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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

An Analysis Of The Barriers To And Drivers Of Green Public Procurement In Achieving A More Sustainable Construction Industry, Myles Keaveney, Paul Butler Mar 2104

An Analysis Of The Barriers To And Drivers Of Green Public Procurement In Achieving A More Sustainable Construction Industry, Myles Keaveney, Paul Butler

Conference papers

The public sector in Ireland possesses enormous purchasing power which has the strength to affect production and consumption trends in all market sectors. Environmental purchasing tools such as Green Public Procurement (GPP) are seen by many as the solution to greener purchasing decisions in order to obtain and maintain not only a more sustainable construction sector but also a more sustainable economy. The purpose of this research is to determine and examine the key barriers to and drivers of implementing GPP in public procurement departments in order to reduce the effect construction works have on the environment. There was limited ...


Building Our Future: Positive Steps Forward For Apprenticeship Education And Training In Ireland, Roisin Murphy Dr Apr 2021

Building Our Future: Positive Steps Forward For Apprenticeship Education And Training In Ireland, Roisin Murphy Dr

Level 3

The construction labour market has undergone a period of considerable turbulence resulting from economic cyclicality over the last decade. While some facets of the labour market have recovered in line with economic growth, there remain challenges in attracting new apprentices. The issue is particularly pronounced for certain “wet trades”; namely bricklaying, floor and wall tiling, painting and decorating and plastering.

A mixed method research strategy was employed for the purpose of determining labour market trends for these trades, comprising of employer and apprentice surveys in addition to semi-structured interviews. Findings from the research uncover not only a shift in organisational ...


The Role Of Rejuvenators In Embedded Damage Healing For Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, P Lin, Y Zhang, S Nahar, B J. Lommerts, Erik Schlangen Apr 2021

The Role Of Rejuvenators In Embedded Damage Healing For Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, P Lin, Y Zhang, S Nahar, B J. Lommerts, Erik Schlangen

Articles

Rejuvenator encapsulation technique showed great potential for extrinsic asphalt pavement damage healing. Once the capsules are embedded within asphalt pavement, the healing is activated on-demand via progressing microcrack. When the microcrack encounters the capsule, the fracture energy at the tip opens the capsule and releases the rejuvenator. Then the released rejuvenator wets the crack surfaces, diffuses into and softens the aged bitumen, allowing two broken edges to come in the contact, preventing further asphalt pavement deterioration. The quality and speed of the damage repair process strongly depend on the quality of rejuvenator, thus it is important to choose a proper ...


Virtual Network Function Embedding Under Nodal Outage Using Deep Q-Learning, Swarna Bindu Chetty, Hamed Ahmadi, Sachin Sharma, Avishek Nag Mar 2021

Virtual Network Function Embedding Under Nodal Outage Using Deep Q-Learning, Swarna Bindu Chetty, Hamed Ahmadi, Sachin Sharma, Avishek Nag

Articles

With the emergence of various types of applications such as delay-sensitive applications, future communication networks are expected to be increasingly complex and dynamic. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) provides the necessary support towards efficient management of such complex networks, by virtualizing network functions and placing them on shared commodity servers. However, one of the critical issues in NFV is the resource allocation for the highly complex services; moreover, this problem is classified as an NP-Hard problem. To solve this problem, our work investigates the potential of Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) as a swift yet accurate approach (as compared to integer linear ...


The Prospect Of Microwave Heating: Towards A Faster And Deeper Crack Healing In Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, Erik Schlangen Mar 2021

The Prospect Of Microwave Heating: Towards A Faster And Deeper Crack Healing In Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, Erik Schlangen

Articles

Microwave heating has been shown to be an effective method of heating asphalt concrete and in turn healing the damage. As such, microwave heating holds great potential in rapid (1–3 min) and effective damage healing, resulting in improvement in the service life, safety, and sustainability of asphalt pavement. This study focused on the microwave healing effect on porous asphalt concrete. Steel wool fibres were incorporated into porous asphalt to improve the microwave heating efficiency, and the optimum microwave heating time was determined. Afterwards, the microwave healing efficiency was evaluated using a semi–circular bending and healing programme. The results ...


