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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel Dec 2018

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types ...


Analyzing Large Workers’ Compensation Claims Using Generalized Linear Models And Monte Carlo Simulation, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Dec 2018

Analyzing Large Workers’ Compensation Claims Using Generalized Linear Models And Monte Carlo Simulation, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Insurance practitioners rely on statistical models to predict future claims in order to provide financial protection. Proper predictive statistical modeling is more challenging when analyzing claims with lower frequency, but high costs. The paper investigated the use of predictive generalized linear models (GLMs) to address this challenge. Workers’ compensation claims with costs equal to or more than US$100,000 were analyzed in agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the USA from 2008 to 2016. Predictive GLMs were built with gamma, Weibull, and lognormal distributions using the lasso penalization method. Monte Carlo simulation models were developed to check the performance ...


Waste To Carbon: Densification Of Torrefied Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Jacek A. Koziel Nov 2018

Waste To Carbon: Densification Of Torrefied Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the feasibility of obtaining carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) pelletization from municipal solid waste (MSW) was shown. Production of CRDF by torrefaction of MSW could be the future of recycling technology. The objective was to determine the applied pressure needed to produce CRDF pellets with compressive strength (CS) comparable to conventional biomass pellets. Also, the hypothesis that a binder (water glass (WG)) applied to CRDF as a coating can improve CS was tested. The pelletizing was based on the lab-scale production of CRDF pellets with pressure ranging from 8.5 MPa to 76.2 ...


Optimization Of Time-Weighted Average Air Sampling By Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibers Using Finite Element Analysis Software, Bulat Kenessov, Jacek A. Koziel, Nassiba Baimatova, Olga P. Demyanenko, Miras Derbissalin Oct 2018

Optimization Of Time-Weighted Average Air Sampling By Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibers Using Finite Element Analysis Software, Bulat Kenessov, Jacek A. Koziel, Nassiba Baimatova, Olga P. Demyanenko, Miras Derbissalin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is advantageous over other sampling techniques, but is often characterized by insufficient accuracies, particularly at longer sampling times. Experimental investigation of this issue and disclosing the origin of the problem is problematic and often not practically feasible due to high uncertainties. This research is aimed at developing the model of the TWA extraction process and optimization of TWA air sampling by SPME using finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics, Burlington, MA, USA). It was established that sampling by porous SPME coatings with high ...


Spatial Structuring Of Cellulase Gene Abundance And Activity In Soil, Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth Bach, Jaejin Lee, Jared Flater, Shane Dooley, Adina Howe, Kirsten S. Hofmockel Oct 2018

Spatial Structuring Of Cellulase Gene Abundance And Activity In Soil, Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth Bach, Jaejin Lee, Jared Flater, Shane Dooley, Adina Howe, Kirsten S. Hofmockel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Microbial mechanisms controlling cellulose degradation in soil habitats remains a critical knowledge gap in understanding and modeling terrestrial carbon-cycling. We investigated land management and soil micro-habitat influences on soil bacterial communities and distribution of cellulose-degrading enzyme genes in three bioenergy cropping systems (corn, prairie, and fertilized prairie). Within the soil, aggregates have been examined as potential micro- habitats with specific characteristics influencing resource partitioning and regulation, thus we also investigated genes associated with cellulose degradation within soil aggregate fractions from the fertilized prairie system. Soil bacterial communities and carbon-cycling gene presence varied across land management and soil microhabitats. Examination of ...


Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman Sep 2018

Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are recognized as an effective best management practice in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. This edge-of-field practice intercepts and removes NO3-N, thereby reducing the NO3-N concentration in tile drainage before being discharged into surface water. Actual NO3-N load reductions realized by woodchip bioreactors are impacted by bioreactor size, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and denitrification efficiency. A typical woodchip bioreactor in Iowa may have 0.07% bioreactor area with respect to treatment area, 4–8 h HRT, and 43% mean denitrification efficiency. Here, we explored the potential of using electrically stimulated woodchip bioreactors to achieve greater NO3-N removal, and ...


