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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

We Need Fuzzy Techniques To Design Successful Human-Like Robots, Vladik Kreinovich, Olga Kosheleva, Laxman Bokati Nov 2020

We Need Fuzzy Techniques To Design Successful Human-Like Robots, Vladik Kreinovich, Olga Kosheleva, Laxman Bokati

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In this chapter, we argue that to make sure that human-like robots exhibit human-like behavior, we need to use fuzzy techniques -- and we also provide details of this usage. The chapter is intended both for researchers and practitioners who are very familiar with fuzzy techniques and also for researchers and practitioners who do not know these techniques -- but who are interested in designing human-like robots.


A Fully Lexicographic Extension Of Min Or Max Operation Cannot Be Associative, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2020

A Fully Lexicographic Extension Of Min Or Max Operation Cannot Be Associative, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many applications of fuzzy logic, to estimate the degree of confidence in a statement A&B, we take the minimum min(a,b) of the expert's degrees of confidence in the two statements A and B. When a < b, then an increase in b does not change this estimate, while from the commonsense viewpoint, our degree of confidence in A&B should increase. To take this commonsense idea into account, Ildar Batyrshin and colleagues proposed to extend the original order in the interval [0,1] to a lexicographic order on a larger set. This idea works for expressions of the type A&B, so maybe we can extend it to more general expressions? In this paper, we show that such an extension, while theoretically possible, would violate another commonsense requirement -- associativity of the "and"-operation. A similar negative result is proven for lexicographic extensions of the maximum operation -- that estimates the expert's degree of confidence in a statement A\/B.


What Is The Optimal Annealing Schedule In Quantum Annealing, Oscar Galindo, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2020

What Is The Optimal Annealing Schedule In Quantum Annealing, Oscar Galindo, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many real-life situations in engineering (and in other disciplines), we need to solve an optimization problem: we want an optimal design, we want an optimal control, etc. One of the main problems in optimization is avoiding local maxima (or minima). One of the techniques that helps with solving this problem is annealing: whenever we find ourselves in a possibly local maximum, we jump out with some probability and continue search for the true optimum. A natural way to organize such a probabilistic perturbation of the deterministic optimization is to use quantum effects. It turns out that often, quantum annealing ...


Lexicographic-Type Extension Of Min-Max Logic Is Not Uniquely Determined, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2020

Lexicographic-Type Extension Of Min-Max Logic Is Not Uniquely Determined, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Since in a computer, "true" is usually represented as 1 and ``false'' as 0, it is natural to represent intermediate degrees of confidence by numbers intermediate between 0 and 1; this is one of the main ideas behind fuzzy logic -- a technique that has led to many useful applications. In many such applications, the degree of confidence in A & B is estimated as the minimum of the degrees of confidence corresponding to A and B, and the degree of confidence in A \/ B is estimated as the maximum; for example, 0.5 \/ 0.3 = 0.5. It is intuitively OK that, e.g., 0.5 \/ 0.3 < 0.51 and, more generally, that 0.5 \/ 0.3 < 0.5 + ε for all ε > 0. However, intuitively, an additional argument in favor of the statement should increase our degree of confidence, i.e., we should have ...


How To Train A-To-B And B-To-A Neural Networks So That The Resulting Transformations Are (Almost) Exact Inverses, Paravee Maneejuk, Torben Peters, Claus Brenner, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2020

How To Train A-To-B And B-To-A Neural Networks So That The Resulting Transformations Are (Almost) Exact Inverses, Paravee Maneejuk, Torben Peters, Claus Brenner, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many practical situations, there exist several representations, each of which is convenient for some operations, and many data processing algorithms involve transforming back and forth between these representations. Many such transformations are computationally time-consuming when performed exactly. So, taking into account that input data is usually only 1-10% accurate anyway, it makes sense to replace time-consuming exact transformations with faster approximate ones. One of the natural ways to get a fast-computing approximation to a transformation is to train the corresponding neural network. The problem is that if we train A-to-B and B-to-A networks separately, the resulting approximate transformations are ...


Why Lasso, Ridge Regression, And En: Explanation Based On Soft Computing, Woraphon Yamaka, Hamza Alkhatib, Ingo Neumann, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2020

Why Lasso, Ridge Regression, And En: Explanation Based On Soft Computing, Woraphon Yamaka, Hamza Alkhatib, Ingo Neumann, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many practical situations, observations and measurement results are consistent with many different models -- i.e., the corresponding problem is ill-posed. In such situations, a reasonable idea is to take into account that the values of the corresponding parameters should not be too large; this idea is known as {\it regularization}. Several different regularization techniques have been proposed; empirically the most successful are LASSO method, when we bound the sum of absolute values of the parameters, ridge regression method, when we bound the sum of the squares, and a EN method in which these two approaches are combined. In this ...