Towards A Blockchain Assisted Patient Owned System For Electronic Health Records, Tomilayo Fatokun, Avishek Nag, Sachin Sharma Mar 2021

Towards A Blockchain Assisted Patient Owned System For Electronic Health Records, Tomilayo Fatokun, Avishek Nag, Sachin Sharma

Articles

Security and privacy of patients’ data is a major concern in the healthcare industry. In this paper, we propose a system that activates robust security and privacy of patients’ medical records as well as enables interoperability and data exchange between the different healthcare providers. The work proposes the shift from patient’s electronic health records being managed and controlled by the healthcare industry to a patient-centric application where patients are in control of their data. The aim of this research is to build an Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) system that is layered on the Ethereum blockchain platform and smart contract ...


Bs News March/April Mar 2021

Bs News March/April

Building Services Engineering

No abstract provided.


A Phenomenographic Study Of Academics Teaching In Engineering Programmes In Ireland: Conceptions Of Professional Skills And Approaches To Teaching Professional Skills, Una Beagon Jan 2021

A Phenomenographic Study Of Academics Teaching In Engineering Programmes In Ireland: Conceptions Of Professional Skills And Approaches To Teaching Professional Skills, Una Beagon

Doctoral

Engineers play a central role in addressing the challenges which face society. However, the influence of globalisation, disruptive technological change and socially complex problems will greatly affect the way engineers work in the future.

As a result, there have been calls to embrace transformational change in engineering education, yet the literature reveals that many reform efforts have fallen short. Industry and society will therefore continue to look to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to better prepare engineering graduates with the new skills needed to face the challenges of the future. Notwithstanding the critical and valued role that technical engineering subjects have ...


Review Of Current Healthcare Waste Management Methods And Their Effect On Global Health, Anushree Priyadarshini, Christina Kenny Jan 2021

Review Of Current Healthcare Waste Management Methods And Their Effect On Global Health, Anushree Priyadarshini, Christina Kenny

Articles

Healthcare is a rapidly growing industry as medical treatments become more sophisticated, more in demand due to increasing incidence of chronic disease and more widely available worldwide. This booming industry is also creating more waste than ever before and, as such, there is a growing need to treat and dispose of this waste. Healthcare waste (HCW) disposal includes a multitude of disposal methods, including incineration, landfilling and chemical treatments. These rudimentary methods and their growing use present their own problems that negatively impact both the environ- ment and, in turn, damage public health, thus contributing to a global healthcare crisis ...


A New Epoch For Community Renewable Energy Co-Operatives In Ireland? An Exploration Of The Factors Influencing Their Development, Gerard Doyle Jan 2021

A New Epoch For Community Renewable Energy Co-Operatives In Ireland? An Exploration Of The Factors Influencing Their Development, Gerard Doyle

Articles

The paper outlines the capacities required for community groups to successfully establish and maintain renewable energy co-operatives in Ireland. The paper finds that community groups that successfully establish renewable energy co-operatives must possess high levels of resilience, have access to technical expertise, and have appropriate finance. It also highlights how it is crucial that at least one member of each renewable energy co-operative engages with state agencies and the community. Pringle’s (2015) theoretical framework applied in this paper focuses on the capacities required for the successful implementation of community renewable energy projects (which include community renewable energy co-operatives) in ...


A Step Closer To Elastogenesis On Demand; Inducing Mature Elastic Fibre Deposition In A Natural Biomaterial Scaffold, Francisco R. Almeida-González, Arlyng González-Vázquez, Suzanne M. Mithieux, Fergal J. O'Brien, Anthony S. Weiss, Claire Brougham Jan 2021

A Step Closer To Elastogenesis On Demand; Inducing Mature Elastic Fibre Deposition In A Natural Biomaterial Scaffold, Francisco R. Almeida-González, Arlyng González-Vázquez, Suzanne M. Mithieux, Fergal J. O'Brien, Anthony S. Weiss, Claire Brougham

Articles

Elastic fibres play a key role in bodily functions where fatigue resistance and elastic recovery are necessary while regulating phenotype, proliferation and migration in cells. While in vivo elastic fibres are created at a late foetal stage, a major obstacle in the development of engineered tissue is that human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs), one of the principal elastogenic cells, are unable to spontaneously promote elastogenesis in vitro. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to activate elastogenesis in vitro by hVSMCs seeded in fibrin, collagen, glycosaminoglycan (FCG) scaffolds, following the addition of recombinant human tropoelastin. This combination of ...