Assessing Pathogen Presence In An Intensively Tile Drained, Agricultural Watershed, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, F. Yang, Adina Howe Aug 2018

Assessing Pathogen Presence In An Intensively Tile Drained, Agricultural Watershed, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, F. Yang, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increases in swine production and concomitant manure application provide beneficial nutrients for crops but also include the potential to spread pathogenic bacteria in the environment. While manure is known to contain a variety of pathogens, little is known regarding the long-term effect of manure application on fate and transport of this diverse set of pathogens into surrounding waterways. We report on the use of 16S-rRNA gene sequencing to detect pathogen-containing genera in the agriculturally dominated South Fork Iowa River watershed, home to approximately 840,000 swine in the 76,000-ha basin. DNA was extracted from monthly grab samples collected from ...


Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2018

Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In addition to retaining high levels of customer satisfaction, sustainability of businesses is also heavily reliant on the efficiency of their internal and external processes. Continuous performance evaluations using key performance metrics to leverage operations are essential in maintaining a sustainable business while achieving growth objectives for revenue and profitability. Traditionally, companies have considered various financial criteria, quality characteristics, and targeted levels of service as their primary factors for performance evaluation. However, increasing environmental and social awareness and accompanying governmental legislations are now requiring companies to integrate these two aspects into their performance evaluations. With this motivation, this study proposes ...


Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack Jul 2018

Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased public health risk caused by pathogen contamination in streams is a serious issue, and mitigating the risk requires improvement in existing microbial monitoring of streams. To improve understanding of microbial contamination in streams, we monitored Escherichia coli in stream water columns and streambed sediment. Two distinct streams and their subwatersheds were studied: (i) a mountain stream (Merced River, California), which represents pristine and wild conditions, and (ii) an agricultural stream (Squaw Creek, Iowa), which represents an agricultural setting (i.e., crop, manure application, cattle access). Stream water column and sediment samples were collected in multiple locations in the Merced ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2018

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The worldwide decline and overexploitation of ocean fisheries stocks had provided an incentive for the rapid growth of aquaculture. The aquaculture industry has been recognized as the fastest-growing food production system globally, with a 10% increase in production per year and is one of the most reliable and sustainable growth markets for manufactured feeds. Extrusion technology has been extensively used in the modern aquatic feed manufacturing, due to nutritional, physical properties improvements and cost effectiveness of feeds. Cost related to aquatic feed remains the biggest challenge, especially for small-scale producers. In order to understand costs and potential breakeven points, a ...


Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir May 2018

Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Closed surface depressions, also known as “potholes” play an important role in the hydrologic cycle and provide multiple environmental services including flood mitigation, water quality improvements and wildlife habitat. In the Prairie Pothole Region, which covers approximately 715,000 km2, including parts of three Canadian provinces (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta) and five states in the U.S. (Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, and Montana), these potholes are typically farmed and are a dominant feature in the landscape. In this study, we evaluate the Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model for simulating the inundation behavior of two farmed potholes, termed ...


Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell May 2018

Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Field drying trials were conducted using both field baskets as well as grab sampling techniques to study drying behaviour of switchgrass and maize (corn) stover (CS). Environmental conditions such as hourly solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), average wind speed, rainfall amount, harvesting method, and field operations such as swath density were used as variables for model development. A powerful classification-based algorithm, which uses a collection of decision trees called random forest (RF) was utilised to predict moisture content (MC) of switchgrass and CS on wet basis. RF predicted the MC of switchgrass and CS with a coefficient of determination ...


Kinetic Modeling Of Corn Fermentation With S. Cerevisiae Using A Variable Temperature Strategy, Augusto C. M. Souza, Mohammad Mousaviraad, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2018

Kinetic Modeling Of Corn Fermentation With S. Cerevisiae Using A Variable Temperature Strategy, Augusto C. M. Souza, Mohammad Mousaviraad, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

While fermentation is usually done at a fixed temperature, in this study, the effect of having a controlled variable temperature was analyzed. A nonlinear system was used to model batch ethanol fermentation, using corn as substrate and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at five different fixed and controlled variable temperatures. The lower temperatures presented higher ethanol yields but took a longer time to reach equilibrium. Higher temperatures had higher initial growth rates, but the decay of yeast cells was faster compared to the lower temperatures. However, in a controlled variable temperature model, the temperature decreased with time with the initial value ...


Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell Mar 2018

Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette cultivars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous olfactometry was used to identify and quantify selected, aroma-imparting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wines made from grapes harvested at two sugar levels (22° Brix and 24° Brix). Aroma-imparting compounds were determined by aroma dilution analysis (ADA). Odor activity values (OAV) were also used to ...


