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Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Behavior And Temporal-Based Effects Of Sustainable Self-Consolidating Concrete In Bridge Structures, Hayder Hussein Alghazali Jan 2018

Behavior And Temporal-Based Effects Of Sustainable Self-Consolidating Concrete In Bridge Structures, Hayder Hussein Alghazali

Doctoral Dissertations

"The main objective of this study was to investigate the performance of sustainable self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for highway bridge structures. Two types of concrete were utilized in this study: high volume fly ash-self consolidating concrete (HVFA-SCC) and high strength-self consolidating concrete (HS-SCC). This dissertation consists of two major parts: a laboratory study developing and investigating the overall performance of HVFA-SCC and a field study of time-dependent field-based behavior of HS-SCC in Bridge A7957 MO, USA. In the first part, an experimental program was conducted to develop a new class of SCC incorporating up to 70% cement replacement with fly ash ...


Strengthening Of Reinforced Masonry Walls Subjected To Out-Of-Plane Pseudo-Static Cyclic Load Using Advanced Composite, Zuhair Al-Jaberi Jan 2018

Strengthening Of Reinforced Masonry Walls Subjected To Out-Of-Plane Pseudo-Static Cyclic Load Using Advanced Composite, Zuhair Al-Jaberi

Doctoral Dissertations

"A number of researchers have conducted experimental tests on unreinforced masonry walls (URM) strengthened with advanced composite materials. Consequently, the strengthening design guidelines are limited in their scope to URM. This research aimed to investigate the behavior of reinforced masonry walls strengthened with advanced composite and subjected to out-of-plane pseudo-static cyclic load. Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of different techniques such as near surface mounted (NSM) and externally bonded (EB) fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) with epoxy resin, in addition to NSM with cementitious adhesive and fiber reinforced cementitious material (FRCM). The experimental part included three ...


Process Simulation And Experimental Investigation Of Biofuel Production In A High Rate Anaerobic Digestion Process, Haider Al-Rubaye Jan 2018

Process Simulation And Experimental Investigation Of Biofuel Production In A High Rate Anaerobic Digestion Process, Haider Al-Rubaye

Doctoral Dissertations

"The non-hazardous waste management hierarchy of the US EPA calls for “Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle” (or the three R’s) of wastes. The anaerobic digestion process is one of the most important methods that used to treat the wastes and at the same time generate energy out of it. The anaerobic digestion process generates a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide gases which is known as biogas.

The biogas composition is about 50-70% methane and 10-30% of carbon dioxide and trace amount of other gases like hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. This biogas can be used in power generation, heating systems ...


Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen Jan 2018

Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"A foil-based additive manufacturing technology for fabricating metal parts, called Laser Foil Printing (LFP), was proposed and developed in this dissertation. The manufacturing sub-processes comprising the LFP technology were comprehensively studied, which include the laser spot welding of foil, laser raster-scan welding of foil, laser cutting of foil, and laser polishing processes. The fabricated free-form parts were demonstrated and own better mechanical properties (micro hardness and tensile strength) than the raw material, because of the rapid-cooling process of laser welding. The full and strong bond between layers was formed by the laser welding process, with no micro-cracks or pores observed ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"Over the past decades of years, a great deal of money has been spent to machine large and complex parts from high-performance metals (i.e., titanium components for aerospace applications), so users attempt to circumvent the high cost of materials. Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating complicated structures with superior properties. This dissertation aims to improve the applications of LMD technique for manufacturing metallic components by using various elemental powder mixture according to the following three categories of research topics. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cost-effective possibility by using ...


Chemistry, Design, And Processing Of Two-Stage Trip Steel, Daniel M. Field Jan 2018

Chemistry, Design, And Processing Of Two-Stage Trip Steel, Daniel M. Field

Doctoral Dissertations

"A regular solution model was developed to calculate the chemical driving force for α-martensite formation, ΔGλ→ αChem. A model for the strain energy, ΔGλ→αstr, was formulated utilizing the Young’s modulus (E), lattice misfit squared (δ²), and molar volume (Ω) which opposed the chemical driving force for α-martensite formation. The MαS was determined at a temperature at which ΔGλ→αChem + ΔGλ→αstr = 0. In conjunction with a previously developed ε-martensite model, a means of predicting the volume fraction of λ-austenite was determined; and it was shown that for values ...


