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Articles 1 - 30 of 1840

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Motivation Dynamics For Autonomous Composition Of Navigation Tasks, Paul B. Reverdy, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Daniel E. Koditschek Aug 2021

Motivation Dynamics For Autonomous Composition Of Navigation Tasks, Paul B. Reverdy, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We physically demonstrate a reactive sensorimotor architecture for mobile robots whose behaviors are generated by motivation dynamics. Motivation dynamics uses a continuous dynamical system to reactively compose low-level control vector fields using valuation functions which capture the potentially competing influences of external stimuli relative to the system's own internal state. We show that motivation dynamics 1) naturally accommodates external stimuli through standard signal processing tools, and 2) can effectively encode a repetitive higher-level task by composing several low-level controllers to achieve a limit cycle in which the robot repeatedly navigates towards two alternatively valuable goal locations in a commensurately ...


Reactive Planning For Mobile Manipulation Tasks In Unexplored Semantic Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Yiannis Kantaros, George J. Pappas, Daniel E. Koditschek May 2021

Reactive Planning For Mobile Manipulation Tasks In Unexplored Semantic Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Yiannis Kantaros, George J. Pappas, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Complex manipulation tasks, such as rearrangement planning of numerous objects, are combinatorially hard problems. Existing algorithms either do not scale well or assume a great deal of prior knowledge about the environment, and few offer any rigorous guarantees. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid control architecture for achieving such tasks with mobile manipulators. On the discrete side, we enrich a temporal logic specification with mobile manipulation primitives such as moving to a point, and grasping or moving an object. Such specifications are translated to an automaton representation, which orchestrates the physical grounding of the task to mobility or ...


Biofuels For Aviation, Chase Novak, Thomas Vasquez, Molly Zawacki Apr 2021

Biofuels For Aviation, Chase Novak, Thomas Vasquez, Molly Zawacki

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Paraffinic Kerosene fuels are the backbone of commercial air travel. Kerosene fuels are primarily derived from petroleum processing and contribute significantly to carbon emissions globally. A variety of processes have been proposed to create renewable or semi-renewable sources of kerosene fuel suitable for aviation. One such process outlined in a 2019 white paper published by Gevo proposes the use of bio-based alcohol feed stocks to produce isobutanol which may be converted to kerosene mixtures through well-established dehydration and oligomerizations processes. The proposed Alcohol to Jet Fuel Pathway (ATJ-SPK) is a potentially net carbon neutral process which can greatly reduce the ...


Protein Purification To Produce Edible Soybean Protein, Miyu Ono, Gracelynn Soesanto, Alia Wallenstrom Apr 2021

Protein Purification To Produce Edible Soybean Protein, Miyu Ono, Gracelynn Soesanto, Alia Wallenstrom

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project recommends a design for a soy processing facility to produce soy protein concentrates (SPC), soy oil and soy molasses from dehulled soybeans. Utilities were minimized, wherever possible by evaluating whether streams within the system had the capacity to heat or cool other processes. The plant has a production capacity of 170 MM lb soy protein concentrate/year and will be located in Decatur, IL. The proposed design also yields 114 MM lb soy oil/year and 62 MM lb soy molasses/year. The SPC, soy oil and soy molasses have less than 2 PPM residual solvent concentrations and ...


Co2 Capture And Conversion To Methanol With Eempa, Yatin Arora, Ashwin Koul, Melissa Tanaka Apr 2021

Co2 Capture And Conversion To Methanol With Eempa, Yatin Arora, Ashwin Koul, Melissa Tanaka

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has been a primary contributor to the changing climate is having disastrous impacts on our planet and its inhabitants. Creating new strategies to combat the ongoing climate crisis has gained significant momentum in recent years with the efforts to slow and reverse climate change. Of these promising new technologies, the implementation of carbon capture and utilization (CCU) has been recognized to have a high potential by taking in CO2 emitted from point sources and using it to produce a value-added product. With a wide range of methanol uses and ...