When Can We Be Sure That Measurement Results Are Consistent: 1-D Interval Case And Beyond, Hani Dbouk, Steffen Schön, Ingo Neumann, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2020

When Can We Be Sure That Measurement Results Are Consistent: 1-D Interval Case And Beyond, Hani Dbouk, Steffen Schön, Ingo Neumann, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many practical situations, measurements are characterized by interval uncertainty -- namely, based on each measurement result, the only information that we have about the actual value of the measured quantity is that this value belongs to some interval. If several such intervals -- corresponding to measuring the same quantity -- have an empty intersection, this means that at least one of the corresponding measurement results is an outlier, caused by a malfunction of the measuring instrument. From the purely mathematical viewpoint, if the intersection is non-empty, there is no reason to be suspicious, but from the practical viewpoint, if the intersection is ...


Remediation And Prevention Of Harmful Algae Blooms (Habs) In Ascarate Lake At El Paso, Texas, Elizabeth Herrera Ortega Jan 2020

Remediation And Prevention Of Harmful Algae Blooms (Habs) In Ascarate Lake At El Paso, Texas, Elizabeth Herrera Ortega

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Ascarate park in El Paso, Texas is an example of an urban ecosystem in the middle of a growing city. It is the largest public-use recreational park in El Paso county and it includes a 48-acre Ascarate lake. The purpose of this study was to prevent harmful algae growth in Ascarate lake using phytoremediation by analyzing different water quality parameters. We installed artificial islands on west cove of the lake with African iris plants to determine the feasibility of remediation to prevent algae blooms in Ascarate lake. Water samples were collected at different points close and away from the islands ...


Development Of The Payload System And Obc Microcontroller Coding For A Cubic Satellite Performing An Additive Self-Repair Experiment In Space, Eduardo Macias-Zugasti Jan 2020

Development Of The Payload System And Obc Microcontroller Coding For A Cubic Satellite Performing An Additive Self-Repair Experiment In Space, Eduardo Macias-Zugasti

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Additive manufacturing, which is also known as three-dimensional printing, in space is one of the most promising technologies advancing current capabilities for in-orbit space manufacturing and assembly. Additive manufacturing contributes to the reduction of cost per kilogram and number of launches, thus facilitating extraterrestrial colonization and deep-space exploration. The state of the art includes advancing efforts inside the International Space Station (ISS). However, the ISS is a controlled environment and, to the best of our knowledge, no spacecraft or satellite has performed additive manufacturing tasks in the extreme environment of outer space. In this work a 1U CubeSat named Orbital ...


Compound Vision Approach For Autonomous Vehicles Navigation, Michael Mikhael Jan 2020

Compound Vision Approach For Autonomous Vehicles Navigation, Michael Mikhael

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

An analogy can be made between the sensing that occurs in simple robots and drones and that in insects and crustaceans, especially in basic navigation requirements. Thus, an approach in robots/drones based on compound eye vision could be useful. In this research, several image processing algorithms were used to detect and track moving objects starting with images upon which a grid (compound eye image) was superimposed, including contours detection, the second moments of those contours along with the grid applied to the original image, and Fourier Transforms and inverse Fourier Transforms. The latter also provide information about scene or ...


Velocity Measurements Using A Piezoelectric Plate As A Sensor, Paul Perez Jan 2020

Velocity Measurements Using A Piezoelectric Plate As A Sensor, Paul Perez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this study, the voltage output from a piezoelectric sensor placed in a test section is used to predict flow velocity changes. The piezoelectric made of PZT is thought to be advantageous due to its fast response time, potential durability at higher temperatures, and self-powered characteristics. Having said that this sensor could be implemented into the Hybrid Performance Project built by NETL to characterize and mitigate the probability of compressor surge and stall. The problem arises because of the added large volume between compressor and gas turbine and resultant changes to system fluid dynamics. The effect of the piezoelectric sensor ...


Early Detection Of Asthma Via Enhanced Resolution Of Small Airways Using Ultra-Low Frequency Impulse Oscillometry, Christopher M. Aguilar Jan 2020

Early Detection Of Asthma Via Enhanced Resolution Of Small Airways Using Ultra-Low Frequency Impulse Oscillometry, Christopher M. Aguilar

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Examination of lung function for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma can be performed with a variety of pulmonary function testing (PFT) techniques. The most commonly prescribed of these procedures are spirometry and whole-body plethysmography. However, these active participation tests depend on forced breathing maneuvers, may be physically exhausting, might not produce enough information, and are susceptible to being subject-dependent. In contrast, passive PFT approaches such as the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the impulse oscillometry system (IOS) are increasingly being utilized for measuring lung mechanics because they require only minimal participation ...