Geomechanical Characterizations And Correlations To Reduce Uncertainties Of Carbonate Reservoir Analysis, Farqad Hadi Jan 2018

Geomechanical Characterizations And Correlations To Reduce Uncertainties Of Carbonate Reservoir Analysis, Farqad Hadi

Doctoral Dissertations

"Although carbonate reservoirs hold a wealth of hydrocarbon, they are among the most difficult types of reservoirs to be characterized. Carbonate reservoirs by nature have complex depositional environments and diagenetic processes in which brittle, ductile, fractured rocks, and vugular pores may all exist within small interval. This huge variance in the rock mechanical properties can cause challenges in the reservoir's development, especially in applications related to geomechanics.

The main objective of this research is to geomechanically characterize and correlate the carbonate mechanical properties with their petrophysical properties. A comprehensive review for the geomechanical-petrophysical properties of carbonates was conducted from ...


Gis-Based Spatial Analysis Coupled With Geophysical Imaging To Identify And Evaluate Factors That Control The Formation Of Karst Sinkholes In Southwestern Missouri, Shishay T. Kidanu Jan 2018

Gis-Based Spatial Analysis Coupled With Geophysical Imaging To Identify And Evaluate Factors That Control The Formation Of Karst Sinkholes In Southwestern Missouri, Shishay T. Kidanu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Sinkholes are inherent features of the karst terrain underlying much of Greene County, Missouri. These features present hazards and engineering challenges to existing infrastructure unknowingly constructed on a seemingly benign ground surface. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the physical processes chiefly responsible for triggering the seemingly random distribution of sinkholes in the study area. This research employed an integrated approach encompassing regional scale GIS-based spatial analyses and site-specific geophysical data. GIS-based spatial analysis was employed to identify significant physical factors that appeared to influence the formation and distribution of sinkholes. Seven out of the twelve most ...


Guayule Plant Extracts As Binder Modifiers In Flexible (Asphalt) Pavement Mixtures, Steven Michael Lusher Jan 2018

Guayule Plant Extracts As Binder Modifiers In Flexible (Asphalt) Pavement Mixtures, Steven Michael Lusher

Doctoral Dissertations

"The guayule (pronounced, 'why-YOO-lee') plant is a woody perennial shrub that is native to areas of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and is a well-documented source of high-quality natural rubber. The U.S. needs a domestic source of natural rubber to allay concerns about its future availability. Cultivation of guayule in North America has been attempted many times since the late 19th century, and companies, including major tire manufacturers, are again investing in guayule research. However, full-scale commercialization of guayule rubber needs established markets for the two basic by-products of guayule rubber extraction: the plant resins (primarily non-rubber ...


Analyzing Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction Using The Kano Model, Tejaswi Materla Jan 2018

Analyzing Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction Using The Kano Model, Tejaswi Materla

Doctoral Dissertations

"Customer needs associated with the healthcare sector are constantly evolving with the technological advancements, rising costs, and shifts in patient demographics. Challenges associated with understanding patient needs impact the quality of care and life, safety, and satisfaction. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology to collect and analyze the needs associated with healthcare units that differ based on the type of care and services and patient perceptions over time. The proposed methodology provides insights into the voice of the customer through visualization of the relationship between the performance of quality attributes and customer satisfaction. Cronbach's alpha ...