Production Of A Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Vaccine Using The Baculovirus Expression Vector System, Rachel Adler, Nathan Kelsey, Michelle Maik, Jun Ho Song Apr 2021

Production Of A Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Vaccine Using The Baculovirus Expression Vector System, Rachel Adler, Nathan Kelsey, Michelle Maik, Jun Ho Song

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Various COVID-19 vaccines are currently in development, as the COVID-19 pandemic has created an unmet need for protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While there are many different types of vaccines, we focused on developing one that would be safe, affordable, and quickly available for emergency use. A vaccine synthesized using recombinant proteins utilizes a reliable and well-studied technological platform, avoids the safety risks inherent to viral vectors, and provides a cost-effective, scalable method of production of antigen used to induce an immune response. Other vaccines on the market notably include Pfizer’s and Moderna’s mRNA based vaccines. Although these ...


Formulation Of A High-Volume Small Molecule Drug Product, Carolyn Watkins, Reeti Shah, Ogheneruteyan Onosode Apr 2021

Formulation Of A High-Volume Small Molecule Drug Product, Carolyn Watkins, Reeti Shah, Ogheneruteyan Onosode

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Small molecule drug products play an enormous role in innovative treatments for a vast number of diseases and have comprised most annual FDA drug approvals each year to date. Thus, economically efficient mass production of small molecule drugs is an essential public health concern. While batch production of these types of pharmaceuticals dominates the industry, continuous manufacturing has emerged as a promising technology with positive economic implications. However, due to the newness of the technology, pharmaceutical companies have been reluctant to adopt continuous manufacturing. This project presents a full economic evaluation of batch versus continuous manufacturing of a high-volume small ...


Manufacturing Strategy For The Production Of 200 Million Sterile Doses Of An Mrna Vaccine For Covid-19, Irene Labarta, Sarabeth Hoffman, Alison Simpkins Apr 2021

Manufacturing Strategy For The Production Of 200 Million Sterile Doses Of An Mrna Vaccine For Covid-19, Irene Labarta, Sarabeth Hoffman, Alison Simpkins

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

mRNA vaccines are a new frontier of medicine. Unlike pre-existing vaccine technologies, mRNA vaccines present the human body with the genetic information to make a protein whose production incites a natural immune response. In this manner, mRNA vaccines create antibodies and build immunity towards pathogens resulting in the same protection as traditional vaccines yet without presenting the body with the foreign virus. Among the many advantages of this new technology is that the manufacturing process, rather than being specific to a virus or recombinant protein, is specific to mRNA. In this manner, the process is independent of the actual disease ...


Co2 Sequestration By Allam Cycle, Raghav Chaturvedi, Eric Kennedy, Sarron Metew Apr 2021

Co2 Sequestration By Allam Cycle, Raghav Chaturvedi, Eric Kennedy, Sarron Metew

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Natural gas powerplants account for 40% of the electricity generation in the United States[1] and 617 million tons of CO2 emissions a year[2]. The largest powerplants with carbon capture technology utilize a post-combustion absorption technology that must treat a large volume of flue gas and compress CO2 to pipeline specifications from near-ambient pressure. The Allam cycle, patented in 2013 by Rodney Allam, uses oxy-combustion and a supercritical CO2 stream as the working fluid to produce high-purity liquid pipeline CO2. While it was developed commercially at a 50-megawatt thermal (MWt) plant in 2018, the economics ...


Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson Mar 2021

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The South Asia Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies (Saci- WATERs) a water policy research institute based in Hyderabad, India, launched the South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Programme on climate change in 2017. The SaciWATERs is hosting the programme in collaboration with four partner engineering institutes from four South Asian countries, and with funding support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. This academic-oriented programme is aimed at facilitating the creation of a group of interdisciplinary women leaders in South Asia that share a common understanding of the crosscutting scientific and societal issues of water resource management. The four-year ...


Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Eleanor Allen is a global water expert dedicated to helping millions of people access the safe and sustainable water and sanitation services needed to save lives, stay healthy, earn more money, and thrive. Eleanor is fiercely passionate about improving the state of the world with respect to water and sanitation. She has dedicated her career to this goal, first as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic, then as a consulting engineer (at CH2M/Jacobs and Arcadis), and now as the CEO of Water For People. Eleanor has lived and worked all over the world. As a professional civil ...


Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale Mar 2021

Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Through this paper we explore women’s vulnerability during sanitation activities and the impact that household toilets have on women’s safety-related concerns. This study covers 4 cities in the state of Maharashtra– Pune, Pimpri- Chinchwad, Thane, and Kolhapur - where Shelter Associates has provided many slum households with toilets under its One Home One Toilet (OHOT) programme. A good part of the programme’s intention is to offer women an alternative to using their existing, inadequate public sanitation facilities, a problem that was highlighted during discussions with slum women themselves. Shelter Associates is a Maharashtra-based NGO established in 1993 that ...


Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick Mar 2021

Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Kishia Powell is a licensed Professional Engineer in the District of Columbia, Virginia and Maryland. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Morgan State University’s Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. School of Engineering. Currently, Powell is Chief Operating Officer at DC Water, where she manages 80% of the water authority’s resources. With over 22 years of experience, Kishia Powell sheds light on the value of water, her experience as a leader and a woman in the water utilities industry, the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate change in this interview with The Journal of Gender and Water ...


Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos Mar 2021

Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Plastics — ubiquitous material we cannot seem to live without — are everywhere, but sadly we cannot live with plastics either, at least not peaceably, especially when you consider there will be more plastics in the ocean than fish by 2050. In the intervening years, the photodegradation of plastic resulting in microplastics pollution will be an even bigger problem, affecting every living creature in the ocean, and by extrapolation, mankind. The choices we make and the steps we take to combat the overabundance of plastics in our environment will dictate not just the next 30 years, but the fate of the world ...


Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Brianna is both the founder/executive director of Her 2O™ and director of Water Filtration at a municipal drinking water utility. She achieves her primary goal of #buildingthefutureofwater by focusing on four important facets of the water industry: women in water, internships & mentoring, smart water & analytics, and emergency management. Her 2O™ is an international 501c3 nonprofit with the vision of women equitably involved in water management in every corner of the globe. This transcript provides an interview with Brianna about her inspirational journey in the water sector.


Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty Mar 2021

Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Research from the global development sector repeatedly shows that convenient access to safe water improves women’s quality of life. Similarly, digital technology is increasingly highlighted as an essential component for increasing women’s educational, economic, and civic opportunities—yet a gender divide exists. As digital technology becomes more prevalent in managing effective and reliable safe water services, the water sector has the opportunity to both create new channels for women to engage with technology and use technology to make safe water supply more responsive to women’s needs. In this article, we will explore how technology is deployed within ...


Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das Mar 2021

Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Poor rural communities suffer from many socio-economic issues; however, the availability of clean and safe water is the fundamental challenge amongst all other hindrances confronted by these communities. This article focuses on the non-profit organization, Nishtha (meaning dedication) and their intervention in women empowerment for better water accessibility in rural communities of West Bengal, India. The paper will further highlight the so-called “rural ignorant women’s endeavour” in innovative thought and strategy to protect their own families and the community. The article also discusses Nishtha’s intervention during water crises and disasters using a participatory approach involving women.


Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani Mar 2021

Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In Uttarakhand, drinking water is a major problem and a burning issue for the last decade. Many natural springs that dotted the hillside have been damaged due to the climate conditions and other unplanned or illegal activities such as deforestation and human-made forest fires have affected spring catchments, resulting in reduced discharge from springs. To tackle this major problem of drinking water security, the community of mountain village Jamak, district Uttarkashi came together for community-led drinking water supply by adopting participatory planning and ownership. The village community’s participation and ownership improved the village’s drinking water situation, and villagers ...


