# Engineering Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 7584

## Full-Text Articles in Engineering

The Scientific Information Exchange General Model At Digital Library Context: Internet Of Things, Nayere Soleimanzade, Asefeh Asemi, Mozafar Cheshmehsohrabi, Ahmad Shabani Jan 2019

#### The Scientific Information Exchange General Model At Digital Library Context: Internet Of Things, Nayere Soleimanzade, Asefeh Asemi, Mozafar Cheshmehsohrabi, Ahmad Shabani

##### Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Introduction: This paper aims to develop a Scientific Information Exchange General Model at Digital Library in Context of Internet of things, which would enable automated and efficient library services. To accomplish its objective, the main classes (Concepts), sub-classes, attributes are identified in order to introduce an appropriate model.

Methodology: The approach of this study is basic, exploratory, and developmental and is run through a mixed method consisting of documentary, Delphi, and data modeling methods. The study population in the documentary section includes the study of information resources retrieved in related subjects. The study population in the Delphi section is consist ...

Modeled And Measured Ecosystem Respiration In Maize–Soybean Systems Over 10 Years, Ming Zhan, Adam Liska, Anthony Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton, Haishun Yang Jan 2019

#### Modeled And Measured Ecosystem Respiration In Maize–Soybean Systems Over 10 Years, Ming Zhan, Adam Liska, Anthony Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton, Haishun Yang

Crop residue is an abundant resource for the potential production of biofuels, but a better understanding of its use on net carbon emissions must be developed to mitigate climate change. This analysis combines two established crop growth models (Hybrid-Maize and SoySim) with a simple soil and crop residue respiration model to estimate daily ecosystem respiration (ERe) from maize and soybean; ERe was estimated to be the sum of CO2 emissions from the oxidation of the growing crop, crop residue, and soil organic carbon (SOC). Model-estimated CO2 fluxes from irrigated continuous maize and irrigated maize–soybean cropping systems in ...

Mechanical Characterizations Of 3d-Printed Plla/Steel Particle Composites, Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Haitham Hadidi, Michael P. Sealy, Linxia Gu Jan 2019

#### Mechanical Characterizations Of 3d-Printed Plla/Steel Particle Composites, Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Haitham Hadidi, Michael P. Sealy, Linxia Gu

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The objective of this study is to characterize the micromechanical properties of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) composites reinforced by grade 420 stainless steel (SS) particles with a specific focus on the interphase properties. The specimens were manufactured using 3D printing techniques due to its many benefits, including high accuracy, cost effectiveness and customized geometry. The adopted fused filament fabrication resulted in a thin interphase layer with an average thickness of 3 μm. The mechanical properties of each phase, as well as the interphase, were characterized by nanoindentation tests. The effect of matrix degradation, i.e., imperfect bonding, on the elastic modulus ...

Resistance To Helium Bubble Formation In Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Nanocomposite, Qing Su, Tianyao Wang, Jonathan Gigax, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi Jan 2019

#### Resistance To Helium Bubble Formation In Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Nanocomposite, Qing Su, Tianyao Wang, Jonathan Gigax, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The management of radiation defects and insoluble He atoms represent key challenges for structural materials in existing fission reactors and advanced reactor systems. To examine how crystalline/amorphous interface, together with the amorphous constituents affects radiation tolerance and He management, we studied helium bubble formation in helium ion implanted amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and crystalline Fe composites by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiOC/Fe composites were grown via magnetron sputtering with controlled length scale on a surface oxidized Si (100) substrate. These composites were subjected to 50 keV He+ implantation with ion doses chosen to produce a 5 at ...

The Next-Generation Retail Electricity Market In The Context Of Distributed Energy Resources: Vision And Integrating Framework, Josue Campos Do Prado, Wei Qiao, Liyan Qu, Julio Romero Aguero Jan 2019

#### The Next-Generation Retail Electricity Market In The Context Of Distributed Energy Resources: Vision And Integrating Framework, Josue Campos Do Prado, Wei Qiao, Liyan Qu, Julio Romero Aguero

##### Faculty Publications from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The increasing adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart grid technologies (SGTs) by end-user retail customers is changing significantly both technical and economic operations in the distribution grid. The next-generation retail electricity market will promote decentralization, efficiency, and competitiveness by accommodating existing and new agents through new business models and transactive approaches in an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). However, these changes will bring several technical challenges to be addressed in transmission and distribution systems. Considerable activities have been carried out worldwide to study the impacts of integrating DERs into the grid and in the wholesale electricity market. However, the ...