Characterization Of Triboelectric Charging In Data Centers/Display Panel Manufactures, And Emi Visualization Based On Energy Parcels Method In High Speed Interconnections, Atieh Talebzadehghahroudi Jan 2018

Characterization Of Triboelectric Charging In Data Centers/Display Panel Manufactures, And Emi Visualization Based On Energy Parcels Method In High Speed Interconnections, Atieh Talebzadehghahroudi

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation is composed of five papers. In the first three papers, triboelectric charging, which is the underlying cause of most electrostatic discharge (ESD), during daily human activities in data centers such as well-defined pattern walking, random walking, standing up from a chair, and taking off a sweater is investigated. Further, the effect of environmental condition (temperature and relative humidity), the footwear, and flooring material in building the static voltage and the discharge process are studied.

In the fourth paper, triboelectric charge generation on the glass is investigated during the glass transportation by roller conveyor systems in display manufacturing. The ...


Mitigation Of Environmental Hazards Of Sulfide Mineral Flotation With An Insight Into Froth Stability And Flotation Performance, Muhammad Badar Hayat Jan 2018

Mitigation Of Environmental Hazards Of Sulfide Mineral Flotation With An Insight Into Froth Stability And Flotation Performance, Muhammad Badar Hayat

Doctoral Dissertations

"Today's major challenges facing the flotation of sulfide minerals involve constant variability in the ore composition; environmental concerns; water scarcity and inefficient plant performance. The present work addresses these challenges faced by the flotation process of complex sulfide ore of Mississippi Valley type with an insight into the froth stability and the flotation performance. The first project in this study was aimed at finding the optimum conditions for the bulk flotation of galena (PbS) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS₂) through Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In the second project, an attempt was made to replace toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) with the biodegradable ...


Electrodeposited Semiconductor Nanostructures & Epitaxial Thin Films For Flexible Electronics, Naveen Kumar Mahenderkar Jan 2018

Electrodeposited Semiconductor Nanostructures & Epitaxial Thin Films For Flexible Electronics, Naveen Kumar Mahenderkar

Doctoral Dissertations

"Single-crystal Si is the bedrock of semiconductor devices due to the high crystalline perfection which minimizes electron-hole recombination, and the dense native silicon oxide which minimizes surface states. To expand the palette of electronic materials beyond planar Si, an inexpensive source of highly ordered material is needed that can serve as an inert substrate for the epitaxial growth of grain boundary-free semiconductors, photonic materials, and superconductors. There is also a need for a simple, inexpensive, and scalable fabrication technique for the growth of semiconductor nanostructures and thin films. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of semiconducting nanowires (polycrystalline Ge & epitaxial ...


The Separation Of Shear-Driven Liquid Films From A Sharp Corner, Zahra Sadeghizadeh Jan 2018

The Separation Of Shear-Driven Liquid Films From A Sharp Corner, Zahra Sadeghizadeh

Doctoral Dissertations

"The separation of shear-driven liquid films occurs in many engineering applications such as port fuel injected engines, demisters, and gas transfer lines. Despite the importance of this problem, the details of the interaction between operating parameters such as liquid flow rate, gas velocities and liquid film properties on the forces at the expanding corner are still not clear. To enhance the insight on the complicated interaction between the gas and liquid phases, the shear-driven liquid flow around a corner has been studied both experimentally and analytically in this work. The effect of the complex liquid film structure on liquid mass ...


Multi-Scale Investigation Of Microstructure, Fiber-Matrix Bond, And Mechanical Properties Of Ultra-High Performance Concrete, Zemei Wu Jan 2018

Multi-Scale Investigation Of Microstructure, Fiber-Matrix Bond, And Mechanical Properties Of Ultra-High Performance Concrete, Zemei Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

"The main objective of this study is to provide new insights into enhancing fiber-matrix bond and mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Three main strategies were investigated: 1) use of supplementary cementitious materials; 2) use of nano-particles; and 3) use of deformed fibers. A multi-scale investigation involving the evaluation of non-fibrous UHPC mortar phase (matrix), fiber-matrix interface phase, and then UHPC composite material was undertaken to determine microstructural characteristics, fiber bond to matrix, and key mechanical properties of the UHPC matrix and UHPC. Test results indicate that the incorporation of 10%-20% silica fume effectively improved the fiber-matrix bond ...