On The Mandelbrot Set For I**2 = ±1 And Imaginary Higgs Fields, Jonathan Blackledge Jan 2021

On The Mandelbrot Set For I**2 = ±1 And Imaginary Higgs Fields, Jonathan Blackledge

Articles

We consider the consequence of breaking with a fundamental result in complex analysisby lettingi2=±1wherei=√−1is the basic unit of all imaginary numbers. An analysis of theMandelbrot set for this case shows that a demarcation between a Fractal and a Euclidean object ispossible based oni2=−1andi2= +1, respectively. Further, we consider the transient behaviourassociated with the two cases to produce a range of non-standard sets in which a Fractal geometricstructure is transformed into a Euclidean object. In the case of the Mandelbrot set, the Euclideanobject is a square whose properties are investigate. Coupled with the associated Julia sets and othercomplex ...


A New Definition, A Generalisation And An Approximation For A Fractional Derivative With Applications To Stochastic Time Series Modeling, Jonathan Blackledge Jan 2021

A New Definition, A Generalisation And An Approximation For A Fractional Derivative With Applications To Stochastic Time Series Modeling, Jonathan Blackledge

Articles

A brief review of fractional differentiation, frac-tional integration and differo-integral operators is given basedon the properties of the Fourier transform. This is undertakento provide the reader with a quick-guide and a short back-ground to the fractional calculus and includes a brief discussionon some of the principal characteristics of fractional differo-integral operators. The paper then presents a new definitionfor a fractional differo-integral based on the properties ofthe sign function and explores some related results. Usingthe properties of the Dirac delta function, a generalisation isdeveloped in order to quantify the issue as to whether there isan upper bound to the number of ...


Development Of A Framework For Managing The Industry 4.0 Equipment Procurement Process For The Irish Life Sciences Sector, Shane Loughlin Jan 2021

Development Of A Framework For Managing The Industry 4.0 Equipment Procurement Process For The Irish Life Sciences Sector, Shane Loughlin

Doctoral

Industry 4.0 (I4.0) brings unprecedented opportunities for Manufacturing Corporations poised to implement Digital Business models; DigitALIZAtion. Industry Standards have been developed for the core technologies of the I4.0 Digital Supply Chains. Manufacturing equipment must now be procured to integrate seamlessly at any point in these novel supply chains. The aim of this study is to determine if an I4.0 Equipment Procurement Process (I4.0-EPP) can be developed which reduces the risk of equipment integration issues. It asks; Can the form of the equipment be specified, so that it correctly fits into the I4.0 Digital Supply ...


Exploiting Bert And Roberta To Improve Performance For Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis, Gagan Reddy Narayanaswamy Jan 2021

Exploiting Bert And Roberta To Improve Performance For Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis, Gagan Reddy Narayanaswamy

Dissertations

Sentiment Analysis also known as opinion mining is a type of text research that analyses people’s opinions expressed in written language. Sentiment analysis brings together various research areas such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), Data Mining, and Text Mining, and is fast becoming of major importance to companies and organizations as it is started to incorporate online commerce data for analysis. Often the data on which sentiment analysis is performed will be reviews. The data can range from reviews of a small product to a big multinational corporation. The goal of performing sentiment analysis is to extract information from ...


Adequately Generating Captions For An Image Using Adaptive And Global Attention Mechanisms., Shravan Kumar Talanki Venkatarathanaiahsetty Jan 2021

Adequately Generating Captions For An Image Using Adaptive And Global Attention Mechanisms., Shravan Kumar Talanki Venkatarathanaiahsetty

Dissertations

Generating description to images is a recent surge and with latest developments in the field of Artificial Intelligence, it can be one of the prominent applications to bridge the gap between Computer vision and Natural language processing fields. In terms of the learning curve, Deep learning has become the main backbone in driving many new applications. Image Captioning is one such application where the usage of Deep learning methods enhanced the performance of the captioning accuracy. The introduction of the Encoder-Decoder framework was a breakthrough in Image captioning. But as the sequences got longer the performance of captions was affected ...


Feature Augmentation For Improved Topic Modeling Of Youtube Lecture Videos Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Nakul Srikumar Jan 2021

Feature Augmentation For Improved Topic Modeling Of Youtube Lecture Videos Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Nakul Srikumar

Dissertations

Application of Topic Models in text mining of educational data and more specifically, the text data obtained from lecture videos, is an area of research which is largely unexplored yet holds great potential. This work seeks to find empirical evidence for an improvement in Topic Modeling by pre- extracting bigram tokens and adding them as additional features in the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm, a widely-recognized topic modeling technique. The dataset considered for analysis is a collection of transcripts of video lectures on Machine Learning scraped from YouTube. Using the cosine similarity distance measure as a metric, the experiment showed ...