A Sensorless Force-Feedback System For Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery, Baoliang Zhao, Carl A. Nelson Jan 2019

#### A Sensorless Force-Feedback System For Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery, Baoliang Zhao, Carl A. Nelson

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The existing surgical robots for laparoscopic surgery offer no or limited force feedback, and there are many problems for the traditional sensor-based solutions. This paper builds a teleoperation surgical system and validates the effectiveness of sensorless force feedback. The tool-tissue interaction force at the surgical grasper tip is estimated using the driving motor’s current, and fed back to the master robot with a position-force bilateral control algorithm. The stiffness differentiation experiment and tumor detection experiment were conducted. In the stiffness differentiation experiment, 43 out of 45 pairs of ranking relationships were identified correctly, yielding a success rate of 96 ...

Hemodynamic Interference Of Serial Stenoses And Its Impact On Ffr And Ifr Measurements, Siyeong Ju, Linxia Gu Jan 2019

#### Hemodynamic Interference Of Serial Stenoses And Its Impact On Ffr And Ifr Measurements, Siyeong Ju, Linxia Gu

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The hemodynamic interference of serial stenoses poses challenges for identifying the functional severity using the fractional flow reserve (FFR) method. The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), i.e., the distal-to-proximal pressure ratio at 75% of diastole, was recently proposed to overcome the disadvantages of the FFR. However, the underlying mechanism remained ambiguous due to the lack of quantitative definition of hemodynamic interference. The objective of this study is to quantitatively define the hemodynamic interference and then examine its role on the FFR and iFR measurements. Pressure distributions, velocity fields, and Q-criterion which identifies vortices, were obtained through the computational fluid dynamics ...

Resistance To Helium Bubble Formation In Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Nanocomposite, Qing Su, Tianyao Wang, Jonathan Gigax, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi Jan 2019

#### Resistance To Helium Bubble Formation In Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Nanocomposite, Qing Su, Tianyao Wang, Jonathan Gigax, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The management of radiation defects and insoluble He atoms represent key challenges for structural materials in existing fission reactors and advanced reactor systems. To examine how crystalline/amorphous interface, together with the amorphous constituents affects radiation tolerance and He management, we studied helium bubble formation in helium ion implanted amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and crystalline Fe composites by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiOC/Fe composites were grown via magnetron sputtering with controlled length scale on a surface oxidized Si (100) substrate. These composites were subjected to 50 keV He+ implantation with ion doses chosen to produce a 5 at ...

Fuzzy Control System For Variable Rate Irrigation Using Remote Sensing, Willians Ribeiro Mendes, Fábio Meneghetti U. Araújo, Ritaban Dutta, Derek M. Heeren Jan 2019

#### Fuzzy Control System For Variable Rate Irrigation Using Remote Sensing, Willians Ribeiro Mendes, Fábio Meneghetti U. Araújo, Ritaban Dutta, Derek M. Heeren

##### Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Variable rate irrigation (VRI) is the capacity to spatially vary the depth of water application in a field to handle different types of soils, crops, and other conditions. Precise management zones must be developed to efficiently apply variable rate technologies. However, there is no universal method to determine management zones. Using speed control maps for the central pivot is one option. Thus, this study aims to develop an intelligent fuzzy inference system based on precision irrigation knowledge, i.e., a system that can create prescriptive maps to control the rotation speed of the central pivot. Satellite images are used in ...

High Strength, Deformable Nanotwinned Al–Co Alloys, S. Xue, Qiang Li, D. Y. Xie, Y. F. Zhang, Han Wang, Haiyan Wong, J. Wang, Xinghang Zhang Jan 2019

#### High Strength, Deformable Nanotwinned Al–Co Alloys, S. Xue, Qiang Li, D. Y. Xie, Y. F. Zhang, Han Wang, Haiyan Wong, J. Wang, Xinghang Zhang

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Aluminum (Al) alloys have been widely used in the transportation industry. However, most highstrength Al alloys to date have limited mechanical strength, on the order of a few hundred MPa, which is much lower than the flow stress of high-strength steels. In this study, we show the fabrication of nanocrystalline Al alloys with high-density growth twins enabled by a few atomic percent of Co solute. In situ uniaxial compression tests show that the flow stress of Al–Co solid solution alloys exceeds 1.5 GPa, while good work hardening capability is maintained. This study provides a new perspective on the ...