Detection Of Volatile Compounds Emitted From Nasal Secretions And Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification Of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Terry J. Engelken, Vickie L. Cooper, Jenna L. Funk Mar 2018

Detection Of Volatile Compounds Emitted From Nasal Secretions And Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification Of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Terry J. Engelken, Vickie L. Cooper, Jenna L. Funk

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Non-invasive diagnostics and finding biomarkers of disease in humans have been a very active research area. Some of the analytical technologies used for finding biomarkers of human disease are finding their use in livestock. Non-invasive sample collection from diseased cattle using breath and headspace of fecal samples have been reported. In this work, we explore the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from bovine nasal secretions and serum for finding biomarkers for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). One hundred nasal swabs and 100 serum samples (n = 50 for both ‘sick’ and ‘healthy’) were collected at the time of treatment for ...


Impact Of Temperature And Hydraulic Retention Time On Pathogen And Nutrient Removal In Woodchip Bioreactors, Michelle L. Soupir, Natasha L. Hoover, Thomas B. Moorman, Ji Yeow Law, Bradley L. Bearson Mar 2018

Impact Of Temperature And Hydraulic Retention Time On Pathogen And Nutrient Removal In Woodchip Bioreactors, Michelle L. Soupir, Natasha L. Hoover, Thomas B. Moorman, Ji Yeow Law, Bradley L. Bearson

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip denitrification bioreactors are an important edge-of-field practice for treating agricultural drainage; however, their ability to filter microbial pollutants has primarily been explored in the context of wastewater treatment. Upflow column reactors were constructed and tested for E. coli, Salmonella, NO3-N, and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12 and 24 h and at controlled temperatures of 10 and 21.5 °C. Influent solution was spiked to 30 mg L−1 NO3-N, 2–8 × 105 E. coli and Salmonella, and 0.1 mg L−1 DRP. Microbial removal was consistently observed with removal ranging from 75 ...


Portable Canopy Chamber Measurements Of Evapotranspiration In Corn, Soybean, And Reconstructed Prairie, Chenyi Luo, Zhuangji Wang, Thomas J. Sauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton Feb 2018

Portable Canopy Chamber Measurements Of Evapotranspiration In Corn, Soybean, And Reconstructed Prairie, Chenyi Luo, Zhuangji Wang, Thomas J. Sauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a vital component of a field water balance. Canopy chambers are a promising method for determining crop ET because they are portable and applicable at a relatively small plot (m2) scale. Although a variety of canopy chamber designs have been proposed, field tests are still necessary to evaluate chamber performance for measuring crop ET. The objectives of this study are (1) to construct and use an improved canopy chamber to measure ET of three crops [corn (Zea mays, L.), soybean (Glycine max), and reconstructed mixed prairie] and (2) to compare the canopy chamber measurements with flux tower ...


Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Feb 2018

Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Minimizing the risks associated with manure-borne pathogenic microorganisms requires an understanding of microbial survival under realistic field conditions. The objective of this 3-year study was to assess the fate of Salmonella (SALM) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), E. coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT), in glacial till-derived soils, after application of poultry manure (PM) to cornfields under chisel-plowed (CP) or no-till (NT) management. From 2010 to 2012, soil samples were obtained each spring at 0–15- and 15–30-cm depths, to determine whether over-wintering of target bacteria had occurred. Sampling was followed by application of PM at low (PM1) and high ...


A Gis-Based Tool For Bioaccumulation Risk Analysis And Its Application To Study Polychlorinated Biphenyls In The Great Lakes, Fernanda P. Maciel, Joshua Peschel Jan 2018

A Gis-Based Tool For Bioaccumulation Risk Analysis And Its Application To Study Polychlorinated Biphenyls In The Great Lakes, Fernanda P. Maciel, Joshua Peschel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This paper presents a GIS-based tool named Arc-BEST (Bioaccumulation Evaluation Screening Tool) to perform spatially distributed bioaccumulation risk analyses. Estimating bioaccumulation risk is important to help predict potentially adverse effects from contaminants on ecosystems and human health, which are key factors in the development of sound public policy. Arc-BEST is based on the BEST model in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers BRAMS (Bioaccumulation Risk Assessment Modeling System) software, released in 2012. It predicts concentration of concern contaminants in predators’ tissues from concentrations in organisms at the bottom of the food chain, and corresponding bioaccumulation factors. Additionally, it estimates ...


Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe Jan 2018

Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes. Here we evaluated the diversity of one type of macrolide antibiotic resistance gene (erm) in one type of environment (manure) to determine which primers ...


Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Amy J. Morrow Jan 2018

Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Amy J. Morrow

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study evaluated the influence of temporal variation on the occurrence, fate, and transport of tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMZ); antibiotics commonly used in swine production. Atrazine (ATZ) was used as a reference analyte to indicate the agricultural origin of the antibiotics. We also assessed the impact of season and hydrology on antibiotic concentrations. A reconnaissance study of the South Fork watershed of the Iowa River (SFIR), was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Tile drain effluent and surface water were monitored using polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) technology. Approximately 169 animal feeding operations (AFOs) exist in SFIR, with 153 of ...


Beyond The Nutrient Strategies: Common Ground To Accelerate Agricultural Water Quality Improvement In The Upper Midwest, Center For Watershed Protection, Inc., Laura Christianson, Matthew J. Helmers, Gregory Mcisaac, David Mulla, Walton Family Foundation Jan 2018

Beyond The Nutrient Strategies: Common Ground To Accelerate Agricultural Water Quality Improvement In The Upper Midwest, Center For Watershed Protection, Inc., Laura Christianson, Matthew J. Helmers, Gregory Mcisaac, David Mulla, Walton Family Foundation

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nutrients in drainage waters from the Upper Mississippi River Basin states have been a well-documented contributor to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone for decades, and in response, twelve states have developed strategies to address this issue, with Iowa, Minnesota, and Illinois performing rigorous science assessments which estimated nitrogen and phosphorus reduction effectiveness for numerous agricultural non-point source conservation practices. The practices identified in these strategies were compared to identify areas of consensus and discord on nutrient load reduction potentials. Additionally, each practice was assessed for (1) the suitability to stack or be layered with other practices (stackability), (2) the ...


Mitigating Ammonia And Pm Generation Of Cage-Free Henhouse Litter With Solid Additive And Liquid Spray, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir, Kai Liu Jan 2018

Mitigating Ammonia And Pm Generation Of Cage-Free Henhouse Litter With Solid Additive And Liquid Spray, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir, Kai Liu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A number of chain restaurants, retailers, and grocers in the U.S. have pledged to source only cage-free (CF) eggs in the foreseeable future (e.g., by 2025) due to marketing reasons or concerns over animal welfare. However, CF housing has some inherent challenges, and a predominant one is poor air quality, i.e., ammonia gas (NH3) and particulate matter (PM), and increased emissions. Spraying a liquid agent such as electrolyzed water (EW) can effectively suppress PM generation of CF henhouse litter. However, liquid spray can enhance NH3 generation because it increases the litter moisture content (LMC). Application of acidic ...


Design And Field Evaluation Of A Ground Robot For High-Throughput Phenotyping Of Energy Sorghum, Sierra N. Young, Erkan Kayacan, Joshua Peschel Jan 2018

Design And Field Evaluation Of A Ground Robot For High-Throughput Phenotyping Of Energy Sorghum, Sierra N. Young, Erkan Kayacan, Joshua Peschel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This article describes the design and field evaluation of a low-cost, high-throughput phenotyping robot for energy sorghum for use in biofuel production. High-throughput phenotyping approaches have been used in isolated growth chambers or greenhouses, but there is a growing need for field-based, precision agriculture techniques to measure large quantities of plants at high spatial and temporal resolutions throughout a growing season. A low-cost, tracked mobile robot was developed to collect phenotypic data for individual plants and tested on two separate energy sorghum fields in Central Illinois during summer 2016. Stereo imaging techniques determined plant height, and a depth sensor measured ...


Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 1. Quantification And Prediction, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Ignacio Alvarez, Daniel S. Andersen, Ulrike Passe Jan 2018

Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 1. Quantification And Prediction, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Ignacio Alvarez, Daniel S. Andersen, Ulrike Passe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Air infiltration through unplanned inlets is an integral component of any ventilation process. Air infiltration affects the quality of the room environment and can also increase winter heating costs. Precise data on air infiltration is very important in the design of animal room ventilation systems. Nineteen mechanically ventilated (negative pressure type) swine finishing rooms in Iowa were tested for their air infiltration potential. Using the data of 17 rooms, air infiltration rate through the whole room (i.e., total air infiltration, It), curtains (Ic), fans (If) and net building shell (other components, Io) were quantified. Power ...


