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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Exploring Valuable And Potentially Harmful By-Products Formed And/Or Released From Smouldering Treatment Of Sewage Sludge, Taryn Ashley Fournie May 2022

Exploring Valuable And Potentially Harmful By-Products Formed And/Or Released From Smouldering Treatment Of Sewage Sludge, Taryn Ashley Fournie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and emerging contaminants (e.g., per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)) makes sewage sludge management challenging. Due to their hazards, there is significant interest in thermal treatment technologies that can destroy these compounds, like incineration. However, incineration still poses several risks due to forming and/or releasing hazardous emissions (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PTEs). More recently, the use of smouldering has been introduced as a potential treatment technique for managing sewage sludge. Smouldering presents several advantages over traditional incineration due to its lower energy and pre-treatment requirements ...


Early Biological Response Of Articular Cartilage To Hemiarthroplasty Wear, Debora Rossetti Apr 2022

Early Biological Response Of Articular Cartilage To Hemiarthroplasty Wear, Debora Rossetti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasties typically result in accelerated wear of the preserved side of the joint, resulting in suboptimal clinical outcomes and limited longevity. This in vitro study investigated the effects of hemiarthroplasty implant curvature on the early biological response of articular cartilage measured by proteoglycan release, histology, and surface morphology. Cartilage from boar radiocarpal joints were worn by metal pins of varying radii of curvature (RoC) using a pin-on-plate wear simulator. Histology and proteoglycan assays showed no significant differences between RoC treatment groups, and proteoglycan assays showed increased proteoglycan release 72 hours after wear testing in worn cartilage specimens compared to control ...


The Application Of Digital Volume Correlation Bone Strain Measurements In The Osteoarthritic Glenohumeral Joint, Jakub R. Targosinski Apr 2022

The Application Of Digital Volume Correlation Bone Strain Measurements In The Osteoarthritic Glenohumeral Joint, Jakub R. Targosinski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates the accuracy and precision of digital volume correlation measurements derived from micro-computed tomography imagery of interfaces in the upper extremity of clinical relevance, namely, the implant-cement-bone interface of glenoid implants used in total shoulder arthroplasties and the implant-bone interface of shoulder hemiarthroplasties. The works within derive relationships between measurement accuracy and precision and parameters of practical interest such as image quality and measurement spatial resolution. It also analyzes the effects of micro-computed tomography image artifact-inducing materials on the accuracy and precision of digital volume correlation-based measurements and the spatial relationship between distance between the artifacting material and ...


Application Of A Polynomial Affine Method In Dynamic Portfolio Choice, Yichen Zhu Apr 2022

Application Of A Polynomial Affine Method In Dynamic Portfolio Choice, Yichen Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis develops numerical approaches to attain optimal multi-period portfolio strategies in the context of advanced stochastic models within expected utility and mean-variance theories. Unlike common buy-and-hold portfolio strategies, dynamic asset allocation reflects the investment philosophy of a portfolio manager that benefits from the most recent market conditions to rebalance the portfolio accordingly. This enables managers to capture fleeting opportunities in the markets thereby enhancing the portfolio performance. However, the solvability of the dynamic asset allocation problem is often non-analytical, especially when considering a high-dimensional portfolio with advanced models mimicking practical asset's return. To overcome this issue, this thesis ...


A Novel Ultrasound Elastography Technique For Evaluating Tumor Response To Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy In Patients With Locally Advanced Breast Cancer, Niusha Kheirkhah Apr 2022

A Novel Ultrasound Elastography Technique For Evaluating Tumor Response To Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy In Patients With Locally Advanced Breast Cancer, Niusha Kheirkhah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in women, estimated to affect 1 in 8 women during their lifetime. About 10% to 20% of new breast cancer cases are diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). LABC tumors are usually larger than 5 cm and/or attached to the skin or chest wall. It has been reported that when such cases are treated with surgery alone, metastasis and mortality rates are high, especially where skin involvement or attachment to the chest wall is extensive. As such, efficient treatment for this kind of breast cancer includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to ...


Development Of High Performance Cathodes: From Liquid To Solid-State Batteries, Sixu Deng Apr 2022

Development Of High Performance Cathodes: From Liquid To Solid-State Batteries, Sixu Deng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are critical for the development of electric vehicles (EVs) because of their higher operating voltages compared to other energy storage technologies. However, the development of start-of-the-art LIBs touched the ceiling because of three main challenges: safety risks, limited energy density, and high cost. Accordingly, all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLIBs) have recently emerged as promising alternative batteries for next-generation EVs because of their ability to overcome the drawbacks of conventional LIBs. Whether in conventional liquid LIBs or ASSLIBs, cathode materials are crucial in determining the overall performance. Hence, this thesis focuses on understanding the degradation mechanism of cathode interfaces ...


