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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Time-Difference Circuits: Methodology, Design, And Digital Realization, Shuo Li Oct 2019

Time-Difference Circuits: Methodology, Design, And Digital Realization, Shuo Li

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis presents innovations for a special class of circuits called Time Difference (TD) circuits. We introduce a signal processing methodology with TD signals that alters the target signal from a magnitude perspective to time interval between two time events and systematically organizes the primary TD functions abstracted from existing TD circuits and systems. The TD circuits draw attention from a broad range of application fields. In addition, highly evolved complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology suffers from various problems related to voltage and current amplitude signal processing methods. Compared to traditional analog and digital circuits, TD circuits bring several compelling features ...


The Umass Experimental X-Band Radar (Umaxx): An Upgrade Of The Casa Ma-1 To Support Cross-Polarization Measurements, Jezabel Vilardell Sanchez Aug 2019

The Umass Experimental X-Band Radar (Umaxx): An Upgrade Of The Casa Ma-1 To Support Cross-Polarization Measurements, Jezabel Vilardell Sanchez

Masters Theses

Ground-based radars are instruments commonly used to surveil the precipitation climate of the surrounding areas. Weather events are characterized by collecting backscatter data and analyzing computed products such as the Reflectivity Factor, the Doppler Velocity, the Spectrum Width, the Differential Reflectivity, the Co-polar Correlation Coefficient and the Differential Propagation Phase. The ability of the radar to transmit different polarization waves, such as horizontal and vertical polarization, allow for further analysis of the weather given the capability to perform co-polar and cross-polar measurements. The Linear Depolarization Ratio is another computed product based on the difference in power between the co-polarized and ...


A Discrete-Time Technique For Linearity Enhancement Of Wideband Receivers, Mohammad Ghadiri Sadrabadi Jul 2019

A Discrete-Time Technique For Linearity Enhancement Of Wideband Receivers, Mohammad Ghadiri Sadrabadi

Doctoral Dissertations

A new signal processing technique is introduced to enhance the linearity performance of wideband radio frequency (RF) receivers. The proposed technique combines the advancements in mixer first architectures with a library of binary sequences as local oscillator signals to enable wide instantaneous bandwidth and high linearity for the RF receiver. To do so, N-bit pseudo-random-binary-sequences (PRBS) are used as local oscillator signals. The RF input signal is multiplied with the PRBS at the mixer and then averaged over the full sequence. This in effect reduces the amplitude of the signal and improves the overall linearity of the system. In order ...


Energy Efficiency Of Computation In All-Spin Logic: Projections And Fundamental Limits, Zongya Chen Mar 2019

Energy Efficiency Of Computation In All-Spin Logic: Projections And Fundamental Limits, Zongya Chen

Masters Theses

Built with nanomagnets, a spintronic device called the all-spin logic (ASL) device carries information with only spin currents, resulting in a low power supply--10 mV. This voltage is 100 times smaller than the conventional CMOS devices (usually 0.8~1V). The potential for improved energy efficiency made possible by the low operating voltage of ASL makes it one of the most promising devices among its post-CMOS competitors.

The basic working principles of ASL device are introduced in this thesis and two complementary approaches to studying energy efficiency of computation are applied to a common set of ASL circuits: (1) a ...


Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors For Large-Scale Low-Power Cryogenic Sensing Systems, Shirin Montazeri Nov 2018

Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors For Large-Scale Low-Power Cryogenic Sensing Systems, Shirin Montazeri

Doctoral Dissertations

Cryogenic low noise amplifiers (LNAs) are one of the key components in many emerging applications such as radio astronomy or quantum computing in which a weak incoming signal needs to be read out. There have been extensive studies on the feasibility of leveraging silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) to implement cryogenic LNAs in the past. The deployment of such LNAs in the future large-scale systems in radio astronomy or quantum computing is contingent upon the possibility of developing LNAs with reduced DC power dissipation to enable the cooling of a large number of array elements inside a cryogenic cooler ...


On-Chip Communication And Security In Fpgas, Shivukumar Basanagouda Patil Oct 2018

On-Chip Communication And Security In Fpgas, Shivukumar Basanagouda Patil

Masters Theses

Innovations in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) manufacturing processes and architectural design have led to the development of extremely large FPGAs. There has also been a widespread adaptation of these large FPGAs in cloud infrastructures and data centers to accelerate search and machine learning applications. Two important topics related to FPGAs are addressed in this work: on-chip communication and security. On-chip communication is quickly becoming a bottleneck in to- day’s large multi-million gate FPGAs. Hard Networks-on-Chip (NoC), made of fixed silicon, have been shown to provide low power, high speed, flexible on-chip communication. An iterative algorithm for routing pre-scheduled ...


