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Articles 1 - 30 of 1621

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Csar 62 Spin Curve, Mohsen Azadi, Georgia Griggs, Glen De Villafranca, Gerald Lopez Dec 2018

Csar 62 Spin Curve, Mohsen Azadi, Georgia Griggs, Glen De Villafranca, Gerald Lopez

Protocols and Reports

No abstract provided.


Reactive Navigation In Partially Known Non-Convex Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Daniel E. Koditschek Dec 2018

Reactive Navigation In Partially Known Non-Convex Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper presents a provably correct method for robot navigation in 2D environments cluttered with familiar but unexpected non-convex, star-shaped obstacles as well as completely unknown, convex obstacles. We presuppose a limited range onboard sensor, capable of recognizing, localizing and (leveraging ideas from constructive solid geometry) generating online from its catalogue of the familiar, non-convex shapes an implicit representation of each one. These representations underlie an online change of coordinates to a completely convex model planning space wherein a previously developed online construction yields a provably correct reactive controller that is pulled back to the physically sensed representation to generate ...


Reactive Velocity Control Reduces Energetic Cost Of Jumping With A Virtual Leg Spring On Simulated Granular Media, Sonia F. Roberts, Daniel E. Koditschek Nov 2018

Reactive Velocity Control Reduces Energetic Cost Of Jumping With A Virtual Leg Spring On Simulated Granular Media, Sonia F. Roberts, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Robots capable of dynamic locomotion behaviors and high-bandwidth sensing with their limbs have a high cost of transport, especially when locomoting over highly dissipative substrates such as sand. We formulate the problem of reducing the energetic cost of locomotion by a Minitaur robot on sand, reacting to robot state variables in the inertial world frame without modeling the ground online. Using a bulk-behavior model of high-velocity intrusions into dry granular media, we simulated single jumps by a one-legged hopper using a Raibert-style compression-extension virtual leg spring. We compose this controller with a controller that added damping to the leg spring ...


Sensor-Based Reactive Execution Of Symbolic Rearrangement Plans By A Legged Mobile Manipulator, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, T. Turner Topping, William Vega-Brown, Nicholas Roy, Daniel E. Koditschek Oct 2018

Sensor-Based Reactive Execution Of Symbolic Rearrangement Plans By A Legged Mobile Manipulator, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, T. Turner Topping, William Vega-Brown, Nicholas Roy, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We demonstrate the physical rearrangement of wheeled stools in a moderately cluttered indoor environment by a quadrupedal robot that autonomously achieves a user's desired configuration. The robot's behaviors are planned and executed by a three layer hierarchical architecture consisting of: an offline symbolic task and motion planner; a reactive layer that tracks the reference output of the deliberative layer and avoids unanticipated obstacles sensed online; and a gait layer that realizes the abstract unicycle commands from the reactive module through appropriately coordinated joint level torque feedback loops. This work also extends prior formal results about the reactive layer ...


Inertial Velocity And Attitude Estimation For Quadrotors: Supplementary Material, James B. Svacha Jr, Kartik Mohta, Michael Watterson, Giuseppe Loianno, Vijay Kumar Oct 2018

Inertial Velocity And Attitude Estimation For Quadrotors: Supplementary Material, James B. Svacha Jr, Kartik Mohta, Michael Watterson, Giuseppe Loianno, Vijay Kumar

Departmental Papers (ESE)

No abstract provided.


Reducing Pulse Oximetry False Alarms Without Missing Life-Threatening Events, Hung Nguyen, Sooyong Jang, Radoslav Ivanov, Christopher P. Bonafide, James Weimer, Insup Lee Sep 2018

Reducing Pulse Oximetry False Alarms Without Missing Life-Threatening Events, Hung Nguyen, Sooyong Jang, Radoslav Ivanov, Christopher P. Bonafide, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Alarm fatigue has been increasingly recognized as one of the most significant problems in the hospital environment. One of the major causes is the excessive number of false physiologic monitor alarms. An underlying problem is the inefficient traditional threshold alarm system for physiologic parameters such as low blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this paper, we propose a robust classification procedure based on the AdaBoost algorithm with reject option that can identify and silence false SpO2 alarms, while ensuring zero misclassified clinically significant alarms. Alarms and vital signs related to SpO2 such as heart rate and pulse rate ...