Rpas: An Enhanced Finite Element Code For The Mechanistic Analysis Of Rigid Pavements, Nancy Aguirre Jan 2020

Rpas: An Enhanced Finite Element Code For The Mechanistic Analysis Of Rigid Pavements, Nancy Aguirre

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Significant amount of research has been conducted to improve the design of rigid pavements through the development of mechanistic analysis tools capable of accurately modeling the performance of such pavements. The use of the finite element (FE) method as a comprehensive tool for modeling the responses of rigid pavements has been limited in the past because of the complexity of calculations in modeling nonlinear behaviors, which are difficult to describe mathematically and computationally. Researchers from The University of Texas at El Paso developed NYSLAB, an FE modeling tool, for the analysis of rigid pavements subjected to traffic and environmental loading ...


Evaluating Flow Features For Network Application Classification, Carlos Alcantara Jan 2020

Evaluating Flow Features For Network Application Classification, Carlos Alcantara

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Communication networks provide the foundational services on which our modern economy depends. These services include data storage and transfer, video and voice telephony, gaming, multimedia streaming, remote invocation, and the world wide web. Communication networks are large-scale distributed systems composed of heterogeneous equipment. As a result of scale and heterogeneity, communication networks are cumbersome to manage (e.g., configure, assess performance, detect faults) by human operators. With the emergence of easily accessible network data and machine learning algorithms, there is a great opportunity to move network management towards increasing automation. Network management automation will allow for a reduced likelihood of ...


Assessment Of Hydraulic And Structural Behavior Of Inundated Pavements, Mojtaba Asadi Jan 2020

Assessment Of Hydraulic And Structural Behavior Of Inundated Pavements, Mojtaba Asadi

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Severe flooding events have increasingly inundated the transportation infrastructure, including road networks, across the world and the Unites States. Such extreme events induce significant ingress of water into the pavement layers, which in turn leads to structural defects due to the reduction of the shear strength and resilient moduli of the soil layers, asphalt stripping in flexible pavements, pumping effect in rigid pavements, migration of fines into drainable layers, and swelling of expansive soils. Consequently, premature pavement failure may take place that can impose unforeseen maintenance/rehabilitation costs to highway agencies. Although some experimental research studies have been conducted to ...


Regulation Of Schlafen 11 Expression, Christian Waldemar Corona Ayala Jan 2020

Regulation Of Schlafen 11 Expression, Christian Waldemar Corona Ayala

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) is a member a family of proteins that can be found in mammals. Members of this family are involved in important functions. SLFN11 in particular has been identified as a restriction factor for several evolutionarily disparate viruses such as HIV-1 and Flaviviruses and to play an important role in DNA repair, sensitizing cells to chemotherapy. Despite its relevance SLFN11 remains largely uncharacterized. The aim of this research was to achieve a more comprehensive understanding the regulation mechanism of SLFN 11 expression. Before our research, it was only known that type I interferon (IFN) regulates SLFN11 levels. However ...


To Or Through The Skin: A Rational Design Of Transdermal Drug Delivery, Isaac Giovanni Deaguero Jan 2020

To Or Through The Skin: A Rational Design Of Transdermal Drug Delivery, Isaac Giovanni Deaguero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The skin is the largest organ in the body and plays many crucial roles through diverse functions ranging from protection, temperature regulation, energy storage via fat deposits, and is used to communicate with our surroundings. Various methods have been attempted to deliver drugs to target areas of the skin in effective dosages by a variety of means with limited success. Recently, advances in transdermal drug delivery have offered avenues previously unattainable through conventional means. Some of these new delivery methods have been reviewed, explored and offer promising results with the potential to carve a new avenue in the way therapeutic ...


