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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Measuring Nomophobia And Exploration Of Consequences And Comorbidities, Sarah Marie Fryman, William L. Romine Apr 2020

Measuring Nomophobia And Exploration Of Consequences And Comorbidities, Sarah Marie Fryman, William L. Romine

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Excessive use of smartphones has coined the term “Nomophobia”, or fear of not being able to use your smartphone. For many, these devices have become an extension of ourselves, which raises hesitation on whether or not society has become addicted to smartphones. Specific diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction have yet to be settled, and even appropriate to use the word “addiction” when describing excessive usage of smartphones is controversial.

We therefore explore utilize current measures to explore the symptoms of nomophobia and their hierarchy, as well as comorbidities including social anxiety, self-esteem, distracted driving and sleep quality. A total of ...


How Do Surgeon Preferences And Technique Variances Affect Outcome?, Anastasia Axiopoulou, Caroline G. L. Cao, Katherine Lin Md, Keith Watson Md Apr 2020

How Do Surgeon Preferences And Technique Variances Affect Outcome?, Anastasia Axiopoulou, Caroline G. L. Cao, Katherine Lin Md, Keith Watson Md

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

The goal of the research project is to create a blue-print of a robot-assisted hysterectomy procedure to support design and evaluation of technology to enhance system performance. To create this blue-print, we will conduct a task analysis, model the cognitive task flow and decision making, and develop a simulation of the hysterectomy procedure. The surgical simulation will be used as a platform to train surgeons on robotic-assisted hysterectomies, as well as to assess learning and performance. Additionally, it will be used to design and develop techniques and novel technology to support surgeons in their performance of the surgery. Current research ...


Identifying Easy Indicators Of Dementia, Swati Padhee, Tanvi Banerjee, Valerie L. Shalin, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan Apr 2020

Identifying Easy Indicators Of Dementia, Swati Padhee, Tanvi Banerjee, Valerie L. Shalin, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a degenerative chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people and whose care costs billions of dollars. There is growing evidence that variations in speech and language may be early indicators of dementia. One of the most initial symptoms of dementia is speech impairment, including difficulty in finding words and changes to the grammatical structure. These early indicators can be detected by having the patients perform a picture description task, such as the Cookie Theft task from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. However, much of the state-of-the-art NLP for dementia has been limited due to ...


Predicting Alcohol Withdrawal In Intensive Care Units, Reza Sadeghi, Tanvi Banerjee, William L. Romine Apr 2020

Predicting Alcohol Withdrawal In Intensive Care Units, Reza Sadeghi, Tanvi Banerjee, William L. Romine

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Alcohol use disorder is a common health issue in older adults who are facing depression caused by retirement, loss of a spouse, pain, and sleep problems. The prolonged, heavy alcohol ingestion will lead to high alcohol dependency such that cessation or reduction of using alcohol causes alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in roughly 4 to 72 hours after the last drink. During the initial 8 hours, patients face anxiety, insomnia, nausea, and abdominal pain. This condition is followed by high blood pressure, increased body temperature, unusual heart rate, and confusion. If this syndrome does not receive any treatment, the patients will ...


Defect Characterization Of Additively Manufactured Parts, Sabrina D'Alesandro, Joy Gockel, Andrew Harvey Apr 2020

Defect Characterization Of Additively Manufactured Parts, Sabrina D'Alesandro, Joy Gockel, Andrew Harvey

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

This document describes various image processing techniques to be used for defect characterization of additively manufactured parts. This will help the reader gain knowledge of materials science engineering and the nuances in analyzing data from image processing software.

Additive manufacturing is shaping the manufacturing world through simplistic household printers’ to more complex metal printers used for a variety of applications. Specifically, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing process that deposits metal powder over the build plate and melts it with a laser in the shape of the build part. In order to make LPBF more efficient with ...