Carbon Injection To Support In-Situ Smouldering Remediation, Gillian Wilton Apr 2022

Carbon Injection To Support In-Situ Smouldering Remediation, Gillian Wilton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of anthropogenic contaminants that are growing increasing concern due to their associated negative health affects. The properties of PFAS result in their persistence and stability which present challenges for remediation. Activated carbon is currently the most widely used method for PFAS treatment since carbon microparticle injection can be used for in-situ treatment; however, this method does not result in PFAS destruction. Thermal treatment is a promising post-treatment method that can be used with activated carbon as long as sufficient PFAS-destroying temperatures are achieved (> 900°C). A promising in-situ thermal treatment technology is ...


Co-Gasification Of Biomass And Plastic Waste In A Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor, Islam Elghamrawy Apr 2022

Co-Gasification Of Biomass And Plastic Waste In A Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor, Islam Elghamrawy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plastics are versatile, durable, and can be manipulated to match different needs. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the importance of reducing plastic waste and is believed to be responsible for increasing the generation of plastic waste by 54,000 tons/day which was reported in 2020. Another widely available waste is biomass waste. Agriculture and agroforestry, forest and wood processing, municipal waste, and the food industry are all considered major producers of biowaste. Co-gasification is considered one of the most promising methods of chemical recycling that targets the production of syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and light hydrocarbon gases. In ...


Analysis Of Standing Seam Metal Roofs Subjected To Extreme Wind Loads, Yuchao Xia Apr 2022

Analysis Of Standing Seam Metal Roofs Subjected To Extreme Wind Loads, Yuchao Xia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Standing seam metal roof (SSMR) systems are widely used in low-rise buildings. This study aims to understand the behavior of SSMR systems, especially the failure mechanisms, under severe wind loads. Full-scale experiments conducted at Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes make it possible to examine the performance of SSMR systems with realistic dimensions and boundary conditions. The induced loads on the clips could be measured directly. The results show that there is a linear relationship between the wind pressure and clip reaction under low wind pressure (less than 500 Pa). It is found that load sharing among clips changes at ...


A Dislocation-Based Crystal Plasticity Model For Hexagonal Close-Packed Polycrystals, Omid Sedaghat Apr 2022

A Dislocation-Based Crystal Plasticity Model For Hexagonal Close-Packed Polycrystals, Omid Sedaghat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to their low neutron absorption cross-section and good corrosion properties, zirconium and its alloys have been widely used as the structural material in the core of nuclear reactors. These alloys are exposed to an intensive neutron flux which may lead to dimensional instabilities and the degradation of the mechanical properties of the alloy over the service time of the reactor. The changes in deformation behavior and mechanical properties can be traced back to the formation, evolution, and interaction of the irradiation-induced microstructural defects, e.g., point defect clusters, dislocation loops, and complex dislocation line networks. However, the materials constitutive ...


The Electrical, Thermal, And Morphological Properties Of Microinjection-Molded Polypropylene Nanocomposites, Renze Jiang Mar 2022

The Electrical, Thermal, And Morphological Properties Of Microinjection-Molded Polypropylene Nanocomposites, Renze Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Microinjection molding (µIM) exhibits significantly higher shear rates and faster cooling rates, as compared to conventional injection molding, which affect the characteristics of its final products. The effect of carbon black (CB), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) fillers on the electrical conductivity properties of microinjection-molded polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites was systematically studied. Results showed the electrical conductivity properties of PP/CNT and PP/CB microparts were significantly influenced by mold geometry. PP/CNT/CB hybrid filler microparts demonstrated synergistic increases in electrical conductivity and crystallization temperature with higher CNT loading. Morphological observations indicated significant CB and CNT phase separation ...


Learning Analytics For The Formative Assessment Of New Media Skills, Negar Shabihi Mar 2022

Learning Analytics For The Formative Assessment Of New Media Skills, Negar Shabihi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recent theories of education have shifted learning environments towards student-centred education. Also, the advancement of technology and the need for skilled individuals in different areas have led to the introduction of new media skills. Along with new pedagogies and content, these changes require new forms of assessment. However, assessment as the core of learning has not been modified as much as other educational aspects. Hence, much attention is required to develop assessment methods based on current educational requirements. To address this gap, we have implemented two data-driven systematic literature reviews to recognize the existing state of the field in the ...