What Is A Good Pattern Of Life Model? Guidance For Simulations, Barry G. Silverman, Gnana K. Bharathy, Nathan Weyer Aug 2018

What Is A Good Pattern Of Life Model? Guidance For Simulations, Barry G. Silverman, Gnana K. Bharathy, Nathan Weyer

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We have been modeling an ever-increasing scale of applications with agents that simulate the pattern of life (PoL) and real-world human behaviors in diverse regions of the world. The goal is to support sociocultural training and analysis. To measure progress, we propose the definition of a measure of goodness for such simulated agents, and review the issues and challenges associated with first-generation (1G) agents. Then we present a second generation (2G) agent hybrid approach that seeks to improve realism in terms of emergent daily activities, social awareness, and micro-decision making in simulations. We offer a PoL case study with a ...


Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam Jul 2018

Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this paper we aim to answer the question, ``How can modeling and simulation of physiological systems be used to evaluate life-critical implantable medical devices?'' Clinical trials for medical devices are becoming increasingly inefficient as they take several years to conduct, at very high cost and suffer from high rates of failure. For example, the Rhythm ID Goes Head-to-head Trial (RIGHT) sought to evaluate the performance of two arrhythmia discriminator algorithms for implantable cardioverter defibrillators, Vitality 2 vs. Medtronic, in terms of time-to-first inappropriate therapy, but concluded with results contrary to the initial hypothesis - after 5 years, 2,000+ patients ...


Vertical Hopper Compositions For Preflexive And Feedback-Stabilized Quadrupedal Bounding, Pacing, Pronking, And Trotting, Avik De, Daniel E. Koditschek Jul 2018

Vertical Hopper Compositions For Preflexive And Feedback-Stabilized Quadrupedal Bounding, Pacing, Pronking, And Trotting, Avik De, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper applies an extension of classical averaging methods to hybrid dynamical systems, thereby achieving formally specified, physically effective and robust instances of all virtual bipedal gaits on a quadrupedal robot. Gait specification takes the form of a three parameter family of coupling rules mathematically shown to stabilize limit cycles in a low degree of freedom template: an abstracted pair of vertical hoppers whose relative phase locking encodes the desired physical leg patterns. These coupling rules produce the desired gaits when appropriately applied to the physical robot. The formal analysis reveals a distinct set of morphological regimes determined by the ...


Bandwidth Optimal Data/Service Delivery For Connected Vehicles Via Edges, Deepak Gangadharan, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, Baekgyu Kim, Chung-Wei Lin, Shinichi Shiraishi Jul 2018

Bandwidth Optimal Data/Service Delivery For Connected Vehicles Via Edges, Deepak Gangadharan, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, Baekgyu Kim, Chung-Wei Lin, Shinichi Shiraishi

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The paradigm of connected vehicles is fast gaining lot of attraction in the automotive industry. Recently, a lot of technological innovation has been pushed through to realize this paradigm using vehicle to cloud (V2C), infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle (V2V) communications. This has also opened the doors for efficient delivery of data/service to the vehicles via edge devices that are closer to the vehicles. In this work, we propose an optimization framework that can be used to deliver data/service to the connected vehicles such that a bandwidth cost objective is optimized. For the first time, we also integrate a ...


Comparison Between Silicon Nanopillars Prepared By Bosch Process And Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary May 2018

Comparison Between Silicon Nanopillars Prepared By Bosch Process And Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary

Protocols and Reports

Nanopillars fabricated by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching (MacEtch) wet-etch process have been compared with those by Bosch dry-etch process. The Bosch process in this study gave vertical nanopillars with smooth side walls, which was better than the typical Bosch process. However, the verticality of the nanopillars depended on the location within the wafer where they were etched. On the other hand, MacEtch process gave a very consistent feature from 100 to 1000 nm diameter using 20 nm thick Au film without an expensive etching tool. The present technical report discuss the difference between MacEtch and Bosch processes.


Sensor-Based Reactive Navigation In Unknown Convex Sphere Worlds, Omur Arslan, Daniel E. Koditschek May 2018

Sensor-Based Reactive Navigation In Unknown Convex Sphere Worlds, Omur Arslan, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We construct a sensor-based feedback law that provably solves the real-time collision-free robot navigation problem in a compact convex Euclidean subset cluttered with unknown but sufficiently separated and strongly convex obstacles. Our algorithm introduces a novel use of separating hyperplanes for identifying the robot’s local obstacle-free convex neighborhood, affording a reactive (online-computed) continuous and piecewise smooth closed-loop vector field whose smooth flow brings almost all configurations in the robot’s free space to a designated goal location, with the guarantee of no collisions along the way. Specialized attention to planar navigable environments yields a necessary and sufficient condition on ...