The Effect Of Thermal History On The Atomic Structure Andmechanical Properties Of Amorphous Alloys, Nikolai V. Priezjev Jan 2020

The Effect Of Thermal History On The Atomic Structure Andmechanical Properties Of Amorphous Alloys, Nikolai V. Priezjev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The influence of thermal processing on the potential energy, atomic structure, and mechanical properties of metallic glasses is examined using molecular dynamics simulations. We study the three-dimensional binary mixture, which was first relaxed near the glass transition temperature and zero pressure, and then rapidly cooled deep into the glass phase. It was found that glasses annealed at higher temperatures are relocated to higher energy states and their average glass structure remains more disordered, as reflected in the height of the first two peaks in the pair distribution function. The results of mechanical testing demonstrate that both the shear modulus and ...


Accelerated Relaxation In Disordered Solids Under Cyclic Loading With Alternating Shear Orientation, Nikolai V. Priezjev Dec 2019

Accelerated Relaxation In Disordered Solids Under Cyclic Loading With Alternating Shear Orientation, Nikolai V. Priezjev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The effect of alternating shear orientation during cyclic loading on the relaxation dynamics in disordered solids is examined using molecular dynamics simulations. The model glass was initially prepared by rapid cooling from the liquid state and then subjected to cyclic shear along a single plane or periodically alternated in two or three dimensions. We showed that with increasing strain amplitude in the elastic range, the system is relocated to deeper energy minima. Remarkably, it was found that each additional alternation of the shear orientation in the deformation protocol brings the glass to lower energy states. The results of mechanical tests ...


Aging And Rejuvenation During Elastostatic Loading Of Amorphous Alloys, Nikolai V. Priezjev Oct 2019

Aging And Rejuvenation During Elastostatic Loading Of Amorphous Alloys, Nikolai V. Priezjev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effect of uniaxial elastostatic compression on the potential energy, structural relaxation, and mechanical properties of binary glasses. We consider the three-dimensional Kob-Andersen binary mixture, which was initially cooled from the liquid state to the glass phase with a slow rate at zero pressure. The glass was then loaded with a static stress at the annealing temperature during extended time intervals. It is found that the static stress below the yielding point induces large-scale plastic deformation and significant rejuvenation when the annealing temperature is smaller than a fraction of the glass transition temperature. By ...


Atomistic Modeling Of Heat Treatment Processes For Tuning The Mechanical Properties Of Disordered Solids, Nikolai V. Priezjev Aug 2019

Atomistic Modeling Of Heat Treatment Processes For Tuning The Mechanical Properties Of Disordered Solids, Nikolai V. Priezjev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We investigate the effect of a single heat treatment cycle on the potential energy states and mechanical properties of metallic glasses using molecular dynamics simulations. We consider the three-dimensional binary mixture, which was initially cooled with a computationally slow rate from the liquid state to the solid phase at a temperature well below the glass transition. It was found that a cycle of heating and cooling can relocate the glass to either rejuvenated or relaxed states, depending on the maximum temperature and the loading period. Thus, the lowest potential energy is attained after a cycle with the maximum temperature slightly ...


The Potential Energy States And Mechanical Properties Of Thermally Cycled Binary Glasses, Nikolai V. Priezjev Aug 2019

The Potential Energy States And Mechanical Properties Of Thermally Cycled Binary Glasses, Nikolai V. Priezjev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The influence of repeated thermal cycling on mechanical properties, structural relaxation, and evolution of the potential energy in binary glasses is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. We consider a binary mixture with strongly non-additive cross interactions, which is annealed across the glass transition with different cooling rates and then exposed to one thousand thermal cycles at constant pressure. We found that during the first few hundred transient cycles, the potential energy minima after each cycle gradually decrease and the structural relaxation proceeds via collective, irreversible displacements of atoms. With increasing cycle number, the amplitudes of the volume and potential energy ...