How To Cleave Wafers: Latticegear Protocol, Shenshen Wan, George Patrick Watson Feb 2021

How To Cleave Wafers: Latticegear Protocol, Shenshen Wan, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

We report on the process protocol to cleave wafers using LatticeGear cleaving and scribing tools sets.


Optimization Of Bilayer Lift-Off Process To Enable The Gap Size Of 1Μm Using Lor 3a And S1813, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson Jan 2021

Optimization Of Bilayer Lift-Off Process To Enable The Gap Size Of 1Μm Using Lor 3a And S1813, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

Bilayer lift-off process for 1μm feature size is demonstrated using LOR 3A and S1813 photoresist. The thickness of photoresists was fixed, whereas development time is varied. The process was further investigated by measuring the undercut depth and undercut rate by scanning electron microscopy. An optimized and reproducible recipe is provided.


Inkjet Printing Of Graphene, Lauren Hoang, Hiromichi Yamamoto, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson Dec 2020

Inkjet Printing Of Graphene, Lauren Hoang, Hiromichi Yamamoto, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

The optimization of inkjet printing graphene using a Fujifilm Dimatix Inkjet printer, is described in this study. The number of printing passes were varied, and relatively uniform lines were obtained. The printing parameter considerations and optimized printing parameters for graphene are also discussed.


What Is Robotics: Why Do We Need It And How Can We Get It?, Daniel E. Koditschek Dec 2020

What Is Robotics: Why Do We Need It And How Can We Get It?, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Robotics is an emerging synthetic science concerned with programming work. Robot technologies are quickly advancing beyond the insights of the existing science. More secure intellectual foundations will be required to achieve better, more reliable and safer capabilities as their penetration into society deepens. Presently missing foundations include the identification of fundamental physical limits, the development of new dynamical systems theory and the invention of physically grounded programming languages. The new discipline needs a departmental home in the universities which it can justify both intellectually and by its capacity to attract new diverse populations inspired by the age old human fascination ...


Verifying The Safety Of Autonomous Systems With Neural Network Controllers, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee Dec 2020

Verifying The Safety Of Autonomous Systems With Neural Network Controllers, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper addresses the problem of verifying the safety of autonomous systems with neural network (NN) controllers. We focus on NNs with sigmoid/tanh activations and use the fact that the sigmoid/tanh is the solution to a quadratic differential equation. This allows us to convert the NN into an equivalent hybrid system and cast the problem as a hybrid system verification problem, which can be solved by existing tools. Furthermore, we improve the scalability of the proposed method by approximating the sigmoid with a Taylor series with worst-case error bounds. Finally, we provide an evaluation over four benchmarks, including ...


Stress In Silicon Oxide Thin Films Grown By Dry Thermal Oxidation, Manisha Muduli, Hiromichi Yamamoto Nov 2020

Stress In Silicon Oxide Thin Films Grown By Dry Thermal Oxidation, Manisha Muduli, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

Dry thermal oxidation is performed at 900, 950, 1000, and 1050 C in fused silica tube furnace (Sandvik)for 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 min. The properties of the thin-films such as refractive index and stress arestudied in this paper. Refractive indexes of the thin-films are obtained using ellipsometer and decreasesfrom 1.78 to 1.46 as the film thickness increases.Stress of the thin-films is theoretically calculated,experimentally measured and then compared.Stress is calculated theoretically using Stoney’s stressequation and Goklaney’s stress equations. Stress is measured experimentally using the profilometer. Ex-perimentally measured stress and refractive indexes ...


Compositional Probabilistic Analysis Of Temporal Properties Over Stochastic Detectors, Ivan Ruchkin, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Tushar Hedaoo, Insup Lee Nov 2020

Compositional Probabilistic Analysis Of Temporal Properties Over Stochastic Detectors, Ivan Ruchkin, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Tushar Hedaoo, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Run-time monitoring is a vital part of safety-critical systems. However, early-stage assurance of monitoring quality is currently limited: it relies either on complex models that might be inaccurate in unknown ways, or on data that would only be available once the system has been built. To address this issue, we propose a compositional framework for modeling and analysis of noisy monitoring systems. Our novel 3-value detector model uses probability spaces to represent atomic (non-composite) detectors, and it composes them into a temporal logic-based monitor. The error rates of these monitors are estimated by our analysis engine, which combines symbolic probability ...