A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam May 2018

A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Towards Overhead-Free Interface Theory For Compositional Hierarchical Real-Time Systems, Jin Hyun Kim, Kygong Hoon Kim, Arvind Easwaran, Insup Lee May 2018

Towards Overhead-Free Interface Theory For Compositional Hierarchical Real-Time Systems, Jin Hyun Kim, Kygong Hoon Kim, Arvind Easwaran, Insup Lee

Technical Reports (CIS)

Much recent research has been conducted on compositional real-time scheduling framework as the framework becomes a useful fundamental theory for real-time OS-Hypervisor. Much recent research has been conducted on compositional real-time scheduling as the framework becomes a useful fundamental theory for real-time OS-Hypervisor. However, compositional frameworks suffer from abstraction overheads in composing components. In this paper, we classify the composition overheads into i) supply abstraction overhead associated with the supply from a resource provider, and ii) demand abstraction overhead associated with the component workload. Then, we provide sufficient conditions for each abstraction overhead to be eliminated. In addition, this paper ...


Openice-Lite: Towards A Connectivity Platform For The Internet Of Medical Things, Radoslav Ivanov, Hung Nguyen, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee May 2018

Openice-Lite: Towards A Connectivity Platform For The Internet Of Medical Things, Radoslav Ivanov, Hung Nguyen, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is poised to revolutionize medicine. However, medical device communication, coordination, and interoperability present challenges for IoMT applications due to safety, security, and privacy concerns. These challenges can be addressed by developing an open platform for IoMT that can provide guarantees on safety, security and privacy. As a first step, we introduce OpenICE-lite, a middleware for medical device interoperability that also provides security guarantees and allows other IoMT applications to view/analyze the data in real time. We describe two applications that currently utilize OpenICE-lite, namely (i) a critical pulmonary shunt predictor for infants during ...


Data Freshness Over-Engineering: Formulation And Results, Dagaen Golomb, Deepak Gangadharan, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee May 2018

Data Freshness Over-Engineering: Formulation And Results, Dagaen Golomb, Deepak Gangadharan, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

In many application scenarios, data consumed by real-time tasks are required to meet a maximum age, or freshness, guarantee. In this paper, we consider the end-to-end freshness constraint of data that is passed along a chain of tasks in a uniprocessor setting. We do so with few assumptions regarding the scheduling algorithm used. We present a method for selecting the periods of tasks in chains of length two and three such that the end-to-end freshness requirement is satisfied, and then extend our method to arbitrary chains. We perform evaluations of both methods using parameters from an embedded benchmark suite (E3S ...


Generic Formal Framework For Compositional Analysis Of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems, Jalil Boudjadar, Jin Hyun Kim, Linh Thi Xuan Phan, Insup Lee, Kim G. Larsen, Ulrik Nyman May 2018

Generic Formal Framework For Compositional Analysis Of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems, Jalil Boudjadar, Jin Hyun Kim, Linh Thi Xuan Phan, Insup Lee, Kim G. Larsen, Ulrik Nyman

Departmental Papers (CIS)

We present a compositional framework for the specification and analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems (HSS). Firstly we provide a generic formal model, which can be used to describe any type of scheduling system. The concept of Job automata is introduced in order to model job instantiation patterns. We model the interaction between different levels in the hierarchy through the use of state-based resource models. Our notion of resource model is general enough to capture multi-core architectures, preemptiveness and non-determinism.


A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam May 2018

A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Sensor-Based Reactive Symbolic Planning In Partially Known Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, William Vega-Brown, Omur Arslan, Nicholas Roy, Daniel E. Koditschek May 2018

Sensor-Based Reactive Symbolic Planning In Partially Known Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, William Vega-Brown, Omur Arslan, Nicholas Roy, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper considers the problem of completing assemblies of passive objects in nonconvex environments, cluttered with convex obstacles of unknown position, shape and size that satisfy a specific separation assumption. A differential drive robot equipped with a gripper and a LIDAR sensor, capable of perceiving its environment only locally, is used to position the passive objects in a desired configuration. The method combines the virtues of a deliberative planner generating high-level, symbolic commands, with the formal guarantees of convergence and obstacle avoidance of a reactive planner that requires little onboard computation and is used online. The validity of the proposed ...