Deep Neural Ranking For Crowdsourced Geopolitical Event Forecasting, Giuseppe Nebbione, Derek Doran, Srikanth Nadella, Brandon Minnery May 2019

Deep Neural Ranking For Crowdsourced Geopolitical Event Forecasting, Giuseppe Nebbione, Derek Doran, Srikanth Nadella, Brandon Minnery

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

There are many examples of “wisdom of the crowd” effects in which the large number of participants imparts confidence in the collective judgment of the crowd. But how do we form an aggregated judgment when the size of the crowd is limited? Whose judgments do we include, and whose do we accord the most weight? This paper considers this problem in the context of geopolitical event forecasting, where volunteer analysts are queried to give their expertise, confidence, and predictions about the outcome of an event. We develop a forecast aggregation model that integrates topical information about a question, meta-data about ...


The Influence Of Complex Thermal Treatment On Mechanical Properties Of Amorphous Materials, Nikolai V. Priezjev, Qing-Long Liu Apr 2019

The Influence Of Complex Thermal Treatment On Mechanical Properties Of Amorphous Materials, Nikolai V. Priezjev, Qing-Long Liu

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study the effect of periodic, spatially uniform temperature variation on mechanical properties and structural relaxation of amorphous alloys using molecular dynamics simulations. The disordered material is modeled via a non-additive binary mixture, which is annealed from the liquid to the glassy state with various cooling rates and then either aged at constant temperature or subjected to thermal treatment. We found that in comparison to aged samples, thermal cycling with respect to a reference temperature of approximately half the glass transition temperature leads to more relaxed states with lower levels of potential energy. The largest energy decrease was observed for ...


The Influence Of Periodic Shear On Structural Relaxation And Pore Redistribution In Binary Glasses, Nikolai V. Priezjev, Maxim A. Makeev Feb 2019

The Influence Of Periodic Shear On Structural Relaxation And Pore Redistribution In Binary Glasses, Nikolai V. Priezjev, Maxim A. Makeev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The evolution of porous structure, potential energy and local density in binary glasses under oscillatory shear deformation is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The porous glasses were initially prepared via a rapid thermal quench from the liquid state across the glass transition and allowed to phase separate and solidify at constant volume, thus producing an extended porous network in an amorphous solid. We find that under periodic shear, the potential energy decreases over consecutive cycles due to gradual rearrangement of the glassy material, and the minimum of the potential energy after thousands of shear cycles is lower at larger strain ...


The Effect Of Cryogenic Thermal Cycling On Aging, Rejuvenation, And Mechanical Properties Of Metallic Glasses, Nikolai V. Priezjev Jan 2019

The Effect Of Cryogenic Thermal Cycling On Aging, Rejuvenation, And Mechanical Properties Of Metallic Glasses, Nikolai V. Priezjev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The structural relaxation, potential energy states, and mechanical properties of a model glass subjected to thermal cycling are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. We study a non-additive binary mixture which is annealed with different cooling rates from the liquid phase to a low temperature well below the glass transition. The thermal treatment is applied by repeatedly heating and cooling the system at constant pressure, thus temporarily inducing internal stresses upon thermal expansion. We find that poorly annealed glasses are relocated to progressively lower levels of potential energy over consecutive cycles, whereas well annealed glasses can be rejuvenated at sufficiently large ...


Structural Transformations During Periodic Deformation Of Low-Porosity Amorphous Materials, Nikolai V. Priezjev, Maxim A. Makeev Jan 2019

Structural Transformations During Periodic Deformation Of Low-Porosity Amorphous Materials, Nikolai V. Priezjev, Maxim A. Makeev

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Atomistic simulations are employed to study structural evolution of pore ensembles in binary glasses under periodic shear deformation with varied amplitude. The consideration is given to porous systems in the limit of low porosity. The initial ensembles of pores are comprised of multiple pores with small sizes, which are approximately normally distributed. As periodic loading proceeds, the ensembles evolve into configurations with a few large-scale pores and significantly reduced number of small pores. These structural changes are reflected in the skewed shapes of the pore-size distribution functions and the appearance of a distinct peak at large length scales after hundreds ...


