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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

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Stomatal Conductance Measurement For Toxicity Assessment In Zero-Effluent Constructed Wetlands: Effects Of Landfill Leachate On Hydrophytes, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Piotr Manczarski Feb 2019

Stomatal Conductance Measurement For Toxicity Assessment In Zero-Effluent Constructed Wetlands: Effects Of Landfill Leachate On Hydrophytes, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Piotr Manczarski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, we explore for the first time the use of leaf stomatal conductance (gs) for phytotoxicity assessment. Plants respond to stress by regulating transpiration. Transpiration can be correlated with stomatal conductance when the water vapor pressure gradient for transpiration is constant. Thus, our working hypothesis was that the gs measurement could be a useful indicator of the effect of toxic compounds on plants. This lab-scale study aimed to test the measurement of gs as a phytotoxicity indicator. Our model plants were two common hydrophytes used in zero-effluent constructed wetlands for treating landfill leachate. The toxic influence of two ...


Data Evidencing Slow Anaerobic Digestion In Emergency Treatment And Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, Lam T. Nguyen Feb 2019

Data Evidencing Slow Anaerobic Digestion In Emergency Treatment And Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, Lam T. Nguyen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Burial of infectious and potentially infectious livestock and poultry animals is the most common response to an emergency situation. The data set summarizes 22-week-long experiment that simulates the environment found within conventional burial trenches for emergency disposal of animal carcasses, worldwide, sometimes with a topical application of quicklime as it is required in the Republic of Korea. This data set shows the rarely presented evidence of the extremely slow decay of animal carcasses. Besides visual evidence of no visible breakdown of carcass material, i.e., carcass (or carcass quarters and coarse cuts) still resembled the initial material at the end ...


Modeling Solid-Phase Microextraction Of Volatile Organic Compounds By Porous Coatings Using Finite Element Analysis, Bulat Kenessov, Miras Derbissalin, Jacek A. Koziel, Dmitry S. Kosyakov Jan 2019

Modeling Solid-Phase Microextraction Of Volatile Organic Compounds By Porous Coatings Using Finite Element Analysis, Bulat Kenessov, Miras Derbissalin, Jacek A. Koziel, Dmitry S. Kosyakov

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Experimental optimization of analytical methods based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a complex and labor-intensive process associated with uncertainties. Using theoretical basics of SPME and finite element analysis software for the optimization proved to be an efficient alternative. In this study, an improved finite element analysis-based model for SPME of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by porous coatings was developed mainly focussing on the mass transport in coatings. Benzene and the Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (Car/PDMS) coating were used as the model VOC and a porous SPME coating, respectively. It has been established that in the coating, volumetric fractions of Carboxen, PDMS ...


Development Of Time-Weighted Average Sampling Of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds In Air With Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber Housed Inside A Gc Glass Liner: Proof Of Concept, Madina Tursumbayeva, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer, Bulat Kenessov, Somchai Rice Jan 2019

Development Of Time-Weighted Average Sampling Of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds In Air With Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber Housed Inside A Gc Glass Liner: Proof Of Concept, Madina Tursumbayeva, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer, Bulat Kenessov, Somchai Rice

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Finding farm-proven, robust sampling technologies for measurement of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and evaluating the mitigation of nuisance emissions continues to be a challenge. The objective of this research was to develop a new method for quantification of odorous VOCs in air using time-weighted average (TWA) sampling. The main goal was to transform a fragile lab-based technology (i.e., solid-phase microextraction, SPME) into a rugged sampler that can be deployed for longer periods in remote locations. The developed method addresses the need to improve conventional TWA SPME that suffers from the influence of the metallic SPME needle on the ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Waste To Carbon: Influence Of Structural Modification On Voc Emission Kinetics From Stored Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Waste To Carbon: Influence Of Structural Modification On Voc Emission Kinetics From Stored Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The torrefaction of municipal solid waste is one of the solutions related to the Waste to Carbon concept, where high-quality fuel—carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF)—is produced. An identified potential problem is the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during CRDF storage. Kinetic emission parameters have not yet been determined. It was also shown that CRDF can be pelletized for energy densification and reduced volume during storage and transportation. Thus, our working hypothesis was that structural modification (via pelletization) might mitigate VOC emissions and influence emission kinetics during CRDF storage. Two scenarios of CRDF structural modification on VOC emission kinetics ...