Analog Computing Using 1t1r Crossbar Arrays, Yunning Li Mar 2018

Analog Computing Using 1t1r Crossbar Arrays, Yunning Li

Masters Theses

Memristor is a novel passive electronic device and a promising candidate for new generation non-volatile memory and analog computing. Analog computing based on memristors has been explored in this study. Due to the lack of commercial electrical testing instruments for those emerging devices and crossbar arrays, we have designed and built testing circuits to implement analog and parallel computing operations. With the setup developed in this study, we have successfully demonstrated image processing functions utilizing large memristor crossbar arrays. We further designed and experimentally demonstrated the first memristor based field programmable analog array (FPAA), which was successfully configured for audio ...


Dynamic Range Limitations Of Low-Noise Microwave Transistors At Cryogenic Temperatures, Ahmet Hakan Coskun Jul 2017

Dynamic Range Limitations Of Low-Noise Microwave Transistors At Cryogenic Temperatures, Ahmet Hakan Coskun

Doctoral Dissertations

Dynamic range is an important metric that specifies the limits of input signal amplitude for the ideal operation of a given receiver. The low end of dynamic range is defined by the noise floor whereas the upper limit is determined by large-signal distortion. While dynamic range can be predicted in the temperature range where compact transistor models are valid, the lack of large-signal models at temperatures below -55 C prevents the prediction and optimization of dynamic range for applications that require cryogenic cooling. For decades, the main goal concerning the performance of these applications was lowering the noise floor of ...


Kasi: A Ka-Band And S-Band Cross-Track Interferometer, Gerard Ruiz Carregal Mar 2017

Kasi: A Ka-Band And S-Band Cross-Track Interferometer, Gerard Ruiz Carregal

Masters Theses

A dual-frequency system is needed to better understand natural processes that constitute the environment and seasonal cycles of the Earth. A system working at two different wavelengths acquiring data simultaneously will give a valuable dataset since the conditions on the ground will be exactly the same. Hence, elements such as wind, soil moisture or any other changes on the ground will not interfere in the mea- surements. This thesis explains how an S-band radar was built and tested. Moreover, the experiments done with a Ka-band radar used as a scatterometer are explained as well as the data processing and analysis ...


The Impact Of Quantum Size Effects On Thermoelectric Performance In Semiconductor Nanostructures, Adithya Kommini Mar 2017

The Impact Of Quantum Size Effects On Thermoelectric Performance In Semiconductor Nanostructures, Adithya Kommini

Masters Theses

An increasing need for effective thermal sensors, together with dwindling energy resources, have created renewed interests in thermoelectric (TE), or solid-state, energy conversion and refrigeration using semiconductor-based nanostructures. Effective control of electron and phonon transport due to confinement, interface, and quantum effects has made nanostructures a good way to achieve more efficient thermoelectric energy conversion. This thesis studies the two well-known approaches: confinement and energy filtering, and implements improvements to achieve higher thermoelectric performance. The effect of confinement is evaluated using a 2D material with a gate and utilizing the features in the density of states. In addition to that ...


Topography Measurements Using An Airborne Ka-Band Fmcw Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Kan Fu Mar 2017

Topography Measurements Using An Airborne Ka-Band Fmcw Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Kan Fu

Doctoral Dissertations

Radar interferometry at millimeter-wave frequencies has the ability of topography measurement of different types of terrain, such as water surfaces and tree canopies. A Ka-band interferometric radar was mounted on an airborne platform, and flown over the Connecticut river region in western Massachusetts near Amherst on June 11, 2012. More than 20 Gigabytes of raw data was recorded. This dissertation outline presents the results of the data processing, which includes (1) the estimation and removal of the embedded high frequency phase error in the raw data; (2) the synthetic aperture processing; (3) the interferometric processing. The digital elevation model (DEM ...


Low Cross-Polarization Vivaldi Arrays, John Logan Nov 2016

Low Cross-Polarization Vivaldi Arrays, John Logan

Doctoral Dissertations

Ultra-wideband (UWB) electronically scanned arrays (ESA) with high efficiency, excellent polarization agility, and wide-scan matching remain essential for servicing multifunctional RF front-ends and other communications, sensing, and jamming or countermeasure systems. To this day, the most popular antenna array element in modern UWB-ESA systems is the Vivaldi, or flared notch, due to its superior wide-scan wide impedance bandwidth, well-known design guidelines, and practical embodiment versatility. Despite their popularity, these arrays tend to radiate unacceptably high cross-polarization levels, thus encouraging a great research opportunity.

This dissertation presents the theory and design of a new class of UWB-ESAs, termed Sliced Notch Antenna ...


Integrated Solar Technologies With Outdoor Pedestrian Bridge Superstructure Decking, Richard K. Racz Mr., Richard Racz Mar 2016

Integrated Solar Technologies With Outdoor Pedestrian Bridge Superstructure Decking, Richard K. Racz Mr., Richard Racz

Masters Theses

Solar technology has been a major topic in sustainable design for many years. In the last five years, however, the solar technology industry has seen a rapid growth in installations and technological advances in cell design. Combined with a rapidly declining overall system cost, the idea of introducing solar technology into a wider range of applications is becoming a focus for engineers and scientists around the world. So many variables which alter solar energy production, such as the sun and surrounding environment, determine whether a solar design is beneficial. This thesis presents a bridge deck surface integrated with solar cells ...


