process are time consuming, and the possibility of making mistakes encourages us to find a simplified method for designing the tieback walls. Tieback walls with maximum 20m height and with 1 to 4 rows of anchors is considered in this paper. Whole length of the drilled holes will be filled with grout after setting the rods or stressing cables. Sometimes for temporary shoring the rod will be anchored to a concrete block supported by dirt, so there ...


Underpinning A Residential Structure On Uncontrolled Fill With Helical Screw-Piles, Alan J. Lutenegger Apr 2013

Underpinning A Residential Structure On Uncontrolled Fill With Helical Screw-Piles, Alan J. Lutenegger

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Underpinning of a private residence using square-shaft helical Screw-Piles is described. A two story wood frame single-family residence constructed in 1996 in a small subdivision started to experience differential settlement not long after construction. The settlement continued for several years, leading to excessive cracking in the basement walls and floor, severe misalignment of doors and windows and cracking of interior walls. It was discovered that the area of the housing development had previously been used as a commercial sand and gravel pit which had subsequently been used as a local dumping area for miscellaneous refuse and which had then been ...


Stabilization Of Existing Sheet Pile Cell In The Ohio River, David W. Bird Apr 2013

Stabilization Of Existing Sheet Pile Cell In The Ohio River, David W. Bird

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

An existing 40 foot diameter sheet pile cell (cell) was used to support a dry fly ash loading platform at an electrical power generating facility on the Ohio River. The cell was designed and constructed in 1986 for support of a coal barge unloading crane but was never put into service. The cell has leaned riverward several inches in the years after construction. Stability analysis indicated a less than adequate overturning factor of safety without any additional loads. The addition of the loading platform could result in an overturning failure. A stabilizing system which provided a horizontal stabilizing force of ...


Experimental Study On Mitigation Of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Displacement Deep Soil Mixing, Rouzbeh Rasouli, Naoki Takahashi, Ali Derakhshani, Suguru Yamada, Yuji Takaoka, Ikuo Towhata Apr 2013

Experimental Study On Mitigation Of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Displacement Deep Soil Mixing, Rouzbeh Rasouli, Naoki Takahashi, Ali Derakhshani, Suguru Yamada, Yuji Takaoka, Ikuo Towhata

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

After 1990s' earthquakes in Japan, lateral flow of liquefiable slopes became a serious concern of engineers. Espisally Kobe earthquake (1995) in which high subsidence of river levee as a result of liquefied sand lateral flow was observed, become a turning point in geotechnical engineering approach in dealing with this phenomena. From that time many different kinds of mitigation measures for preventing or at least controlling the extent of lateral flow have been proposed. Improving soil by deep mixing columns is one of the common methods of soil improvement that can also be used for controlling the consequences of liquefied sand ...


Observations Save The Day At The Wachovia Cultural Center Excavation, D. Bruce Nothdurft, E. J. Cording, J. Sid Davis Apr 2013

Observations Save The Day At The Wachovia Cultural Center Excavation, D. Bruce Nothdurft, E. J. Cording, J. Sid Davis

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

In the observational method, gaps in the available information are filled by observations. Such observations were invaluable during the construction of a 54-story building with an 8-story underground parking deck in Charlotte, North Carolina, which required an excavation nearly 100-feet deep into rock. Cracks appeared in an adjacent brick office building by the time the north side of the excavation had reached a depth of about 40 feet. Blast-induced settlement was initially suspected. As excavation continued, some soilfilled weathered joints, seams, and fractures in the rock sidewalls were observed, and displacement of the cracks increased. Inclinometer casings were installed along ...


Reconstruction Of Road Embankment Failure Using Reinforced Geogrid: Revisiting The Site After 15 Years, Suhaimi Jamaludin, Kamal Bahrin Jaafar Apr 2013

Reconstruction Of Road Embankment Failure Using Reinforced Geogrid: Revisiting The Site After 15 Years, Suhaimi Jamaludin, Kamal Bahrin Jaafar

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

A case history of repair works of road embankment failure at KM39, Route 68, Kuala Lumpur – Bentong Road in the state of Selangor, Malaysia and an observation on the condition of the site after 15 years and some tensile strength testing carried out on buried and exposed geogrid was presented in this paper. Due to heavy rainfall in 1995, about half of the road embankment which was located at the alluvial fan of an upslope stream valley was washout. For the reconstruction of the alignment, the existing half of the alignment was converted into a buffer zone with a row ...