Comprehensive Evaluation Of A Novel Eor Method-Coupling Low Salinity Water Flooding And Preformed Particle Gel To Enhance Oil Recovery In Fractured Reservoirs, Ali K. Alhuraishawy Jan 2018

Comprehensive Evaluation Of A Novel Eor Method-Coupling Low Salinity Water Flooding And Preformed Particle Gel To Enhance Oil Recovery In Fractured Reservoirs, Ali K. Alhuraishawy

Doctoral Dissertations

"Excess water production in oil fields is becoming a challenging economic and environmental problem as more reservoirs are maturing. Water channeling, one of the primary reservoir conformance problems, is caused by reservoir heterogeneities that lead to the development of high-permeability streaks. The recovery of oil from carbonate reservoirs is usually low due to their extreme heterogeneity caused by natural fractures and the nature of oil-wet matrix. Also, oil recovery from fractured sandstone reservoirs is often low due to areal heterogeneity. Gel treatments have proven to be a successful and inexpensive fluid diversion method when used to plug the thief zones ...


Investigation Of The Hydrodynamics And Scale-Up Of Advanced Triso Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Using Sophisticated Measurement Techniques, Thaar M. Aljuwaya Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Hydrodynamics And Scale-Up Of Advanced Triso Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Using Sophisticated Measurement Techniques, Thaar M. Aljuwaya

Doctoral Dissertations

"The successful performance and safety of the Very-High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors (VHTR) extremely depend on the quality of the TRISO nuclear fuel coated particles. However, the coating of the TRISO particles is delicate process and impacted by the hydrodynamics of spouted beds. Therefore, in this work, we applied advanced non-invasive measurement techniques which are gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT), to investigate foremost the local parameters to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics and scale-up of gas-solid spouted beds. The CT technique has been applied to study the effects of particle density, particle size, bed size, and ...


Data Analytics For Stochastic Control And Prognostics In Cyber-Physical Systems, Shanshan Bi Jan 2018

Data Analytics For Stochastic Control And Prognostics In Cyber-Physical Systems, Shanshan Bi

Doctoral Dissertations

"In this dissertation, several novel cyber fault diagnosis and prognosis and defense methodologies for cyber-physical systems have been proposed. First, a novel routing scheme for wireless mesh network is proposed. An effective capacity estimation for P2P and E2E path is designed to guarantee the vital transmission safety. This scheme can ensure a high quality of service (QoS) under imperfect network condition, even cyber attacks. Then, the imperfection, uncertainties, and dynamics in the cyberspace are considered both in system model and controller design. A PDF identifier is proposed to capture the time-varying delays and its distribution. With the modification of traditional ...


Machine Learning Techniques Implementation In Power Optimization, Data Processing, And Bio-Medical Applications, Khalid Khairullah Mezied Al-Jabery Jan 2018

Machine Learning Techniques Implementation In Power Optimization, Data Processing, And Bio-Medical Applications, Khalid Khairullah Mezied Al-Jabery

Doctoral Dissertations

"The rapid progress and development in machine-learning algorithms becomes a key factor in determining the future of humanity. These algorithms and techniques were utilized to solve a wide spectrum of problems extended from data mining and knowledge discovery to unsupervised learning and optimization. This dissertation consists of two study areas. The first area investigates the use of reinforcement learning and adaptive critic design algorithms in the field of power grid control. The second area in this dissertation, consisting of three papers, focuses on developing and applying clustering algorithms on biomedical data. The first paper presents a novel modelling approach for ...


Computational Design And Numerical Analyses Of Thermal-Hydraulics In A Pwr-Type Small Modular Nuclear Reactor, Vivek Murlidhar Rao Jan 2018

Computational Design And Numerical Analyses Of Thermal-Hydraulics In A Pwr-Type Small Modular Nuclear Reactor, Vivek Murlidhar Rao

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation focuses on computational design of a PWR-type small modular nuclear reactor (SMR), and analysis of coolant thermal-hydraulics during steady-state operation. Physical design of the SMR is based on the existing AP-1000 and Small Modular Reactor designs by Westinghouse Nuclear.