Fast Growth Of Thin Mapbi3 Crystal Wafers On Aqueous Solution Surface For Efficient Lateral-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells, Ye Liu, Qingfeng Dong, Yanjun Fang, Yuze Lin, Yehao Deng, Jinsong Huang Jan 2019

#### Fast Growth Of Thin Mapbi3 Crystal Wafers On Aqueous Solution Surface For Efficient Lateral-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells, Ye Liu, Qingfeng Dong, Yanjun Fang, Yuze Lin, Yehao Deng, Jinsong Huang

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Solar-grade single or multiple crystalline wafers are needed in large quantities in the solar cell industry, and are generally formed by a top-down process from crystal ingots, which causes a significant waste of materials and energy during slicing, polishing, and other processing. Here, a bottom-up technique that allows the growth of wafer-size hybrid perovskite multiple crystals directly from aqueous solution is reported. Single-crystalline hybrid perovskite wafers with centimeter size are grown at the top surface of a perovskite precursor solution. As well as saving raw materials, this method provides unprecedented advantages such as easily tunable thickness and rapid growth of ...

#### Gmaim: An Analytical Pipeline For Microrna Splicing Profiling Using Generative Model, Kan Liu

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short (~22 nt) single strand RNA molecules predominantly found in eukaryotes. Being involved in many major biological processes, miRNAs can regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs to facilitate their degradation or translational inhibition. The imprecise splicing of miRNA splicing which introduces severe variability in terms of sequences of miRNA products and their corresponding downstream gene expression regulation. For example, to study biogenesis of miRNAs, usually, biologists can deplete a gene in the miRNA biogenesis pathway and study the change of miRNA sequences, which can cause impression of miRNAs. Although high-throughput sequencing technologies such as ...

Scale-Out Algorithm For Apache Storm In Saas Environment, Ravi Kiran Puttaswamy Dec 2018

#### Scale-Out Algorithm For Apache Storm In Saas Environment, Ravi Kiran Puttaswamy

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The main appeal of the Cloud is in its cost effective and flexible access to computing power. Apache Storm is a data processing framework used to process streaming data. In our work we explore the possibility of offering Apache Storm as a software service. Further, we take advantage of the cgroups feature in Storm to divide the computing power of worker machine into smaller units to be offered to users. We predict that the compute bounds placed on the cgroups could be used to approximate the state of the workflow. We discuss the limitations of the current schedulers in facilitating ...

#### Variable Rate Irrigation Using A Spatial Evapotranspiration Model With Remote Sensing Imagery And Soil Water Content Measurements, Sandeep Bhatti

##### Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Variable rate irrigation may help in intensification of agriculture by producing more yield per unit inputs. Real time spatial information about water balance components is important for designing VRI prescription maps. This work involved use of a spatial evapotranspiration model for studying spatial variability in an agricultural field at the Eastern Nebraska Research and Extension Center near Mead, Nebraska. Imagery from unmanned aerial systems and Landsat were used as input for the spatial evapotranspiration model. Other inputs into the model were soil water content measurements from neutron probes, weather data, crop data, previous irrigation prescriptions, and soil properties for the ...

Dec 2018

#### Reducing The Tail Latency Of A Distributed Nosql Database, Jun Wu

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The request latency is an important performance metric of a distributed database, such as the popular Apache Cassandra, because of its direct impact on the user experience. Specifically, the latency of a read or write request is defined as the total time interval from the instant when a user makes the request to the instant when the user receives the request, and it involves not only the actual read or write time at a specific database node, but also various types of latency introduced by the distributed mechanism of the database. Most of the current work focuses only on reducing ...

#### Generation Of 360 Degree Point Cloud For Characterization Of Morphological And Chemical Properties Of Maize And Sorghum, Suresh Thapa

##### Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Recently, imaged-based high-throughput phenotyping methods have gained popularity in plant phenotyping. Imaging projects the 3D space into a 2D grid causing the loss of depth information and thus causes the retrieval of plant morphological traits challenging. In this study, LiDAR was used along with a turntable to generate a 360-degree point cloud of single plants. A LABVIEW program was developed to control and synchronize both the devices. A data processing pipeline was built to recover the digital surface models of the plants. The system was tested with maize and sorghum plants to derive the morphological properties including leaf area, leaf ...