Structural Analysis Of Deformed Caprock Associated With A Salt Shoulder At Gypsum Valley Salt Wall, Paradox Basin, Colorado, Hanah Draper Jan 2020

Structural Analysis Of Deformed Caprock Associated With A Salt Shoulder At Gypsum Valley Salt Wall, Paradox Basin, Colorado, Hanah Draper

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This study documents the style and distribution of deformation present in Triassic-age gypsic and carbonate caprock associated with the Gypsum Valley Salt Wall Salt Shoulder in the Paradox Basin, Colorado in order to determine the mechanism and timing of deformation. Mapping of gypsic and carbonate capstone facies shows that the caprock layering that was generated during formation has been deformed by large-and-small-scale folding and faulting, brecciation, and boudinage. Deformation within the caprock resulted in widely variable orientations along the length of the salt shoulder, that also varies locally in intensity of deformation and with proximity to the passively rising diapir ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Material Systems For 3d Printed Smart Structures, Hilda Fontes Jan 2020

Synthesis And Characterization Of Material Systems For 3d Printed Smart Structures, Hilda Fontes

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The silica hollow spheres have demonstrated excellent results in multiple applications such as light-weight composites, and optical applications as a glass coating. This material also exhibits excellent thermal, shock impact, and hydrophilic properties extremely useful for industrial applications. However, a controllable size of the particle is desired to further increase the number of applications of the silica hollow spheres.

This Thesis aims a method to fabricate silica hollow spheres in a single step with a controlled diameter size. A study was developed to demonstrate the particle size change when adjusting the molecular weight of the medium by using different alcohol ...


Independent And Simultaneous Control Of Electromagnetic Wave Properties In Self-Collimating Photonic Crystals Using Spatial Variance, Jesus Javier Gutierrez Jan 2020

Independent And Simultaneous Control Of Electromagnetic Wave Properties In Self-Collimating Photonic Crystals Using Spatial Variance, Jesus Javier Gutierrez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Photonic crystals are engineered periodic structures that provide great control over electromagnetic waves. One of these mechanisms is self-collimation, in which the electromagnetic wave travels through the photonic crystal along an axis of the lattice without diffracting or spreading. This mechanism of self-collimation is a dispersion phenomenon, which is dependent on the unit cell's physical and geometrical characteristics. An algorithm for generating spatially variant lattices (SVL) was developed that can change geometrical properties in photonic crystals as a function of position, like unit cell orientation, fill fraction, symmetry, and others in a manner that is smooth, continuous, and virtually ...


The Study Of The Mouse Schlafen Family Members As Mediators Of Antiviral Activity, Julia Fernanda Hernandez Jan 2020

The Study Of The Mouse Schlafen Family Members As Mediators Of Antiviral Activity, Julia Fernanda Hernandez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Schlafen family of proteins was first characterized in 1988, and since then evidence of their relevance in different physiological and pathological situations have been accumulating although at a slow pace. Hence, the biological roles of these proteins remain ill-defined. The expression of these proteins is positively regulated by type 1 interferons, constituting a component of the innate immune response. Functions of these proteins vary from regulation of cell proliferation to restriction of viral infections. Recent studies have implicated SLFN11 and SLFN13 as inhibitors of HIV-1 infection2-4. The mechanism of action of SLFN11 resides in its capacity to regulate the ...


Bio-Inspired Method For Close-Proximity Operations On A Near-Earth Asteroid, Rene Alberto Valenzuela Najera Jan 2020

Bio-Inspired Method For Close-Proximity Operations On A Near-Earth Asteroid, Rene Alberto Valenzuela Najera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Space maneuvers in the vicinity of small celestial bodies and achieving a soft landing over the surface of small celestial bodies are essential movements to advance the status of exploration, collection of geographical data, measurement of physical properties among other on-orbit tasks. Before a spacecraft reaches hovering position over an asteroid in order to perform orbital tasks, close-proximity operations must be done. Since the movements of the spaceships depend on the acceleration forces provided by the thrusters and external disturbances forces, the correct planning of execution of the close-up trajectories on the celestial body orbit and trajectory to land on ...


Computational Methods For Creep Modeling, Ricardo Vega Jan 2020

Computational Methods For Creep Modeling, Ricardo Vega

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Creep is an important phenomenon present in the power generation and aerospace industry. Creep is a mechanism that degrades the quality of a part, such as the turbines used in different industries, when elevated temperatures and loads are applied. Creep damage can cause critical failures that can cost millions of dollars and as such, prevention is important. A multitude of creep models exist to help with design and failure prevention. These models are applied using computational tools which allows the engineer to properly predict the life of a part or other material properties. In this work various creep numerical optimization ...