Skybridge: A New Nanoscale 3-D Computing Framework For Future Integrated Circuits, Mostafizur Rahman Nov 2015

Skybridge: A New Nanoscale 3-D Computing Framework For Future Integrated Circuits, Mostafizur Rahman

Doctoral Dissertations

Continuous scaling of CMOS has been the major catalyst in miniaturization of integrated circuits (ICs) and crucial for global socio-economic progress. However, continuing the traditional way of scaling to sub-20nm technologies is proving to be very difficult as MOSFETs are reaching their fundamental performance limits [1] and interconnection bottleneck is dominating IC operational power and performance [2]. Migrating to 3-D, as a way to advance scaling, has been elusive due to inherent customization and manufacturing requirements in CMOS architecture that are incompatible with 3-D organization. Partial attempts with die-die [3] and layer-layer [4] stacking have their own limitations [5]. We ...


Architecting Skybridge-Cmos, Mingyu Li Mar 2015

Architecting Skybridge-Cmos, Mingyu Li

Masters Theses

As the scaling of CMOS approaches fundamental limits, revolutionary technology beyond the end of CMOS roadmap is essential to continue the progress and miniaturization of integrated circuits. Recent research efforts in 3-D circuit integration explore pathways of continuing the scaling by co-designing for device, circuit, connectivity, heat and manufacturing challenges in a 3-D fabric-centric manner. SkyBridge fabric is one such approach that addresses fine-grained integration in 3-D, achieves orders of magnitude benefits over projected scaled 2-D CMOS, and provides a pathway for continuing scaling beyond 2-D CMOS.

However, SkyBridge fabric utilizes only single type transistors in order to reduce manufacture ...


Novel Method For Broadband On-Chip Noise Characterization, Mohammad Ghadiri Sadrabadi Nov 2014

Novel Method For Broadband On-Chip Noise Characterization, Mohammad Ghadiri Sadrabadi

Masters Theses

A novel method for on-chip noise characterization of mm-wave circuits is presented. Different available methods for noise measurements and requirements for on-chip noise mea-surements are studied. The Y-factor method is chosen to be the more suitable method for in-situ applications since it does not require absolute measurements. A state of the art CMOS noise source is implemented in 32nm SOI CMOS technology to enable the in-situ noise measurements of a 20-35 GHz reconfigurable low noise amplifier. Measurement results show that the ENR of the noise source is repeatable enough so that the calibration of the noise source is only required ...


Design Of Non-Uniform Linear Array Via Linear Programming And Particle Swarm Optimization And Studies On Phased Array Calibration, Hua Bai Nov 2014

Design Of Non-Uniform Linear Array Via Linear Programming And Particle Swarm Optimization And Studies On Phased Array Calibration, Hua Bai

Masters Theses

For a linear array, the excitation coefficients of each element and its geometry play an important role, because they will determine the radiation pattern of the given array. Side Lobe Level (SLL) is one of the key parameters to evaluate the radiation pattern of the array. Generally speaking, we desire SLL to be as low as possible. For the linear array with uniform spacing, there are some classic methods to calculate the excitation coefficients to make the radiation pattern satisfy the given requirements. For the linear array with non-uniform spacing, linear programming and particle swarm optimization are proposed to calculate ...


Beam Steering Control System For Low-Cost Phased Array Weather Radars: Design And Calibration Techniques, Rafael H. Medina-Sanchez Aug 2014

Beam Steering Control System For Low-Cost Phased Array Weather Radars: Design And Calibration Techniques, Rafael H. Medina-Sanchez

Doctoral Dissertations

Phase array antennas are a promising technology for weather surveillance radars. Their fast beam steering capability offer the potential of improving weather observations and extending warning lead times. However, one major problem associated with this technology is their high acquisition cost to be use in networked radar systems. One promising technology that could have a significant impact in the deployment of future dense networks of short-range X-band weather radars is the ``Phase-Tilt Radar'', a system that uses a one-dimensional phase scanned antenna array mounted over a tilting mechanism. This dissertation addresses some of specific challenges that arise in designing and ...


Design And Evaluation Of An L-Band Current-Mode Class-D Power Amplifier Integrated Circuit, Michael J. Shusta Aug 2014

Design And Evaluation Of An L-Band Current-Mode Class-D Power Amplifier Integrated Circuit, Michael J. Shusta

Masters Theses

Power amplifiers (PAs) convert energy from DC to high frequencies in all radio and microwave transmitter systems be they wireless base stations, handsets, radars, heaters, and so on. PAs are the dominant consumers of energy in these systems and, therefore, the dominant sources of system cost and inefficiency. Research has focused on efficient solid-state PA circuit topologies and their optimization since the 1960s. The 2000s saw the current-mode class-D (CMCD) topology, potentially suitable for today's wireless communications systems, show promise in the UHF frequency band. This thesis describes the design and testing of a high-efficiency CMCD amplifier with an ...