Securing Modern Cyberspace Using A Multi-Faceted Approach, Yu Li Jan 2019

Securing Modern Cyberspace Using A Multi-Faceted Approach, Yu Li

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Security has become one of the most significant concerns for our cyberspace. Securing the cyberspace, however, becomes increasingly challenging. This can be attributed to the rapidly growing diversities and complexity of the modern cyberspace. Specifically, it is not any more dominated by connected personal computers (PCs); instead, it is greatly characterized by cyber-physical systems (CPS), embedded systems, dynamic services, and human-computer interactions. Securing modern cyberspace therefore calls for a multi-faceted approach capable of systematically integrating these emerging characteristics. This dissertation presents our novel and significant solutions towards this direction. Specifically, we have devised automated, systematic security solutions to three critical ...


Analytical And Experimental Investigation Of Time-Variant Acceleration Fields, Justin A. Williams Jan 2019

Analytical And Experimental Investigation Of Time-Variant Acceleration Fields, Justin A. Williams

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Devices expected to operate in elevated or non-standard acceleration fields are often tested in similar conditions prior to deployment. Typically these tests only simulate steady-state acceleration fields in one direction. However, real acceleration fields often vary both directionally and temporally. Designing experiments to produce these conditions requires careful forethought and analysis in order to understand the emergent acceleration components that result from the methodology. An experiment was designed and executed on a horizontal centrifuge in which the radial acceleration varied sinusoidally between -10 < a_r < 10 g. Negative acceleration was achieved by rotating the test article relative to the radial acceleration vector using a servo motor. A model was developed that predicted the acceleration field at every point along the test article. The model provided important information such as the acceleration magnitude and direction anywhere on the test device at any point in time. This model was then used to optimize the velocity profile of the servo motor to minimize experimental artifacts.


Kbot: Knowledge-Enabled Personalized Chatbot For Self-Management Of Asthma In Pediatric Population, Dipesh Kadariya Jan 2019

Kbot: Knowledge-Enabled Personalized Chatbot For Self-Management Of Asthma In Pediatric Population, Dipesh Kadariya

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Asthma, chronic pulmonary disease, is one of the major health issues in the United States. Given its chronic nature, the demand for continuous monitoring of patient’s adherence to the medication care plan, assessment of their environment triggers, and management of asthma control level can be challenging in traditional clinical settings and taxing on clinical professionals. A shift from a reactive to a proactive asthma care can improve health outcomes and reduce expenses. On the technology spectrum, smart conversational systems and Internet-of-Things (IoTs) are rapidly gaining popularity in the healthcare industry. By leveraging such technological prevalence, it is feasible to ...


Rules With Right Hand Existential Or Disjunction With Rowltab, Sri Jitendra Satpathy Jan 2019

Rules With Right Hand Existential Or Disjunction With Rowltab, Sri Jitendra Satpathy

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One hotly debated research topic is, “What is the best approach for modeling ontologies?”. In the earlier stages of modeling ontologies, researchers have favored the usage of description logic to capture knowledge. One such choice is the Web Ontology Language (OWL) that is based on description logic. Many tools were designed around this principle and are still widely being used to model and explore ontologies. However, not all users find description logic to be intuitive, at least not without an extensive background in formal logics. Due to this, researchers have tried to explore other ways that will enable such users ...


Power/Thermal Interaction Within An Adaptive Turbine Engine, Andrew K. Desomma Jan 2019

Power/Thermal Interaction Within An Adaptive Turbine Engine, Andrew K. Desomma

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Usually power take off (PTO) with a two-spool turbofan engine has been accomplished via the high pressure (HP) shaft and bleed air from the high-pressure compressor (HPC). The PTO is used to run various aircraft components such as generators and hydraulic pumps, which also produce waste heat. To better understand the coupled transient nature of balancing engine thrust, power take off and thermal management, a transient variable cycle three stream turbofan engine model has been developed to investigate the integrated behavior. The model incorporates many dynamic features including a third-stream heat exchanger as a heat sink for thermal management and ...