Assessing Surface Flowpath Interception By Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Modeling And Geospatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, David F. Webber, Manveen Bansal, Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Brian K. Gelder, Manish Shrivastav, Casey J. Judge Jan 2018

Assessing Surface Flowpath Interception By Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Modeling And Geospatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, David F. Webber, Manveen Bansal, Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Brian K. Gelder, Manish Shrivastav, Casey J. Judge

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution is a major cause of surface water quality degradation due to the transport of chemicals, nutrients, and sediments into lakes and streams. Vegetative buffers comprise several effective landscape best management practices (BMPs) that include vegetative filter strips (VFS) and grassed waterways. However, some BMPs are less effective due to concentrated surface flow, improper cropland-to-VFS area ratios, and surface flowpaths that partially or completely bypass vegetative buffers. The overall objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of simulated flowpaths relative to observed and global positioning system (GPS)-assisted ground-truthed surface flowpaths for improved placement of VFS ...


Exploring Natural Models For The ‘Rolling Unmasking Effect’ Of Downwind Odor Dispersion; Prairie Verbena, Prehensile-Tailed Porcupine And Virginia Pepperweed, Don Wright & Associates, Llc, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Volatile Analysis Corporation Inc., Thomas G. Hartman, Paula Kolvig Jan 2018

Exploring Natural Models For The ‘Rolling Unmasking Effect’ Of Downwind Odor Dispersion; Prairie Verbena, Prehensile-Tailed Porcupine And Virginia Pepperweed, Don Wright & Associates, Llc, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Volatile Analysis Corporation Inc., Thomas G. Hartman, Paula Kolvig

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

As natural scale-models for community environmental odor issues, these odorant prioritization results illustrate an important consideration: … ‘with respect to focusing an environmental odor issue, it is possible to look too closely at the source’… Although simple odor dilution, as measured by odor concentration and intensity, certainly occurs during downwind dispersive migration from the source, these authors propose that the term dynamic dilution is limiting with respect to environmental odor impact. The results presented herein suggest that the odor character from an environmental source can vary dramatically, depending upon the distance of the human receptors from that source. It is further ...


Challenges In Technology Adoption In Indian Public Distribution System: A Quality Management Approach, Varun Chhabra, Shweta Chopra, Prashant Rajan Jan 2018

Challenges In Technology Adoption In Indian Public Distribution System: A Quality Management Approach, Varun Chhabra, Shweta Chopra, Prashant Rajan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Information and communication technologies are being used by various countries to provide faster and transparent services to their citizens through e-government initiatives. A large population in developing countries remain deprived of these services due to lack of skills, training and infrastructure. Local community intermediaries with necessary skills are employed to provide these services to beneficiaries. The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritise the challenges faced by intermediaries in adopting e-government technology. Quality management tools of list reduction, affinity diagram and Pareto chart were used for this purpose. Utilising quality management tools is an unconventional approach to problem ...


Performance Evaluation Of Manure Nitrogen Output Models Suitable For Lactating Dairy Cows In China, Ruilan Dong, Hongmin Dong, Karen A. Beauchemin, Hongwei Xin Jan 2018

Performance Evaluation Of Manure Nitrogen Output Models Suitable For Lactating Dairy Cows In China, Ruilan Dong, Hongmin Dong, Karen A. Beauchemin, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Manure nitrogen (N) output from dairy cattle is a major environmental concern in China. Various empirical models are available to predict manure N output from dairy cattle, but accuracy and precision of these models has not been assessed for Chinese conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of extant models that predict different forms of manure N output for lactating dairy cows in China with the aim of identifying the best-fit and most suitable prediction models. A total of 35 empirical models were evaluated for their ability to predict N excretion of dairy cows in China ...


Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir Jan 2018

Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwestern United States is dominated by agricultural production with high concentrations of swine, leading to application of swine manure onto lands with artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations which administer antimicrobials. While previous studies have examined the occurrence of ARGs around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known how their transport from tile-drained fields receiving swine manure application impacts downstream environments. To further our knowledge in this area, water samples were collected from five locations in the agriculturally dominated South ...