Remediation Of A Slope Failure Above Retaining Wall Under Construction, Miroslav Cerny, Lubos Hrustinec Apr 2013

Remediation Of A Slope Failure Above Retaining Wall Under Construction, Miroslav Cerny, Lubos Hrustinec

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

In practice is for various reasons very difficult to assume a real sliding failure on the slip surface, which can be created from more parts (straight and curved) with different local soil characteristics. Therefore is usually at classical methods of slope stability shear surface replaced, for example by a cylindrical surface for cohesive soils. An important factor affecting stability is also the effect of groundwater. In practice is just the influence of groundwater very often reason of landslides on natural slopes and cut slopes. Such landslide has happened in the case of construction the retaining wall on the highway D1 ...


Analysis And Design Of Breakwater For Sea Water Intake Facility On South East Coast Of India, Jaykumar Shukla, Laxman Rajwani, Dhananjay Shah Apr 2013

Analysis And Design Of Breakwater For Sea Water Intake Facility On South East Coast Of India, Jaykumar Shukla, Laxman Rajwani, Dhananjay Shah

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The proposed power project site on the South East coast of India required the construction of breakwaters to prevent detrimental effects owing littoral drift along the coast and also to protect the intake channel lining against sea attack. This paper describes the geotechnical design and analysis for breakwater facility proposed for the site. The preliminary design of breakwater was carried out using raw geotechnical data made available in form of the few boreholes investigation and SPT N-values. The general soil profiles suggest that the stratum consist of 37 metres of soft clay below sea bed resting on medium dense to ...


Technical Analyses And Lessons Of The Embankment Failure At The Ajka Red Mud Reservoir, József Mecsi Apr 2013

Technical Analyses And Lessons Of The Embankment Failure At The Ajka Red Mud Reservoir, József Mecsi

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

This presentation aims at providing an informative fact-based description of the complex reasons resulting in dam ruptures. The investigations focus on the tragic damage of red mud reservoir No. 10 in Ajka and restrict itself to the engineering aspects of the damage. The analysis of the direct and indirect reasons for the tragic incident may serve as a lesson to our engineers and specialists as well as provide guidelines and revelations with the intention of improvement while emphasizing the necessity of deeper comprehension. Neither this presentation nor the engineering analyses aimed at the search for scapegoats behind the failures.


Case Study Of Landslides In Kabylia Region, Algeria, Sadaoui Omar, Sadaoui Samir, Bahar Ramdane Apr 2013

Case Study Of Landslides In Kabylia Region, Algeria, Sadaoui Omar, Sadaoui Samir, Bahar Ramdane

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Kabylia is mountainous and coastline region of Algeria. Every year, particularly in the winter, it is affected by landslides displacing an important volume of detritic materials, and causing damages to infrastructures, housing and public facilities. It takes place in geological formations that are particularly favourable to this type of movement, because of the heterogeneity of their facies and the impermeability of some layers. Experience shows that the main cause of the landslides in this region is the combination of several passive and active factors, as geology, morphology, hydrology, climate and anthropic activities. The exceptional rains of winter 2012 triggered a ...


Field Testing Of Crushed Ignimbrite For Seismic Retrofit Of Matahina Dam, Lelio H. Mejia Apr 2013

Field Testing Of Crushed Ignimbrite For Seismic Retrofit Of Matahina Dam, Lelio H. Mejia

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The performance of zoned embankment dams depends on the ability of filter and drain zones to prevent seepage erosion and piping of impervious materials, while providing adequate internal drainage. Because cracking of filter and drain zones might compromise their function, special care is typically exercised to build such zones of cohesionless materials that are unable to support cracks. Limited information is available on the cracking susceptibility of filter and drain materials manufactured by rock crushing. This paper presents a case history of field and laboratory testing of a crushed ignimbrite rock to evaluate its suitability as filter and drain material ...