Design And Implementation Of Periodic Unsteadiness Generator For Turbine Secondary Flow Studies, Nathan James Fletcher Jan 2019

Design And Implementation Of Periodic Unsteadiness Generator For Turbine Secondary Flow Studies, Nathan James Fletcher

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A primary source of periodic unsteadiness in low-pressure turbines is the wakes shed from upstream blade rows due to the relative motion between adjacent stators and rotors. These periodic perturbations can affect boundary layer transition, secondary flow, and loss generation. In particular, for high-lift front-loaded blades, the secondary flowfield is characterized by strong three-dimensional vortical structures. It is important to understand how these flow features respond to periodic disturbances. A novel approach was taken to generate periodic unsteadiness which captures some of the physics of turbomachinery wakes. Using stationary pneumatic devices, pulsed jets were used to generate disturbances characterized by ...


Unsteady Effects Of A Pulsed Blowing System On An Endwall Vortex, Molly Hope Donovan Jan 2019

Unsteady Effects Of A Pulsed Blowing System On An Endwall Vortex, Molly Hope Donovan

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The low-pressure turbine is an important component of a gas turbine engine, powering the low-pressure spool which provides the bulk of the thrust in medium- and high-bypass engines. It is also a significant fraction of the engine weight and complexity as it can comprise up to a third of the total engine weight. One way to drastically reduce the weight of the low-pressure turbine is to utilize high lift blades. To advance high-lift technology, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) designed the L2F blade profile, which was implemented in the linear cascade at AFRL/RQT’s low speed wind tunnel ...


Design And Manipulation Of A Power-Generating System With High-Temperature Fuel Cells For Hypersonic Applications, Jack Randolph Chalker Jan 2019

Design And Manipulation Of A Power-Generating System With High-Temperature Fuel Cells For Hypersonic Applications, Jack Randolph Chalker

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Current hypersonic vehicles tend to be incapable of producing onboard power with traditional generators due to their use of supersonic combusting ramjets (scramjets). Because of this, they seek additional energy sources for supporting advanced electronics or other auxiliary power-dependent devices while requiring elaborate thermal management systems to combat temperatures exceeding 700ºC. The incorporation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFCs) stacks is an efficient solution, capable of generating large quantities of power through the use of natural fuel sources at high temperatures. Developments in this thesis include the design, construction, and support of a system operating at hypersonic-environment conditions with a ...


Abusive And Hate Speech Tweets Detection With Text Generation, Abhishek Nalamothu Jan 2019

Abusive And Hate Speech Tweets Detection With Text Generation, Abhishek Nalamothu

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According to a Pew Research study, 41% of Americans have personally experienced online harassment and two-thirds of Americans have witnessed harassment in 2017. Hence, online harassment detection is vital for securing and sustaining the popularity and viability of online social networks. Machine learning techniques play a crucial role in automatic harassment detection. One of the challenges of using supervised approaches is training data imbalance. Existing text generation techniques can help augment the training data, but they are still inadequate and ineffective. This research explores the role of domain-specific knowledge to complement the limited training data available for training a text ...


Detecting Malicious Behavior In Openwrt With Qemu Tracing, Jeremy Porter Jan 2019

Detecting Malicious Behavior In Openwrt With Qemu Tracing, Jeremy Porter

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In recent years embedded devices have become more ubiquitous than ever before and are expected to continue this trend. Embedded devices typically have a singular or more focused purpose, a smaller footprint, and often interact with the physical world. Some examples include routers, wearable heart rate monitors, and thermometers. These devices are excellent at providing real time data or completing a specific task quickly, but they lack many features that make security issues more obvious. Generally, Embedded devices are not easily secured. Malware or rootkits in the firmware of an embedded system are difficult to detect because embedded devices do ...