Torrefaction Of Sewage Sludge: Kinetics And Fuel Properties Of Biochars, Jakub Pulka, Piotr Manczarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jan 2019

Torrefaction Of Sewage Sludge: Kinetics And Fuel Properties Of Biochars, Jakub Pulka, Piotr Manczarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

We propose a ‘Waste to Carbon’ thermal transformation of sewage sludge (SS) via torrefaction to a valuable product (fuel) with a high content of carbon. One important, technological aspect to develop this concept is the determination of activation energy needed for torrefaction. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the kinetics of SS torrefaction and determine the effects of process temperature on fuel properties of torrefied products (biochars). Torrefaction was performed using high ash content SS at six (200~300 °C) temperatures and 60 min residence (process) time. Mass loss during torrefaction ranged from 10~20%. The resulting activation energy for ...


Evaluation Of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo From Cold-Hardy Grapes During Ripening Using Spme And Gc-Ms: A Proof-Of-Concept, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo From Cold-Hardy Grapes During Ripening Using Spme And Gc-Ms: A Proof-Of-Concept, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, we propose a novel concept for a non-destructive evaluation of volatiles emitted from ripening grapes using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). This concept is novel to both the traditional vinifera grapes and the cold-hardy cultivars. Our sample models are cold-hardy varieties in the upper Midwest for which many of the basic multiyear grape flavor and wine style data is needed. Non-destructive sampling included a use of polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) chambers temporarily enclosing and concentrating volatiles emitted by a whole cluster of grapes on a vine and a modified 2 mL glass vial for a vacuum-assisted sampling of volatiles from ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe Dec 2018

Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Application of swine manure to agricultural land allows recycling of plant nutrients, but excess nitrate, phosphorus and fecal bacteria impact surface and drainage water quality. While agronomic and water quality impacts are well studied, little is known about the impact of swine manure slurry on soil microbial communities. We applied swine manure to intact soil columns collected from plots maintained under chisel plow or no-till with corn and soybean rotation. Targeted 16S-rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize and to identify shifts in bacterial communities in soil over 108 days after swine manure application. In addition, six simulated rainfalls were ...


Catchment-Scale Phosphorus Export Through Surface And Drainage Pathways, Conrad E. Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir, Leigh Ann M. Long, Matthew J. Helmers, Charles D. Ikenberry, Amy L. Kaleita Dec 2018

Catchment-Scale Phosphorus Export Through Surface And Drainage Pathways, Conrad E. Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir, Leigh Ann M. Long, Matthew J. Helmers, Charles D. Ikenberry, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The site-specific nature of P fate and transport in drained areas exemplifies the need for additional data to guide implementation of conservation practices at the catchment scale. Total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total suspended solids (TSS) were monitored at five sites—two streams, two tile outlets, and a grassed waterway—in three agricultural subwatersheds (221.2–822.5 ha) draining to Black Hawk Lake in western Iowa. Median TP concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 1.490 and 0.008 to 0.055 mg P L−1 for event and baseflow samples, respectively. The majority of P ...


Effects Of Litter Floor Access And Inclusion Of Experienced Hens In Aviary Housing On Floor Eggs, Litter Condition, Air Quality, And Hen Welfare, Jofran L. Oliveira, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Suzanne T. Millman Dec 2018

Effects Of Litter Floor Access And Inclusion Of Experienced Hens In Aviary Housing On Floor Eggs, Litter Condition, Air Quality, And Hen Welfare, Jofran L. Oliveira, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Suzanne T. Millman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

To better understand how relevant intensive systems’ characteristics simultaneously affect the performance and welfare of broiler chickens, a meta-analysis of recent literature was carried out. The study determined the effects of gender, genetics, experimental initial age (EIA, d), stocking density (SD; kg/m2), group size (GS; n), bedding material (yes/no), duration of photoperiod (DP; h), divided scotoperiod (yes/no), feeding phases (1/2/3/>3), environmental control (EC; yes/no), environmental enrichment (yes/no), use of vaccines and other medications (yes/no), experimental duration (d), and relevant 2-way interactions on average daily gain (g/d), average daily feed intake ...


Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel Dec 2018

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types ...


Analyzing Large Workers’ Compensation Claims Using Generalized Linear Models And Monte Carlo Simulation, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Dec 2018

Analyzing Large Workers’ Compensation Claims Using Generalized Linear Models And Monte Carlo Simulation, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Insurance practitioners rely on statistical models to predict future claims in order to provide financial protection. Proper predictive statistical modeling is more challenging when analyzing claims with lower frequency, but high costs. The paper investigated the use of predictive generalized linear models (GLMs) to address this challenge. Workers’ compensation claims with costs equal to or more than US$100,000 were analyzed in agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the USA from 2008 to 2016. Predictive GLMs were built with gamma, Weibull, and lognormal distributions using the lasso penalization method. Monte Carlo simulation models were developed to check the performance ...


Waste To Carbon: Densification Of Torrefied Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Jacek A. Koziel Nov 2018

Waste To Carbon: Densification Of Torrefied Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the feasibility of obtaining carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) pelletization from municipal solid waste (MSW) was shown. Production of CRDF by torrefaction of MSW could be the future of recycling technology. The objective was to determine the applied pressure needed to produce CRDF pellets with compressive strength (CS) comparable to conventional biomass pellets. Also, the hypothesis that a binder (water glass (WG)) applied to CRDF as a coating can improve CS was tested. The pelletizing was based on the lab-scale production of CRDF pellets with pressure ranging from 8.5 MPa to 76.2 ...


Optimization Of Time-Weighted Average Air Sampling By Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibers Using Finite Element Analysis Software, Bulat Kenessov, Jacek A. Koziel, Nassiba Baimatova, Olga P. Demyanenko, Miras Derbissalin Oct 2018

Optimization Of Time-Weighted Average Air Sampling By Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibers Using Finite Element Analysis Software, Bulat Kenessov, Jacek A. Koziel, Nassiba Baimatova, Olga P. Demyanenko, Miras Derbissalin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is advantageous over other sampling techniques, but is often characterized by insufficient accuracies, particularly at longer sampling times. Experimental investigation of this issue and disclosing the origin of the problem is problematic and often not practically feasible due to high uncertainties. This research is aimed at developing the model of the TWA extraction process and optimization of TWA air sampling by SPME using finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics, Burlington, MA, USA). It was established that sampling by porous SPME coatings with high ...


Spatial Structuring Of Cellulase Gene Abundance And Activity In Soil, Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth Bach, Jaejin Lee, Jared Flater, Shane Dooley, Adina Howe, Kirsten S. Hofmockel Oct 2018

Spatial Structuring Of Cellulase Gene Abundance And Activity In Soil, Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth Bach, Jaejin Lee, Jared Flater, Shane Dooley, Adina Howe, Kirsten S. Hofmockel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Microbial mechanisms controlling cellulose degradation in soil habitats remains a critical knowledge gap in understanding and modeling terrestrial carbon-cycling. We investigated land management and soil micro-habitat influences on soil bacterial communities and distribution of cellulose-degrading enzyme genes in three bioenergy cropping systems (corn, prairie, and fertilized prairie). Within the soil, aggregates have been examined as potential micro- habitats with specific characteristics influencing resource partitioning and regulation, thus we also investigated genes associated with cellulose degradation within soil aggregate fractions from the fertilized prairie system. Soil bacterial communities and carbon-cycling gene presence varied across land management and soil microhabitats. Examination of ...


Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman Sep 2018

Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are recognized as an effective best management practice in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. This edge-of-field practice intercepts and removes NO3-N, thereby reducing the NO3-N concentration in tile drainage before being discharged into surface water. Actual NO3-N load reductions realized by woodchip bioreactors are impacted by bioreactor size, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and denitrification efficiency. A typical woodchip bioreactor in Iowa may have 0.07% bioreactor area with respect to treatment area, 4–8 h HRT, and 43% mean denitrification efficiency. Here, we explored the potential of using electrically stimulated woodchip bioreactors to achieve greater NO3-N removal, and ...