Alignment Error Examination Of Elionix E-Beam Writer Els-7500ex, Yangshanshan Li May 2018

Alignment Error Examination Of Elionix E-Beam Writer Els-7500ex, Yangshanshan Li

Tool Data

The alignment error of Elinox ELS-7500EX E-beam Lithography system is examined, as a project of Graduate Student Fellow Program. This report shows the alignment error of 60 and 30 nm in the x- and y-direction, respectively, confirming the tool specification of 60 nm alignment error.


On Balancing Event And Area Coverage In Mobile Sensor Networks, Hancheng Min May 2018

On Balancing Event And Area Coverage In Mobile Sensor Networks, Hancheng Min

Departmental Papers (ESE)

In practice, the mobile sensor networks have two important tasks: firstly, sensors should be able to locate themselves close to where major events are happening so that event tracking becomes possible; secondly, the sensor networks should also maintain a good area coverage over the environment in order to detect new events. Because these two tasks are usually conflicting with each other, a coverage control policy should be able to balance the event and area coverage of the environment. However, most existing work is to achieve either optimal event coverage or optimal area coverage over the environment. In this thesis, a ...


Nomadic Monument For Women In Robotics, Diedra Krieger, Gaby Alfaro, Joey Hartmann-Dow, Sonia F. Roberts Apr 2018

Nomadic Monument For Women In Robotics, Diedra Krieger, Gaby Alfaro, Joey Hartmann-Dow, Sonia F. Roberts

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We describe the Nomadic Monument for Women in Robotis (NMWR), a project celebrating women pioneers in robotics. NMWR is a 13’ semi-transparent geodesic dome with illustrations and descriptions of the women and their research on the inside faces of the triangles. Visitors can see rough outlines of the illustrations from the outside, but must enter the dome to learn about the women. As an immersive environment, the dome provides visitors not only a place to learn about inspiring women but also a space to feel that they are a member of this inspiring community.

The geodesic dome was introduced by ...


Data-Driven Model Predictive Control Using Random Forests For Building Energy Optimization And Climate Control, Francesco Smarra, Achin Jain, Tullio De Rubeis, Dario Ambrosini, Alessandro D'Innocenzo, Rahul Mangharam Apr 2018

Data-Driven Model Predictive Control Using Random Forests For Building Energy Optimization And Climate Control, Francesco Smarra, Achin Jain, Tullio De Rubeis, Dario Ambrosini, Alessandro D'Innocenzo, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a model-based technique widely and successfully used over the past years to improve control systems performance. A key factor prohibiting the widespread adoption of MPC for complex systems such as buildings is related to the difficulties (cost, time and effort) associated with the identification of a predictive model of a building. To overcome this problem, we introduce a novel idea for predictive control based on historical building data leveraging machine learning algorithms like regression trees and random forests. We call this approach Data-driven model Predictive Control (DPC), and we apply it to three different case ...


Oxy Fuel For Clean Energy Generation, Patrick J. Hally, Najib M. Muqeem, Colin B. Richter, Timothy R. Schanstra Apr 2018

Oxy Fuel For Clean Energy Generation, Patrick J. Hally, Najib M. Muqeem, Colin B. Richter, Timothy R. Schanstra

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This process explores several concentrations of oxygen-enriched air streams (oxy fuel) in combination with natural gas to generate steam for a steam turbine power plant with 30 MW capacity. The proposed location for this plant is the gulf coast of the United States. The oxy fuel concentrations tested were 36 mol. %, 53 mol. %, and 95 mol. %. Nitrogen removed from air would be sold as well as the 30 MW of electricity. The three oxygen purities were not profitable for the most realistic prices of electricity, nitrogen, and natural gas. However, the scenarios were all profitable with prices of nitrogen above ...


Bio-Dodecanedioic Acid (Ddda) Production, Brandon M. Mills, Meghavi M. Talati, Gregory A. Winter Apr 2018

Bio-Dodecanedioic Acid (Ddda) Production, Brandon M. Mills, Meghavi M. Talati, Gregory A. Winter

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The demand for dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) is steadily increasing each year with demand expected to exceed 90.4 kilotons per month in 2023.1.1 DDDA is an intermediate chemical used in a variety of end products. Thus, the increase in DDDA demand can largely be attributed to increasing demand for manufacturing nylon, paints, adhesives, and powder coatings. Regionally, Asia Pacific has been observing the fastest growth of all regions at over 6% CAGR.1.2 The robust manufacturing base for nylon, along with a growing automotive industry in India and China, will propel DDDA growth into the next decade ...