Fractal Graphene Patch Antennas And The Thz Communications Revolution, Jonathan Blackledge, A. Boretti, L. Rosa, S. Castelletto Jan 2021

Fractal Graphene Patch Antennas And The Thz Communications Revolution, Jonathan Blackledge, A. Boretti, L. Rosa, S. Castelletto

Conference papers

Fractal antennas have and are continuing to receive attention in regard to the futureof wireless communications. This is because of their wide- and multi-band capabilities, theopportunity of fractal geometries to drive multiple resonances, and, the ability to make smallerand lighter antennas with fewer components and radiative elements with higher gains. Smallscale (i.e. on the micro- and nano-scale) and ultra high frequency (in the Terahertz or THz range)fractal antennas composed of Graphene have the potential to enhance wireless communicationsat a data rate that is unprecedented, i.e.∼1012bits per second. A Fractal Graphene antennais a high-frequency tuneable antenna for ...


Building Services Engineering January/February Jan 2021

Building Services Engineering January/February

Building Services Engineering

No abstract provided.


The Discrete Fourier Transform - A Practical Approach, David Dorran Jan 2021

The Discrete Fourier Transform - A Practical Approach, David Dorran

Articles

These notes on the Discrete Fourier Transform include numerous practical examples that make use of audio signals.


Gamification Of Icebreaking Activities For Mechanical Engineering Students Embarking On A Problem Based Learning Module, Kevin Delaney, Gerard Nagle, Mingzhu Chen Jan 2021

Gamification Of Icebreaking Activities For Mechanical Engineering Students Embarking On A Problem Based Learning Module, Kevin Delaney, Gerard Nagle, Mingzhu Chen

Conference papers

When they enter the workforce engineering graduates must be able to engage collaboratively with others to find solutions to complex engineering challenges. This involves a great deal more than simply solving technical problems traditionally taught in engineering school. The Mechanical Engineering Discipline in Technological University Dublin (TU Dublin) has helped students develop real-world engineering skills through a team based Problem Based Learning (PBL) module since 2005. This module, involving third year students, can be particularly challenging since participants can join the third year of the program from other programs or universities and many will not have known each other prior ...


Do Greenhouse Gases Impact Our Respiratory System? A Study Of The Effect Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Respiratory Disease Related Mortality In Ireland, Anushree Priyadarshini, Christina Kenny Dec 2020

Do Greenhouse Gases Impact Our Respiratory System? A Study Of The Effect Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Respiratory Disease Related Mortality In Ireland, Anushree Priyadarshini, Christina Kenny

Articles

Respiratory-related deaths are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality every year in the developed world. Previous research outlines that greenhouse gas emission levels have a negative effect on respiratory health and can cause worsening of symptoms. This study examines the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on respiratory disease related mortality in Ireland from 2007-2017 using Statbank data from Central Statistics Office, Ireland. Analysis shows that over the last decade, while greenhouse gases emissions in Ireland have reduced by 1.1%, respiratory disease related mortality has increased on an average by 2.1%. Results indicate that greenhouse gas ...


Power-Weighted Lpc Formant Estimation, Ruairí De Fréin Nov 2020

Power-Weighted Lpc Formant Estimation, Ruairí De Fréin

Conference papers

A power-weighted formant frequency estimation procedure based on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) is presented. It works by pre-emphasizing the dominant spectral components of an input signal, which allows a subsequent estimation step to extract formant frequencies with greater accuracy. The accuracy of traditional LPC formant estimation is improved by this new power-weighted formant estimator for different classes of synthetic signals and for speech. Power-weighted LPC significantly and reliably outperforms LPC and variants of LPC at the task of formant estimation using the VTR formants dataset, a database consisting of the Vocal Tract Resonance (VTR) frequency trajectories obtained by human experts ...


Predicting Quality Of Delivery Metrics For Adaptive Video Codec Sessions, Obinna Izima, Ruairí De Fréin, Mark Davis Nov 2020

Predicting Quality Of Delivery Metrics For Adaptive Video Codec Sessions, Obinna Izima, Ruairí De Fréin, Mark Davis

Conference papers

Predicting video quality will continue to be an active area of research given the dominance of video traffic for years to come. Network service practitioners that are poised to handle the strain on the existing limited bandwidth constraints are better placed to be SLA-compliant. The dynamic and time-varying nature of cloud-hosted services require improved techniques to realize accurate models of the systems. To address this challenge: (1) we propose Codec-aware Network Adaptation Agent (cNAA), an online light-weight data learning engine that achieves accurate and correct predictions of quality of delivery (QoD) metrics, namely jitter for video services. cNAA achieves this ...