The Effects Of A Porous Internal Lattice Design On The Articular Contact Mechanics Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Implants, Jessica Benitah Mar 2022

The Effects Of A Porous Internal Lattice Design On The Articular Contact Mechanics Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Implants, Jessica Benitah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasty, where one side of a joint is replaced, is a minimally invasive procedure. It allows for the preservation of native tissue, though a significant ramification is accelerated cartilage wear when articulating with high stiffness materials that do not mimic the mechanical stiffness of the native tissue. An implant that employs a lattice design can significantly lower the stiffness of a solid structure whilst maintaining strength. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of implementing a porous internal lattice structure with a thin outer shell on the articular contact mechanics, using a radial head hemiarthroplasty. It was hypothesized that ...


Evaluation Of The Impacts Of De-Icing Salts On The Performance Of Bioretention Media In Retaining Phosphorus From Urban Stormwater, Brennan S. Donado Visbal Mar 2022

Evaluation Of The Impacts Of De-Icing Salts On The Performance Of Bioretention Media In Retaining Phosphorus From Urban Stormwater, Brennan S. Donado Visbal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bioretention systems are a low impact development system that can remove pollutants such as phosphorus (P) from urban stormwater. P retention in bioretention systems is complicated in cold climate regions due to factors such as inputs of road de-icing salts. This study evaluates the impact of prolonged and periodic salt inputs on P retention by conducting column experiments using three different bioretention media with and without an amendment added. Non-amended columns showed net P release, whereas amended columns showed net P retention. While some non-amended columns showed prolonged salt exposure increases P release, the largest P release for all columns ...


Characterizing The Concurrent Occurrence Of Tornadoes And Flash Floods Across Canada, Yeu Deck Ngui Mar 2022

Characterizing The Concurrent Occurrence Of Tornadoes And Flash Floods Across Canada, Yeu Deck Ngui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Compound weather extreme events, such as tornadoes and flash floods, can significantly impact societies and infrastructure systems. Disaster response agencies provide instructions to the exposed communities to retreat to safety specific to the natural hazard. However, the instructions can become confusing if natural hazards demand conflicting responses. This study characterizes the compound tornado and flash flood (TORFF) events to assess and predict the simultaneous occurrence probability of such hazards across Canada in the long term. We quantify dependencies between the tornadoes and flash floods using ground-based and reanalysis datasets. Tornado data are available based on the recorded Fujita rating for ...


Cost-Effective Non-Destructive Testing Of Biomedical Components Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing, Santiago Fabian Cobos Mar 2022

Cost-Effective Non-Destructive Testing Of Biomedical Components Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing, Santiago Fabian Cobos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biocompatible titanium-alloys can be used to fabricate patient-specific medical components using additive manufacturing (AM). These novel components have the potential to improve clinical outcomes in various medical scenarios. However, AM introduces stability and repeatability concerns, which are potential roadblocks for its widespread use in the medical sector. Micro-CT imaging for non-destructive testing (NDT) is an effective solution for post-manufacturing quality control of these components. Unfortunately, current micro-CT NDT scanners require expensive infrastructure and hardware, which translates into prohibitively expensive routine NDT. Furthermore, the limited dynamic-range of these scanners can cause severe image artifacts that may compromise the diagnostic value of ...


The Role Of Transient Vibration Of The Skull On Concussion, Rodrigo Dalvit Carvalho Da Silva Mar 2022

The Role Of Transient Vibration Of The Skull On Concussion, Rodrigo Dalvit Carvalho Da Silva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Concussion is a traumatic brain injury usually caused by a direct or indirect blow to the head that affects brain function. The maximum mechanical impedance of the brain tissue occurs at 450±50 Hz and may be affected by the skull resonant frequencies. After an impact to the head, vibration resonance of the skull damages the underlying cortex. The skull deforms and vibrates, like a bell for 3 to 5 milliseconds, bruising the cortex. Furthermore, the deceleration forces the frontal and temporal cortex against the skull, eliminating a layer of cerebrospinal fluid. When the skull vibrates, the force spreads directly ...


Physical Investigation Of Downburst Winds And Applicability To Full Scale Events, Federico Canepa Feb 2022

Physical Investigation Of Downburst Winds And Applicability To Full Scale Events, Federico Canepa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thunderstorm winds, i.e. downbursts, are cold descending currents originating from cumulonimbus clouds which, upon the impingement on the ground, spread radially with high intensities. The downdraft phase of the storm and the subsequent radial outflow that is formed can cause major issues for aviation and immense damages to ground-mounted structures. Thunderstorm winds present characteristics completely different from the stationary Gaussian synoptic winds, which largely affect the mid-latitude areas of the globe in the form of extra-tropical cyclones. Downbursts are very localized winds in both space and time. It follows that their statistical investigation, by means of classical full scale ...