Assessing Pathogen Presence In An Intensively Tile Drained, Agricultural Watershed, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, F. Yang, Adina Howe Aug 2018

Assessing Pathogen Presence In An Intensively Tile Drained, Agricultural Watershed, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, F. Yang, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increases in swine production and concomitant manure application provide beneficial nutrients for crops but also include the potential to spread pathogenic bacteria in the environment. While manure is known to contain a variety of pathogens, little is known regarding the long-term effect of manure application on fate and transport of this diverse set of pathogens into surrounding waterways. We report on the use of 16S-rRNA gene sequencing to detect pathogen-containing genera in the agriculturally dominated South Fork Iowa River watershed, home to approximately 840,000 swine in the 76,000-ha basin. DNA was extracted from monthly grab samples collected from ...


Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2018

Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In addition to retaining high levels of customer satisfaction, sustainability of businesses is also heavily reliant on the efficiency of their internal and external processes. Continuous performance evaluations using key performance metrics to leverage operations are essential in maintaining a sustainable business while achieving growth objectives for revenue and profitability. Traditionally, companies have considered various financial criteria, quality characteristics, and targeted levels of service as their primary factors for performance evaluation. However, increasing environmental and social awareness and accompanying governmental legislations are now requiring companies to integrate these two aspects into their performance evaluations. With this motivation, this study proposes ...


Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack Jul 2018

Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased public health risk caused by pathogen contamination in streams is a serious issue, and mitigating the risk requires improvement in existing microbial monitoring of streams. To improve understanding of microbial contamination in streams, we monitored Escherichia coli in stream water columns and streambed sediment. Two distinct streams and their subwatersheds were studied: (i) a mountain stream (Merced River, California), which represents pristine and wild conditions, and (ii) an agricultural stream (Squaw Creek, Iowa), which represents an agricultural setting (i.e., crop, manure application, cattle access). Stream water column and sediment samples were collected in multiple locations in the Merced ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2018

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The worldwide decline and overexploitation of ocean fisheries stocks had provided an incentive for the rapid growth of aquaculture. The aquaculture industry has been recognized as the fastest-growing food production system globally, with a 10% increase in production per year and is one of the most reliable and sustainable growth markets for manufactured feeds. Extrusion technology has been extensively used in the modern aquatic feed manufacturing, due to nutritional, physical properties improvements and cost effectiveness of feeds. Cost related to aquatic feed remains the biggest challenge, especially for small-scale producers. In order to understand costs and potential breakeven points, a ...


Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir May 2018

Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Closed surface depressions, also known as “potholes” play an important role in the hydrologic cycle and provide multiple environmental services including flood mitigation, water quality improvements and wildlife habitat. In the Prairie Pothole Region, which covers approximately 715,000 km2, including parts of three Canadian provinces (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta) and five states in the U.S. (Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, and Montana), these potholes are typically farmed and are a dominant feature in the landscape. In this study, we evaluate the Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model for simulating the inundation behavior of two farmed potholes, termed ...


Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell May 2018

Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Field drying trials were conducted using both field baskets as well as grab sampling techniques to study drying behaviour of switchgrass and maize (corn) stover (CS). Environmental conditions such as hourly solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), average wind speed, rainfall amount, harvesting method, and field operations such as swath density were used as variables for model development. A powerful classification-based algorithm, which uses a collection of decision trees called random forest (RF) was utilised to predict moisture content (MC) of switchgrass and CS on wet basis. RF predicted the MC of switchgrass and CS with a coefficient of determination ...


Kinetic Modeling Of Corn Fermentation With S. Cerevisiae Using A Variable Temperature Strategy, Augusto C. M. Souza, Mohammad Mousaviraad, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2018

Kinetic Modeling Of Corn Fermentation With S. Cerevisiae Using A Variable Temperature Strategy, Augusto C. M. Souza, Mohammad Mousaviraad, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

While fermentation is usually done at a fixed temperature, in this study, the effect of having a controlled variable temperature was analyzed. A nonlinear system was used to model batch ethanol fermentation, using corn as substrate and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at five different fixed and controlled variable temperatures. The lower temperatures presented higher ethanol yields but took a longer time to reach equilibrium. Higher temperatures had higher initial growth rates, but the decay of yeast cells was faster compared to the lower temperatures. However, in a controlled variable temperature model, the temperature decreased with time with the initial value ...


Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell Mar 2018

Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette cultivars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous olfactometry was used to identify and quantify selected, aroma-imparting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wines made from grapes harvested at two sugar levels (22° Brix and 24° Brix). Aroma-imparting compounds were determined by aroma dilution analysis (ADA). Odor activity values (OAV) were also used to ...


Detection Of Volatile Compounds Emitted From Nasal Secretions And Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification Of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Terry J. Engelken, Vickie L. Cooper, Jenna L. Funk Mar 2018

Detection Of Volatile Compounds Emitted From Nasal Secretions And Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification Of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Terry J. Engelken, Vickie L. Cooper, Jenna L. Funk

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Non-invasive diagnostics and finding biomarkers of disease in humans have been a very active research area. Some of the analytical technologies used for finding biomarkers of human disease are finding their use in livestock. Non-invasive sample collection from diseased cattle using breath and headspace of fecal samples have been reported. In this work, we explore the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from bovine nasal secretions and serum for finding biomarkers for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). One hundred nasal swabs and 100 serum samples (n = 50 for both ‘sick’ and ‘healthy’) were collected at the time of treatment for ...


Effect Of Fluorescent Vs. Poultry-Specific Light-Emitting Diode Lights On Production Performance And Egg Quality Of W-36 Laying Hens, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin, Jasreen Sekhon, Tong Wang Mar 2018

Effect Of Fluorescent Vs. Poultry-Specific Light-Emitting Diode Lights On Production Performance And Egg Quality Of W-36 Laying Hens, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin, Jasreen Sekhon, Tong Wang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

More energy-efficient, durable, affordable, and dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) lights are finding applications in poultry production. However, data are lacking on controlled comparative studies concerning the impact of such lights during the pullet rearing and subsequent laying phase. This study evaluated two types of poultry-specific LED light (PS-LED) vs. fluorescent light (FL) with regards to their effects on hen laying performance. A total of 432 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were tested in two batches using four environmental chambers (nine cages per chamber and 6 birds per cage) from 17 to 41 weeks of age (WOA). Dim-to-red PS-LED and warm-white FL ...


Impact Of Temperature And Hydraulic Retention Time On Pathogen And Nutrient Removal In Woodchip Bioreactors, Michelle L. Soupir, Natasha L. Hoover, Thomas B. Moorman, Ji Yeow Law, Bradley L. Bearson Mar 2018

Impact Of Temperature And Hydraulic Retention Time On Pathogen And Nutrient Removal In Woodchip Bioreactors, Michelle L. Soupir, Natasha L. Hoover, Thomas B. Moorman, Ji Yeow Law, Bradley L. Bearson

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip denitrification bioreactors are an important edge-of-field practice for treating agricultural drainage; however, their ability to filter microbial pollutants has primarily been explored in the context of wastewater treatment. Upflow column reactors were constructed and tested for E. coli, Salmonella, NO3-N, and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12 and 24 h and at controlled temperatures of 10 and 21.5 °C. Influent solution was spiked to 30 mg L−1 NO3-N, 2–8 × 105 E. coli and Salmonella, and 0.1 mg L−1 DRP. Microbial removal was consistently observed with removal ranging from 75 ...


Portable Canopy Chamber Measurements Of Evapotranspiration In Corn, Soybean, And Reconstructed Prairie, Chenyi Luo, Zhuangji Wang, Thomas J. Sauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton Feb 2018

Portable Canopy Chamber Measurements Of Evapotranspiration In Corn, Soybean, And Reconstructed Prairie, Chenyi Luo, Zhuangji Wang, Thomas J. Sauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a vital component of a field water balance. Canopy chambers are a promising method for determining crop ET because they are portable and applicable at a relatively small plot (m2) scale. Although a variety of canopy chamber designs have been proposed, field tests are still necessary to evaluate chamber performance for measuring crop ET. The objectives of this study are (1) to construct and use an improved canopy chamber to measure ET of three crops [corn (Zea mays, L.), soybean (Glycine max), and reconstructed mixed prairie] and (2) to compare the canopy chamber measurements with flux tower ...