#### Design And Analysis Of Binary Driven Coherent M-Ary Qam Transmitter For Next Generation Optical Networks, Naji Albakay

##### Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

This work presents a design for a binary driven optical square M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmitter for high speed optical networks. The transmitter applies tandem quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulators to eliminate the need for linear broadband amplifiers and high-resolution digital to analog converters (DACs), which are both required by conventional transmitters. The transmitter design could be scaled to any order of square M-ary QAM by simply adding more QPSK modulators in tandem. It also provides a Gray coded symbol constellation, insuring the lowest bit error rate possible during symbol recovery. We also provide the design for the ...

#### Soil Health Effects And Stakeholder Perceptions Of Manure And Woody Biomass Application To Cropland In Nebraska, Linda R. Schott

##### Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Organic products that have historically been viewed as waste products may improve soil health by adding carbon (C) and nutrients to soil. Two such products are woodchips, generated from forest or rangeland management activities, and livestock manure. In Nebraska, eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is a native but invasive tree species inhibiting rangeland productivity. Livestock manure that is underutilized while inorganic fertilizers are imported for crop production presents a water quality risk by contributing to local- and regional-scale nutrient imbalances. Increasing the responsible use of livestock manure in crop fertility programs to improve sustainability of both livestock and crop farms ...

Dec 2018

#### Evaluation Of Deformable Posts In The Zoi And Rigid Posts In Stiff Soil, Thomas Ammon

##### Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Debris fences are commonly used by states, in conjunction with a concrete parapet, to protect railway tracks. Their use limits the intrusion of debris that could damage tracks or clutter rail lines. Due to a lack of previously crash-tested systems, the safety performance of such designs are largely unknown. The Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) desired that researchers at the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) design a crashworthy debris fence mounted on top of a concrete parapet to meet the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) TL-3 crash test conditions. Part 1 of this thesis details the literature review and ...

Nov 2018

#### Evoalloy: An Evolutionary Approach For Analyzing Alloy Specifications, Jianghao Wang

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Using mathematical notations and logical reasoning, formal methods precisely define a program’s specifications, from which we can instantiate valid instances of a system. With these techniques, we can perform a variety of analysis tasks to verify system dependability and rigorously prove the correctness of system properties. While there exist well-designed automated verification tools including ones considered lightweight, they still lack a strong adoption in practice. The essence of the problem is that when applied to large real world applications, they are not scalable and applicable due to the expense of thorough verification process. In this thesis, I present a ...

Nov 2018

#### Experimental Study On A New Type Of Transverse Connection For Nebraska County Bridge System, Alexander Bleyhl

##### Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Many county-owned bridges in Nebraska need replacement due to their structural deficiency. Most of the bridges needing replacement are in the 40 to 60 ft range. This span range lacks a standard design that fits Nebraska county practices in terms of speed and simplicity of construction. The current systems being used are (a) Precast 1 by 2 ft planks which can span up to 30 ft, (b) Cast-in-place slab bridges which can span up to 50 ft but require extensive field formwork, concrete placing, and curing, and are best when constructed in three-span units, and (c) Inverted tees which can ...

#### Asic Design To Support Low Power High Voltage Power Supply For Radiation Monitoring Applications, Daniel Rogge

##### Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

A low power high voltage power supply is designed for use in a long duration radiation monitoring system. The supply employs a flexible pulse frequency modulation switching controller implemented in a 0.35 $\mu$m CMOS technology. The controller drives and regulates a flyback transformer driven 12-stage Cockroft-Walton voltage multiplier chain. The chain provides bias for the dynodes of a photomultiplier tube. The supply voltage is selectable via a 12-bit on-chip digital to analog converter. The system is designed for low power operation and immunity to supply voltage variation as the application is battery-powered.

Advisors: Sina Balkir and Michael Homan

Drop Generation Using Cross-Flow In Rigid Body Rotation, Haipeng Zhang Nov 2018

#### Drop Generation Using Cross-Flow In Rigid Body Rotation, Haipeng Zhang

##### Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Inspired by crossflow membrane droplet generation and microfluidic droplet generation, I propose an easy method to generate monodisperse drops using cross-flow caused by rigid body rotation. In this approach, a dispersed phase (DP) liquid was injected through a stationary vertical needle into an immiscible continuous phase (CP) liquid which was in rigid body rotation. A DP drop growing at the end of the needle experienced fluid dynamic forces from the horizontal CP flow, and it was detached from the needle when it had grown to a certain size. This study investigated the relationship between the resultant size of drops and ...