Erosion Control Of Steep Open Channels Using Articulated Concrete Blocks, Mohammadomid Marandi Feb 2022

Erosion Control Of Steep Open Channels Using Articulated Concrete Blocks, Mohammadomid Marandi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Overtopping flow can undermine the stability of hydraulic structures including embankments and spillways through the shear stress and the subsequent soil erosion. Increased flow velocity can cause scour, which can result in the failure of dams, bridges, and overall open channel hydraulic structures. Sediment transport is another crucial issue in open channels that can cause severe socioeconomic and environmental consequences. Two general approaches are commonly considered for scour prevention. The first approach involves flow modifications to minimize the corresponding effects on the structures. The second approach is associated with bed armoring and placing physical barriers on the natural bedding such ...


Autonomous Rock Segmentation From Lidar Point Clouds Using Machine Learning Approaches, Lauren E. Flanagan Feb 2022

Autonomous Rock Segmentation From Lidar Point Clouds Using Machine Learning Approaches, Lauren E. Flanagan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rover navigation on planetary surfaces currently uses a method called blind drive which requires a navigation goal as input from operators on Earth and uses camera images to autonomously detect obstacles. Images can be affected by lighting conditions, are not highly accurate from far distances, and will not work in the dark; these factors negatively impact the autonomous capabilities of rovers. By improving a rover's ability to autonomously detect obstacles, the capabilities of rovers in future missions would improve; for example, enabling exploration of permanently shadowed regions, and allowing faster driving speeds and farther travel distances. This thesis demonstrates ...


Material Characterization Of Compression Molded Composites, Broderic Clement-Thorne Feb 2022

Material Characterization Of Compression Molded Composites, Broderic Clement-Thorne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Composite materials are widely used in the automotive industry to keep cost and weight down. The ability to simulate the fabrication of parts is an important way to use resources effectively. The molding process can also have very dramatic effects on material properties. These properties are determined by the microstructure of the polymer composite material, including the length, concentration, and orientation of the fibers used as reinforcement. Therefore this study seeks to characterize the material properties of a long glass fiber reinforced polyamide composite, the effects of molding conditions on those material properties, and characterization of the microstructure of the ...


The Influence Of Frontal And Axial Plane Deformities On Contact Mechanics During Squatting: A Finite Element Study, Yidan Xu Jan 2022

The Influence Of Frontal And Axial Plane Deformities On Contact Mechanics During Squatting: A Finite Element Study, Yidan Xu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Lower limb malalignment was a risky factor leading to KOA, altering the load distributions. This study aimed to study the influence of knee deformities on knee contact mechanics and knee kinematics during squatting. A full-leg squat FE model was developed based on general open-source models and validated with in vivo studies to investigate the outputs under frontal malalignment (valgus 8° to varus 8°) and axial malalignment (miserable malalignment 30°). As a result, Varus-aligned and miserable aligned models increased medial tibiofemoral force and lateral patellar contact ...


An Investigation Of Porous Materials For The Capture Of Concentrated Solar Energy, Elizabeth Blokker Jan 2022

An Investigation Of Porous Materials For The Capture Of Concentrated Solar Energy, Elizabeth Blokker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fossil fuel usage is resulting in climate change. There is a need to switch to renewable energies, but existing technologies lack the efficiency for wide-scale adoption. Concentrating solar energy to a receiver using a parabolic reflector is an efficient method of converting sunlight into thermal energy at a high efficiency. Current receivers suffer efficiency challenges due to significant re-radiation losses as they reach a high temperature at the front surface. This project is focused on the creation of a computational model to simulate the radiation heat transfer in porous geometries, which can be used to optimize the geometric properties of ...


Behaviour Of Transmission Line Conductors Under Tornadoes, Dingyu Yao Dec 2021

Behaviour Of Transmission Line Conductors Under Tornadoes, Dingyu Yao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transmission line (TL) structure failures caused by tornadoes have been observed in multiple countries around the globe. The objective of this study is to develop an accurate load case that can simulate the critical tornado forces transmitted from the TL conductors to the towers. In order to achieve the goal, three different tornado wind fields, which were previously developed using computational fluid dynamic simulations, are considered. The tornado wind field provides the most critical forces on the TL conductors is determined and considered to obtain the critical load cases. Using the critical wind field, parametric studies are conducted to identify ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Ligament Modelling Techniques And Femoral Component Malrotation Following Tka, Liam A. Montgomery Dec 2021

Biomechanical Analysis Of Ligament Modelling Techniques And Femoral Component Malrotation Following Tka, Liam A. Montgomery

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous studies have demonstrated that satisfaction and revision rates following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are lower than those of comparable surgeries such as total hip replacements. A leading cause for these revisions is joint instability which may be due to improper ligament balancing or poorly aligned surgical implants. One of the methods used to investigate biomechanical forces and kinematics is computational modelling of the post-operative TKA knee.