Seismic Retrofit Of Crane Valley Dam, David Ritzman, Faiz Makdisi, Joseph De Larios, Joseph Sun, Charles Ahlgren Apr 2013

Seismic Retrofit Of Crane Valley Dam, David Ritzman, Faiz Makdisi, Joseph De Larios, Joseph Sun, Charles Ahlgren

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Crane Valley Dam is located on the North Fork of Willow Creek in Madera County, California, and is owned by Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E). The results of seismic stability analyses performed in 2005 and 2006 showed that the dam’s hydraulic fill embankments would experience large deformations during and after the earthquake shaking postulated for the site. To improve the seismic stability and performance of the dam, PG&E initiated the Crane Valley Dam Seismic Retrofit Project (Project), which includes placing new rockfill buttresses on the upstream and downstream slopes of the dam, constructing internal drainage improvements, reinforcing ...


Selection Of Most Appropriate Procedures For Seismic Evaluation Of Levees Based On Case Histories, Vlad Perlea, Khaled Chowdhury, Mary Perlea, George Hu Apr 2013

Selection Of Most Appropriate Procedures For Seismic Evaluation Of Levees Based On Case Histories, Vlad Perlea, Khaled Chowdhury, Mary Perlea, George Hu

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The current methodology for embankment dams evaluation is not appropriate for levees of low heights, which have little effect on the stress state of the foundation soil and, therefore, on its response to the seismic action. In many cases the liquefaction potential of the alluvial deposits is not affected by the levee presence, although is the main factor in levee degradation. Lateral spreading of liquefiable foundation is the main cause of small levee cracking and settlement induced by earthquakes. On the other part, the procedures recommended for evaluation of lateral spreading are not directly applicable to the analysis of levees ...


Three Dimensional Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis Of A Flood Wall Under Full-Scale Load Test, Jian Hu, Faiz Makdisi, Zhi-Liang Wang, Kent Hokens, Neil Schwanz Apr 2013

Three Dimensional Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis Of A Flood Wall Under Full-Scale Load Test, Jian Hu, Faiz Makdisi, Zhi-Liang Wang, Kent Hokens, Neil Schwanz

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Louisville District) conducted a number of full-scale tests to determine the behavior of continuous steel sheet pile flood walls when subjected to hydrostatic loads simulating actual flood conditions. Among these tests, Test Series III (sheet piling with concrete jacket) was conducted at the Tell City site in Indiana. The results of these full-scale load tests provide valuable data that could help verify geotechnical design procedures. In addition, numerical analyses simulating these tests could be useful in interpreting the foundation and structure behavior and in predicting the performance of similar I-wall-type levee systems subjected ...


Ground Motion Amplification From Vertical Propagation Of Earthquake Waves, Nien-Yin Chang, Roger L. Torres Apr 2013

Ground Motion Amplification From Vertical Propagation Of Earthquake Waves, Nien-Yin Chang, Roger L. Torres

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The paper is directed to follow a procedure where seismic responses are identified and recommendations to proceed with their applications are made quickly and economically, before engaging in a complex analysis. It is not intended for selecting design soil parameters or earthquake parameters for the final design of any specific dam. A selected earthquake accelerogram will produce response accelerations and strains that will cover a significant variety of accelerograms in terms of severity of earthquake damage to an earth dam. Scaling-up and scaling-down the selected outcrop motion broadens the spectrum of seismic response analyses using simple and effective SHAKE program ...


Influenced Factor Of Site Information On The Environmental Ground, Katsuya Tanaka, Kiyoshi Hayakawa, Shuuji Honda Apr 2013

Influenced Factor Of Site Information On The Environmental Ground, Katsuya Tanaka, Kiyoshi Hayakawa, Shuuji Honda

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The relationship between “Landform Geology Classification” factor of site information and environmental ground vibration caused by the public transportation in metropolitan was related, and considered.