The first paper discusses a two-stage simulation of turbulent flow in the lower plenum of the RPV. In the first stage, four time-dependent Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based turbulence models were used to simulate turbulent flow, compare predictions and identify an appropriate turbulence model. In the second stage, the selected turbulence model was once again used to simulate flow on ...


The Significance Of Grouping And Missed Bubbles On Interfacial Area Concentration And Void Fraction, Chandller Stephen-Leslie Mills Jan 2018

The Significance Of Grouping And Missed Bubbles On Interfacial Area Concentration And Void Fraction, Chandller Stephen-Leslie Mills

Doctoral Dissertations

"The two-fluid model is used in nuclear reactor safety codes. Two of the important constitutive relations will be discussed in this study, the interfacial area concentration and void fraction. The Interfacial area concentration is directly affected by the number of bubbles and how these bubbles are categorized into groups. In this study, a new algorithm was implemented to account for trailing bubbles, bubbles with short response times, and the categorization of bubbles based upon diameter for all group 1 bubbles. The optical and conductivity probes were used to determine the void fraction and interfacial area concentration in a bubble column ...


Power Laws In Complex Graphs: Parsimonious Generative Models, Similarity Testing Algorithms, And The Origins, Shan Lu Jan 2018

Power Laws In Complex Graphs: Parsimonious Generative Models, Similarity Testing Algorithms, And The Origins, Shan Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation mainly discussed topics related to power law graphs, including graph similarity testing algorithms and power law generative models.

For graph similarity testing, we proposed a method based on the mathematical theory of diffusion over manifolds using random walks over graphs. We show that our method not only distinguishes between graphs with different degree distributions, but also graphs with the same degree distributions. We compare the undirected power law graphs generated by Barabasi-Albert model and directed power law graphs generated by Krapivsky's model to the random graphs generated by Erdos-Renyi model. We also compare power law graphs generated ...


Surface Functionalization Of Fabrics And Threads For Smart Textiles, Morgan Baima Jan 2018

Surface Functionalization Of Fabrics And Threads For Smart Textiles, Morgan Baima

Doctoral Dissertations

The future of electronics is moving toward wearable devices and therefore requires a shift away from hard, inflexible materials towards fibers, threads, and fabrics that conform to the shape of the body. Therefore new methods for incorporating textiles as electronic components are needed to replace conventional processing techniques used with smooth, flat substrates like glass, silicon, and many polymers. Toward this end, this work investigates different methods that can be used to tune textile surfaces for electronic functionality, including weaving, solution grafting, and initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). While all of these methods were used to make triboelectrically-active textiles, iCVD ...


Increasing Organic Semiconductor Performance Through Chemical And Processing Modifications, Edmund Burnett Jan 2018

Increasing Organic Semiconductor Performance Through Chemical And Processing Modifications, Edmund Burnett

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis focuses on tuning molecular packing of organic semiconductors through processing or chemical modifications to increase performance and establish structure-property relationships. Chapter 2 utilizes differing processing techniques to alter the molecular packing of bistetracene in the thin film and thorough polymorph characterization to relate the modification of molecular packing to the increase in charge mobility and mechanism. Chapter 3 introduces the oligomer as a model system to resolve issues that would be difficult or impossible using polymeric systems, due to their monodispersity and increased crystallinity allows for more detailed structural characterization. In this chapter we determine a crystal packing ...


A New Signal Processing Method For Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Data Analysis, Charles Mborah Jan 2018

A New Signal Processing Method For Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Data Analysis, Charles Mborah

Doctoral Dissertations

"The acoustic emission/microseismic technique (AE/MS) has emerged as one of the most important techniques in recent decades and has found wide applications in different fields. Extraction of seismic event with precise timing is the first step and also the foundation for processing AE/MS signals. However, this process remains a challenging task for most AE/MS applications. The process has generally been performed by human analysts. However, manual processing is time consuming and subjective. These challenges continue to provide motivation for the search for new and innovative ways to improve the signal processing needs of the AE/MS ...