A unique knee model was used to investigate the biomechanical and kinematic effects of ligament model complexity, as well as the effects of simulating ligament wrapping versus ignoring ligament wrapping. We then used ...


Seizure Detection Using Deep Learning, Information Theoretic Measures And Factor Graphs, Bahareh Salafian Dec 2021

Seizure Detection Using Deep Learning, Information Theoretic Measures And Factor Graphs, Bahareh Salafian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that disrupts normal electrical activity in the brain causing severe impact on patients’ daily lives. Accurate seizure detection based on long-term time-series electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has gained vital importance for epileptic seizure diagnosis. However, visual analysis of these recordings is a time-consuming task for neurologists. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to propose an automatic hybrid model-based /data-driven algorithm that exploits inter-channel and temporal correlations. Hence, we use mutual information (MI) estimator to compute correlation between EEG channels as spatial features and employ a carefully designed 1D convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract ...


Thermochemical Conversion Of Plastic To Value Added Products, Anastasia L. Maslak Dec 2021

Thermochemical Conversion Of Plastic To Value Added Products, Anastasia L. Maslak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this study, the use of pyrolytic cracking for managing non-recyclable plastic waste by conversion into value-added liquid and gaseous products was investigated. A single-stage reactor and a novel, two-stage reactor set-up were used for experiments involving polyethylene and polypropylene. Parameters including feedstock composition, feed rate, temperature and residence time were studied. The two-stage approach was investigated to overcome existing transportation limitations involved in the typical plastic waste lifecycle. Bulky plastic collected in towns and cities must be transported to industrial facilities typically located elsewhere for reprocessing. Both HDPE and LDPE showed promising results for olefin recovery with ethylene gas ...


Seismic Response Of Driven And Helical Piles In Non-Liquefiable And Liquefiable Soils, Ahmed Fouad Hussein Dec 2021

Seismic Response Of Driven And Helical Piles In Non-Liquefiable And Liquefiable Soils, Ahmed Fouad Hussein

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The thesis investigates the nonlinear soil-pile-structure interaction through three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models (FEM) employing the OpenSees platform. The FEMs were validated with the results of large-scale shaking table tests of model pile groups-superstructure systems in dry and saturated sand and large-scale field tests on single piles installed in cohesive soil. The numerical models correctly predicted the different pile deformation modes that were exhibited in the experiments. The results illustrated that the inertial interaction contributed to the bending moments at the pile top, while the kinematic interaction contributed to the bending moment at the layers interface. In addition, the excess ...


Precision Grasp Planning For Integrated Arm-Hand Systems, Shuwei Qiu Dec 2021

Precision Grasp Planning For Integrated Arm-Hand Systems, Shuwei Qiu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The demographic shift has caused labor shortages across the world, and it seems inevitable to rely on robots more than ever to fill the widening gap in the workforce. The robotic replacement of human workers necessitates the ability of autonomous grasping as the most natural but rather a vital part of almost all activities. Among different types of grasping, fingertip grasping attracts much attention because of its superior performance for dexterous manipulation. This thesis contributes to autonomous fingertip grasping in four areas including hand-eye calibration, grasp quality evaluation, inverse kinematics (IK) solution of robotic arm-hand systems, and simultaneous achievement of ...


Characterization Of Material For Composite Automotive Components, Thomas J. Chang Dec 2021

Characterization Of Material For Composite Automotive Components, Thomas J. Chang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A composite had been widely used for the lightweighting purpose amid increasing environmental concerns. Among composite manufacturing processes, compression molding is widely used for automotive parts. During compression molding, the mold geometry and molding process conditions significantly influence the fiber configuration and the mechanical performance.

Hence, this thesis aims to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the complex shaped composite automotive components: outer seatback and inner seatback. Both parts were compression molded using commercial glass mat thermoplastic sheet with long glass fibers (30mm-50mm) embedded in the polyamide resin. The microstructural characterization results showed that the microstructural properties are influenced ...