Self Hardening Slurry Wall Installation By Hydromill At The Herbert Hoover Dike – An Innovative Solution, Mario Mauro, Carlos Morales, Jeff Taylor Apr 2013

Self Hardening Slurry Wall Installation By Hydromill At The Herbert Hoover Dike – An Innovative Solution, Mario Mauro, Carlos Morales, Jeff Taylor

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

In 2007 the US Army Corps of Engineers classified the Herbert Hoover Dike in Florida as a DSAC 1 dam, and started the implementation of one of the largest dam rehabilitation projects in the nation. The construction of the cutoff wall is a key feature of this rehabilitation work to upgrade the dike to current dam safety criteria. The cutoff wall installation is currently being completed on Reach 1, which extends from Port Mayaca to Belle Glade, under a Multiple Task Order Contract based on performance specifications and stringent verification criteria. For the construction of the cutoff wall TREVIICOS selected ...


Stability Analysis Of The Serchio River Flood Plain Embankments (Tuscany, Italy), Nunziante Squeglia, Barbara Cosanti, Diego C. F. Lo Presti Apr 2013

Stability Analysis Of The Serchio River Flood Plain Embankments (Tuscany, Italy), Nunziante Squeglia, Barbara Cosanti, Diego C. F. Lo Presti

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Following the geotechnical characterization of 30 km long flood - plain embankments of the Serchio River (Tuscany – Italy), a number of numerical analyses have been carried out. The embankments have been constructed since the XVIII century and have experienced several failures in the years (the last in December 2009). The geotechnical characterization of the river embankments and the 2009 flood are described in a companion paper in this Conference. This paper shows the results of numerical analyses that have been carried out for various purposes. More specifically, the numerical analyses were carried out a) to clarify the causes of the December ...


Stabilizing A Landslide On A Highway Under Traffic: A Case History On Egnatia Motorway In Greece, Eleni Sakoumpenta, Vassilis Houssiadas, Manolis Haralambakis Apr 2013

Stabilizing A Landslide On A Highway Under Traffic: A Case History On Egnatia Motorway In Greece, Eleni Sakoumpenta, Vassilis Houssiadas, Manolis Haralambakis

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

In the winter of 2010, a landslide occurred on Egnatia motorway affecting an embankment approximately 300m long and 8–20 m high. The crest of the slide was at a distance of 60m uphill from the highway and the maximum depth of movement was 28 m. The bedrock in the area consists of alternating layers of siltstone and sandstone with local conglomerate intercalations covered by a soil layer of variable thickness (up to 30m) and consistency. The sliding occurred within a zone of plastic red clay just above bedrock exhibiting strength parameters between peak and residual values. A horizontal movement ...


Geotechnical Aspect For Protection Bunds, Janvi Talsaniya, Vaishali Pandya, Jigar Rana Apr 2013

Geotechnical Aspect For Protection Bunds, Janvi Talsaniya, Vaishali Pandya, Jigar Rana

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

The design team of Water & Environment division of Mott MacDonald, Ahmadabad was involved in design of Rubble mound protection bund for a Sea water intake and outfall project. The project was to provide make up sea water for 2x250 MW Lignite based Thermal Power Pant (TPP) at Bhavnagar for Bhavnagar Energy Company Limited. The makeup water required for TPP was drawn through Sea water Intake (SWI) area constructed in the intertidal zone of Gulf of Khambhat. The SWI area consists of a Pumping Station for pumping sea water from storage pond. The storage pond was surrounded by all around protection ...


Highway Section Affected By Two Neighboring Landslides – Performance, Monitoring And Design Of Stabilization Measures, Vassilis Houssiadas, Eleni Sakoumpenta, Manolis Haralambakis Apr 2013

Highway Section Affected By Two Neighboring Landslides – Performance, Monitoring And Design Of Stabilization Measures, Vassilis Houssiadas, Eleni Sakoumpenta, Manolis Haralambakis

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Two separate deep-seated, creeping landslides exist in close proximity in a mountainous area with highly heterogeneous geological and geotechnical conditions. The ground movements are measured at a depth greater than 50m and affect 65m-high G4 embankment and 240m-long S3 tunnel that are under traffic since 2004. The first landslide affecting the embankment initiated shortly after completion of construction in an area where the highway was realigned after an old, pre-existing unstable area was identified during the design. Tunnel S3, about 300m to the east of embankment G4, suffered from slope instability during construction. This was successfully dealt with and the ...