Sodium And Specialty Cyanides Production Facility, Nicholas A. Baylis, Parth N. Desai, Kyle J. Kuhns Apr 2018

Sodium And Specialty Cyanides Production Facility, Nicholas A. Baylis, Parth N. Desai, Kyle J. Kuhns

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Sodium cyanide and specialty cyanide production are essential operations for various industrial processes, with primary applications in mining and mineral processing. Sodium cyanide, despite the high toxicity inherent in the material and its production process, is expected to grow 5% annually, with a projected global demand of 1.1 million tonnes in 2018. This report details a process design for producing sodium cyanide through the use of two intermediate reactions and successive downstream separations. The first major step is the production of hydrogen cyanide gas from ammonia and methane derived from natural gas, via the industry standard Andrussow reaction over ...


Design Of A Flexible, High-Volume Direct Flue Gas-To-Algae Conversion Process For Value-Added Bioproducts, Casey M. Barkan, Kyle A. Deluca, Mikaela R. Preston Apr 2018

Design Of A Flexible, High-Volume Direct Flue Gas-To-Algae Conversion Process For Value-Added Bioproducts, Casey M. Barkan, Kyle A. Deluca, Mikaela R. Preston

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Carbon conversion processes (where carbon dioxide is not only captured and stored, but converted to commercially-valuable products) have high barriers to sustained and large-scale commercial viability. Mass algae production as a means to carbon emissions reductions is considered to have great commercial potential, but the viability of deployment is going to rely on technological leaps supported by strong public and private investment. Presented in this Design Report is a novel pilot-scale microalgae cultivation system that successfully converts over 50% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) present in a stream of flue gas from a coal-red power plant flue gas into ...


Chemical Recycling Of Polystyrene Using Pyrolysis, Jade H. Bassil, Gabrielle Dreux, Gwendolyn A. Eastaugh Apr 2018

Chemical Recycling Of Polystyrene Using Pyrolysis, Jade H. Bassil, Gabrielle Dreux, Gwendolyn A. Eastaugh

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

There are significant economic and environmental benefits to the recycling of waste plastics, especially that of polystyrene. Currently, much of polystyrene waste is sent to landfills due to the difficulty in separation and cleaning processes, where it accumulates indefinitely. It contributes to plastic pollution and adversely affects wildlife, oceans and humans. Pyrolysis of waste polystyrene is explored in this paper as a chemical recycling method. This reaction yields useful liquid fuel products such as styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and methylstyrene, which can be sold to provide project revenues. Beginning with a polystyrene feed of 100 tons per day, the suggested design ...


Monoclonal Antibody Production And Purification, Hope E. Mcmahon, Jessica W. Schwartz, Shritama Ray Apr 2018

Monoclonal Antibody Production And Purification, Hope E. Mcmahon, Jessica W. Schwartz, Shritama Ray

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses mAbs to bind mono-specifically to certain cells or proteins. This may then stimulate the patient's immune system to attack those cells. MAbs are currently used to treat medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s Disease, but have the potential to treat countless diseases and disorders. In 2015, the mAb market was valued at $85.4 billion, and is expected to reach $138.6 billion by 2024.1 In manufacturing, mAbs are typically produced in suspension in a series of fed-batch bioreactors using genetically engineered ...


Production Of Universal Red Blood Cells Via Enzymatic Conversion, Carly M. Catella, Rachel A. Coler, Brandon H. Hayes Apr 2018

Production Of Universal Red Blood Cells Via Enzymatic Conversion, Carly M. Catella, Rachel A. Coler, Brandon H. Hayes

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion units are considered one of the most essential healthcare components in the world. In the United States alone, approximately 21 million transfusion units are required every year. Despite this high demand, RBC units are becoming increasingly scarce since only a fraction of eligible donors provide RBCs to for medical use. Additionally, RBC transfusions are limited to immune compatibility in patients, making it difficult to serve all patients with such a limited supply. This proposed design provides a method in which RBCs of any blood group can be converted into the universal blood type, O, to ...