Using Cfd To Improve Off-Design Throughflow Analysis, Troy J. Lanchman Jan 2019

Using Cfd To Improve Off-Design Throughflow Analysis, Troy J. Lanchman

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In turbomachinery design, complex internal flows give rise to significant losses and blockage whose effects are difficult to properly analyze without detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods or experiments. In a typical design method, CFD is used in conjunction with simpler throughflow or cascade codes to hasten the process. However, the lesser physical accuracy of the design codes demands the inclusion of models to improve the accuracy of the throughflow codes. This thesis aims to use CFD data to generate improved loss and blockage models for a 2D compressor throughflow code by matching throughflow data to CFD data using optimizations ...


Agent-Based Simulation Of Artificial-Intelligence-Assisted Transfer Of Care, Paul B. Stone Jan 2019

Agent-Based Simulation Of Artificial-Intelligence-Assisted Transfer Of Care, Paul B. Stone

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This study demonstrates the application of Agent-Based Simulation as a potential training aid for Transfer of Care (ToC) between EMS and a hospital triage department. The specific aim was to develop a simulation to increase the efficiency and accountability of information communication during ToC to test the suitability of Agent-Based Simulation to address training requirements in complex, health provision settings. This paper focuses on the design of the training simulation, including the development of individual agents within the simulation through the user interface elements and the evaluation and verification of the prototype simulator. The primary objective is for the simulation ...


Differential Microrna Expression In Barrett's Esophagus Correlates With Regulation Of Posterior Homeotic Genes, Reilly June Clark Jan 2019

Differential Microrna Expression In Barrett's Esophagus Correlates With Regulation Of Posterior Homeotic Genes, Reilly June Clark

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Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) is characterized by the appearance of an intestinal-like epithelium in the distal esophagus. The molecular mechanisms behind BE development are unknown. BE is often preceded by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and predisposes patients to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Due to the high mortality rate associated with EAC, BE patients are continuously monitored through upper endoscopy with biopsy for progression to low grade dysplasia (LGD), high grade dysplasia, and EAC. This monitoring technique poses numerous risks, so alternative surveillance and diagnostic techniques for BE pathogenesis are continually studied. microRNA biomarkers in BE pathogenesis may provide alternative means of ...


Type 2 Diabetes Leads To Impairment Of Cognitive Flexibility And Disruption Of Excitable Axonal Domains In The Brain, Leonid M. Yermakov Jan 2019

Type 2 Diabetes Leads To Impairment Of Cognitive Flexibility And Disruption Of Excitable Axonal Domains In The Brain, Leonid M. Yermakov

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Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people around the world. Cognitive and mood impairments are among its many debilitating complications, but disease mechanism(s) remain elusive. Here, we present a series of behavioral tasks that demonstrate impairment of cognitive flexibility in db/db mice, a commonly used type 2 diabetes model. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate disruption of axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier, excitable axonal domains regulating neuronal output, in brain regions associated with cognitive and mood impairments. Finally, we present results of exercise treatment that ameliorates AIS disruption in these animals. Establishing cognitive ...


Multi-Sensor Approach To Determine The Effect Of Geometry On Microstructure In Additive Manufacturing, Joseph R. Walker Jan 2019

Multi-Sensor Approach To Determine The Effect Of Geometry On Microstructure In Additive Manufacturing, Joseph R. Walker

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Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technique used for making complex parts through a layer-by-layer process with fine feature resolution. However, the layer-by-layer process, with complex scanning patterns within each layer, introduces variability in thermal behavior leading to inconsistent microstructure and defects. The in- situ process monitoring approach in this work uses sensors including a high-speed visible camera, thermal camera, and spectrometer to evaluate each location in the LPBF process. Each sensor focuses on a different process phenomenon such as the melt pool or thermal behavior. An experimental study, using metallographic analysis and collection of sensor data ...