Progress Report Iii: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membranes Using Electron-Beam Lithography, Mingxuan Ma, Hiromichi Yamamoto Sep 2020

Progress Report Iii: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membranes Using Electron-Beam Lithography, Mingxuan Ma, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

This report describes the fabrication of a long-range orderly nanopore structure in free-standing siliconnitride membranes using electron-beam lithography (EBL). The parameter setting and challenges of eachstep are discussed.


Technical Report: Control And Design Of An Open-Source Two-Degree-Of-Freedom Hopping Robot, Weiyi Tang, Sonia F. Roberts, Daniel E. Koditschek Sep 2020

Technical Report: Control And Design Of An Open-Source Two-Degree-Of-Freedom Hopping Robot, Weiyi Tang, Sonia F. Roberts, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Using mechanical design inspired by the Ghost Minitaur and the open-source motor controller hardware from the Stanford Doggo, we built an open-source two-degree-of-freedom hopping robot. The robot hops using a Raibert-inspired reactive controller on the leg length and velocity. This technical report documents the project and provides a guide to others interested in building similar research robots.


Revolutionizing International Remittance Payments Using Cryptocurrency And Blockchain-Based Technology, Amine Soufaih Sep 2020

Revolutionizing International Remittance Payments Using Cryptocurrency And Blockchain-Based Technology, Amine Soufaih

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

Blockchain is disrupting many traditional industries including financial services. In the case of remittance payments, blockchain is seen as a promising technology that can revolutionize the way we send and receive money. Traditional players like Western Union and Moneygram are facing new entrants in this market such as blockchain startups. This paper will analyze the application of blockchain in remittances in order to determine if it has the potential to transform this industry. Through our analysis of the remittance industry and its current competitive landscape, it seems that it is very likely that blockchain will disrupt the space and completely ...


A Measure Of All Minds: A Classification Of The Artificial Intelligence Strengths And Virtues & The Creation Of The Thetis Dimensions Of Cybernetic Wellbeing, Seth Robin Norman Aug 2020

A Measure Of All Minds: A Classification Of The Artificial Intelligence Strengths And Virtues & The Creation Of The Thetis Dimensions Of Cybernetic Wellbeing, Seth Robin Norman

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Artificial intelligence has generated more ambivalence than any technology in human history. As Silicon Valley enters the third decade of its self-proclaimed era of artificial intelligence, there is still surprisingly little agreement about the nature of the 21st century’s defining invention, and even less about how our relationship with this seminal technology should be managed in the future. Positive psychology offers software engineers methods to cultivate a greater understanding of the unique strengths of the artificial intelligence programs they develop, as well as the effects to wellbeing triggered by the applications they deploy. In this paper, I will ...


An Obstacle Disturbance Selection Framework: Emergent Robot Steady States Under Repeated Collisions, Feifei Qian, Daniel E. Koditschek Jul 2020

An Obstacle Disturbance Selection Framework: Emergent Robot Steady States Under Repeated Collisions, Feifei Qian, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Natural environments are often filled with obstacles and disturbances. Traditional navigation and planning approaches normally depend on finding a traversable “free space” for robots to avoid unexpected contact or collision. We hypothesize that with a better understanding of the robot–obstacle interactions, these collisions and disturbances can be exploited as opportunities to improve robot locomotion in complex environments. In this article, we propose a novel obstacle disturbance selection (ODS) framework with the aim of allowing robots to actively select disturbances to achieve environment-aided locomotion. Using an empirically characterized relationship between leg–obstacle contact position and robot trajectory deviation, we simplify ...