#### Deploying, Improving And Evaluating Edge Bundling Methods For Visualizing Large Graphs, Jieting Wu

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

A tremendous increase in the scale of graphs has been witnessed in a wide range of fields, which demands efficient and effective visualization techniques to assist users in better understandings of large graphs. Conventional node-link diagrams are often used to visualize graphs, whereas excessive edge crossings can easily incur severe visual clutter in the node-link diagram of a large graph. Edge bundling can effectively remedy visual clutter and reveal high-level graph structures. Although significant efforts have been devoted to developing edge bundling, three challenging problems remain. First, edge bundling techniques are often computationally expensive and are not easy to deploy ...

Controller Evolution And Divergence: A Software Perspective, Balaji Balasubramaniam Nov 2018

#### Controller Evolution And Divergence: A Software Perspective, Balaji Balasubramaniam

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Successful controllers evolve as they are refined, extended, and adapted to new systems and contexts. This evolution occurs in the controller design and also in its software implementation. Model-based design and controller synthesis can help to synchronize this evolution of design and software, but such synchronization is rarely complete as software tends to also evolve in response to elements rarely present in a control model, leading to mismatches between the control design and the software.

In this thesis, we perform a first-of-its-kind study on the evolution of two popular open-source safety-critical autopilot control software -- ArduPilot, and Paparazzi, to better understand ...

Investigation Of A Tractor-Tank Trailer Roadside Containment Barrier, Dean L. Whitfield Nov 2018

#### Investigation Of A Tractor-Tank Trailer Roadside Containment Barrier, Dean L. Whitfield

##### Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The objective of this research project was to develop a new, cost-effective, Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) Test Level 6 (TL-6) barrier. A literature review on prior Test Level 5 and Test Level 6 barriers was conducted, and the cost of current TL-5 and TL-6 barriers was established. Existing and modified design procedures for roadside barrier were reviewed as well as current TL-6 design forces. A preliminary TL-6 truck model was developed in LS-DYNA. The minimum barrier height to contain a tractor-tank vehicle was determined to be 62 in. for a rigid, vertical-faced barrier through LS-DYNA computer simulation. New ...

Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale Nov 2018

#### Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale

Driven by biofuel policies, which aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase domestic energy supply, global production and consumption of bioethanol have doubled between 2007 and 2016, with rapid growth in corn-based bioethanol in the U.S. and sugar cane-based bioethanol in Brazil. Advances in crop yields, energy use efficiency in fertilizer production, biomass-to-ethanol conversion rates, and energy efficiency in ethanol production have improved the energy balance and GHG emission reduction potential of bioethanol. In the current study, the water, energy, and carbon footprints of bioethanol from corn in the U.S. and sugar cane in Brazil were ...

Web-Based Archaeology And Collaborative Research, Fabrizio Galeazzi, Heather Richards-Rissetto Nov 2018

#### Web-Based Archaeology And Collaborative Research, Fabrizio Galeazzi, Heather Richards-Rissetto

##### Anthropology Faculty Publications

While digital technologies have been part of archaeology for more than fifty years, archaeologists still look for more efficient methodologies to integrate digital practices of fieldwork recording with data management, analysis, and ultimately interpretation.This Special Issue of the Journal of Field Archaeology gathers international scholars affiliated with universities, organizations, and commercial enterprises working in the field of Digital Archaeology. Our goal is to offer a discussion to the international academic community and practitioners. While the approach is interdisciplinary, our primary audience remains readers interested in web technology and collaborative platforms in archaeology

#### Effects Of Moving Bottlenecks On Traffic Operations On Four-Lane Level Freeway Segments, Jianan Zhou

##### Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) was developed to provide capacity and level of service analyses for roadway facilities. Trucks may adversely affect the quality of traffic flow on a roadway. In HCM, the passenger car equivalent (PCE) of a truck, which represents the number of passenger cars that have an equivalent effect on traffic flow, is used to account for the impacts of trucks. However, in the past ten years rural freeways in the western rural U.S. have experienced conditions that lie outside the standard HCM conditions. Also, the current HCM truck PCEs may not be appropriate for the ...

#### Supporting Diverse Customers And Prioritized Traffic In Next-Generation Passive Optical Networks, Naureen Hoque

##### Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The already high demand for more bandwidth usage has been growing rapidly. Access network traffic is usually bursty in nature and the present traffic trend is mostly video-dominant. This motivates the need for higher transmission rates in the system. At the same time, the deployment costs and maintenance expenditures have to be reasonable. Therefore, Passive Optical Networks (PON) are considered promising next-generation access technologies. As the existing PON standards are not suitable to support future-PON services and applications, the FSAN (Full Service Access Network) group and the ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union) have worked on developing ...