The Effect Of Overloading On Reliability Of Wheel Loader Structural Components, Eric Raymond Achelpohl Jan 2018

The Effect Of Overloading On Reliability Of Wheel Loader Structural Components, Eric Raymond Achelpohl

Doctoral Dissertations

"This research attempts to provide a fundamental understanding into the relationship between the productivity of material handling equipment, specifically wheel loaders, and their ability to operate reliably when subjected to high overload conditions. The overall aim is to determine the effect of overloading the bucket on wheel loader reliability. The specific objectives of the research are to: 1) evaluate the effect of overloading the bucket on wheel loader productivity; 2) examine the effect of overloading the bucket on hydraulic pressures in the hoist cylinders (used as a proxy for forces on a wheel loader); and 3) investigate the effect of ...


Torsional Behavior Of Rc Beams Strengthened With Pbo-Frcm Composite, Meyyada Y. Alabdulhady Jan 2018

Torsional Behavior Of Rc Beams Strengthened With Pbo-Frcm Composite, Meyyada Y. Alabdulhady

Doctoral Dissertations

"Externally bonded fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites have been investigated recently as an alternative to fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites to overcome certain shortcomings such as the inability to install on wet surfaces or in low temperatures, low fire resistance, low glass transition temperature, low reversibility, and lack of vapor permeability. This study includes an inclusive investigation of the torsional behavior of RC beams strengthened with externally bonded polyparaphenylene benzo-bisoxazole (PBO)-FRCM composite material. A comprehensive review and discussion of the previous experimental, analytical, and numerically-simulated torsional behavior of RC beams strengthened with FRP composite was introduced to gain ...


Adaptive Dynamic Programming With Eligibility Traces And Complexity Reduction Of High-Dimensional Systems, Seaar Jawad Kadhim Al-Dabooni Jan 2018

Adaptive Dynamic Programming With Eligibility Traces And Complexity Reduction Of High-Dimensional Systems, Seaar Jawad Kadhim Al-Dabooni

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation investigates the application of a variety of computational intelligence techniques, particularly clustering and adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) designs especially heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual heuristic programming (DHP). Moreover, a one-step temporal-difference (TD(0)) and n-step TD (TD(λ)) with their gradients are utilized as learning algorithms to train and online-adapt the families of ADP. The dissertation is organized into seven papers. The first paper demonstrates the robustness of model order reduction (MOR) for simulating complex dynamical systems. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on performance evaluation is introduced for MOR. This method computes the reduced order denominator of ...


Deep Learning And Localized Features Fusion For Medical Image Classification, Haidar A. Almubarak Jan 2018

Deep Learning And Localized Features Fusion For Medical Image Classification, Haidar A. Almubarak

Doctoral Dissertations

"Local image features play an important role in many classification tasks as translation and rotation do not severely deteriorate the classification process. They have been commonly used for medical image analysis. In medical applications, it is important to get accurate diagnosis/aid results in the fastest time possible.

This dissertation tries to tackle these problems, first by developing a localized feature-based classification system for medical images and using these features and to give a classification for the entire image, and second, by improving the computational complexity of feature analysis to make it viable as a diagnostic aid system in practical ...


Imaging And Mitigating Karst Features, Kenneth Joseph Bansah Jan 2018

Imaging And Mitigating Karst Features, Kenneth Joseph Bansah

Doctoral Dissertations

"Over the last three years, a comprehensive subsurface investigation that combines both conventional and geophysical techniques has been conducted near Springfield in southwest Missouri, United States. This study, which forms part of the comprehensive subsurface investigation, aimed to (1) image and characterize the subsurface, (2) map variations in engineering properties of soil/rock, (3) map variable depth to top of rock, (4) explore the utility of the geophysical techniques, (5) determine the factors contributing to karst processes, and (6) propose karst mitigation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) were employed for the acquisition of subsurface ...