Synthesis And Advanced Manufacturing Of Polymer Structures And Their Composites, Bethany Rose Wilburn Jan 2020

Synthesis And Advanced Manufacturing Of Polymer Structures And Their Composites, Bethany Rose Wilburn

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The following research work performed embodies three unique studies of polymer structures and their composites. In general, polymers are viscoelastic, insulative materials that are used for a wide variety of applications within industrial, aerospace, and biomedical fields. Polymers have been studied and optimized for any particular use by chemically synthesizing unique micro-structures, altering the physical properties through fabrication and post-processing, and utilizing 3D printing to achieve complex geometries. In the past decade, additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn extensive attention across academia, industry, and government agencies. It offers unprecedented advantages such as design freedom, rapid prototyping, and customization. In this work ...


Impact Of Interface Condition On Performance Of Thin Asphalt Overlays, Cheng Zhu Jan 2020

Impact Of Interface Condition On Performance Of Thin Asphalt Overlays, Cheng Zhu

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Asphalt overlay has been widely used in the United States as a cost-effective maintenance approach to keep the pavement in a satisfactory condition. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the overlay asphalt mix design, overlay pavement design, and quality control/quality assurance for the asphalt overlay pavement. In Texas, thin overlays (lift thickness less than 2 in.) and ultra-thin overlays (lift thickness of 0.5 in. to 0.75 in.) seem to be more beneficial than conventional asphalt overlays. For this type of overlay, the bonding condition between the overlay and existing AC layer is crucial ...


Thermoanalytical Studies On The Decomposition Of Energetic Ionic Liquids, Alan Esparza Jan 2020

Thermoanalytical Studies On The Decomposition Of Energetic Ionic Liquids, Alan Esparza

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Hydrazine has been extensively used as a propellant for space applications for more than half a century. However, its hazardous characteristics cause high storage and handling costs. For this reason, the search for alternatives, the so-called “green monopropellants,” is of great interest. Most green monopropellants are mixtures of an oxidizer and a fuel, and several ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed for this application. Among them, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and 2-hydroxylethylhydrazinium nitrate (HEHN) are promising oxidizer and fuel, respectively. The objective of the present work was to clarify the decomposition kinetics of both HAN and HEHN, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA ...


An Accelerated Creep Testing Program For Nickel Based Superalloys, Robert M. Mach Jan 2020

An Accelerated Creep Testing Program For Nickel Based Superalloys, Robert M. Mach

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In order to improve the energy production within the United States, new materials are developed with the goal of increased functionality. These materials are required to perform at extreme pressures and temperatures (up to and beyond 200MPa and 650â??) as well as be sustainable beyond 105 hours. Before developing these materials into components for power generation, mechanical testing is required to better understand the behavior of these materials at various loads and temperatures. The longest of these tests is the conventional creep test which is a real time test that can beyond 105 hours depending on service conditions. Hundreds of ...


3d Printed Alginate-Based Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Scaffolds For Wound Healing, Carol Cleetus Jan 2020

3d Printed Alginate-Based Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Scaffolds For Wound Healing, Carol Cleetus

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Effective treatment of chronic wounds is essential for the prevention of infection and scar tissue formation, requiring a novel approach to address the limitations of existing options. This study utilizes Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) crosslinked alginate, a common biomaterial widely used in wound dressing, and UV activated Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) for their potential hydroxyl radical mediated antibacterial applications. ZnO NPs were synthesized by combustion method from Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Sucrose. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization were used to verify composition and NP size. Terephthalic Acid, used as a fluorescent probe, confirmed the generation of ...


Formulation Strategies To Enhance Solubility And Permeability Of Small Molecules For Drug Delivery Applications, Pradeep Kumar Bolla Jan 2020

Formulation Strategies To Enhance Solubility And Permeability Of Small Molecules For Drug Delivery Applications, Pradeep Kumar Bolla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

All the new chemical entities/drug molecules intended for therapeutic use must be administered using an appropriate delivery system/dosage form to achieve maximum bioavailability. However, designing a drug delivery system is complex as several factors such as lipophilicity, molecular mass, crystallinity, ionic charge, polymorphic forms and hydrogen bonding) affect the solubility and permeability of these molecules. Biopharmaceutics drug classification system (BCS) categorizes the existing drugs into four classes based on the aqueous solubility and membrane permeability and it is reported that >70% of the drugs are poorly soluble and belong to BCS class II and BCS class IV. Several ...


Physical Randomness Can Help In Computations, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich Jan 2020

Physical Randomness Can Help In Computations, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Can we use some so-far-unused physical phenomena to compute something that usual computers cannot? Researchers have been proposing many schemes that may lead to such computations. These schemes use different physical phenomena ranging from quantum-related to gravity-related to using hypothetical time machines. In this paper, we show that, in principle, there is no need to look into state-of-the-art physics to develop such a scheme: computability beyond the usual computations naturally appears if we consider such a basic notion as randomness.