Enhancing The Visibility Of Vernier Effect In A Tri-Microfiber Coupler Fiber Loop Interferometer For Ultrasensitive Refractive Index And Temperature Sensing, Fangfang Wei, Dejun Liu, Zhe Wang, Zhuochen Wang, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Gang-Ding Peng, Yuliya Semenova Nov 2020

Enhancing The Visibility Of Vernier Effect In A Tri-Microfiber Coupler Fiber Loop Interferometer For Ultrasensitive Refractive Index And Temperature Sensing, Fangfang Wei, Dejun Liu, Zhe Wang, Zhuochen Wang, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Gang-Ding Peng, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

In this paper a Vernier effect based sensor is analyzed and demonstrated experimentally in a tri-microfiber coupler (Tri-MFC) and polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) loop interferometer (Tri-MFC-PMF) to provide ultrasensitive refractive index and temperature sensing. The main novelty of this work is an analysis of parameters of the proposed Tri-MFC-PMF with the objective of determining the conditions leading to a strong Vernier effect. It has been identified by simulation that the Vernier effect is a primary factor in the design of Tri-MFC-PMF loop sensing structure for sensitivity enhancement. It is furthermore demonstrated experimentally that enhancing the visibility of the Vernier spectrum in ...


Geospatial-Based Environmental Modelling For Coastal Dune Zone Management, Chen Suo Nov 2020

Geospatial-Based Environmental Modelling For Coastal Dune Zone Management, Chen Suo

Doctoral

Tomaintain biodiversity and ecological functionof coastal dune areas, itis important that practical and effective environmentalmanagemental strategies are developed. Advances in geospatial technologies offer a potentially very useful source of data for studies in this environment. This research project aimto developgeospatialdata-basedenvironmentalmodellingforcoastaldunecomplexestocontributetoeffectiveconservationstrategieswithparticularreferencetotheBuckroneydunecomplexinCo.Wicklow,Ireland.Theprojectconducteda general comparison ofdifferent geospatial data collection methodsfor topographic modelling of the Buckroney dune complex. These data collection methodsincludedsmall-scale survey data from aerial photogrammetry, optical satellite imagery, radar and LiDAR data, and ground-based, large-scale survey data from Total Station(TS), Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System(GPS), terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).The ...


Bs News November/December Nov 2020

Bs News November/December

Building Services Engineering

No abstract provided.


Cleanpage: Fast And Clean Document And Whiteboard Capture, Jane Courtney Oct 2020

Cleanpage: Fast And Clean Document And Whiteboard Capture, Jane Courtney

Articles

The move from paper to online is not only necessary for remote working, it is also significantly more sustainable. This trend has seen a rising need for the high-quality digitization of content from pages and whiteboards to sharable online material. However, capturing this information is not always easy nor are the results always satisfactory. Available scanning apps vary in their usability and do not always produce clean results, retaining surface imperfections from the page or whiteboard in their output images. CleanPage, a novel smartphone-based document and whiteboard scanning system, is presented. CleanPage requires one button-tap to capture, identify, crop, and ...


Mode Analysis And Applications Of Three-Layer Step-Index And Depressed-Core Optical Fibers, Xiaokang Lian Oct 2020

Mode Analysis And Applications Of Three-Layer Step-Index And Depressed-Core Optical Fibers, Xiaokang Lian

Doctoral

Optical fibersplay important roles in telecommunication, imaging, sensing, lasers and amplifiers. The rapid development of fiberopticsover the past decades has beenunderpinnedbyvarious designs of the optical fibers and bythe rapid improvement of the understanding of the waveguiding mechanismsand associated models. According to the cross-section refractive index distribution, optical fibers can be generally classified into four basic types: two-layer step-index fiber, three-layer step-index fiber, three-layer depressed-core fiber and hollow-core fiber.Among these four basic fibertypes,the modeproperties and the applications of the three-layer step-index and depressed-core fibers have notbeensufficiently investigated. This thesis presents a detailedmode analysis in three-layer step-index and depressed-core fibers ...


New Robust Lpc-Based Method For Time-Resolved Morphology Of High-Noise Multiple Frequency Signals, Jin Xu, Mark Davis, Ruairi De Frein Sep 2020

New Robust Lpc-Based Method For Time-Resolved Morphology Of High-Noise Multiple Frequency Signals, Jin Xu, Mark Davis, Ruairi De Frein

Conference papers

This paper introduces a new time-resolved spectral analysis method based on the Linear Prediction Coding (LPC) method that is particularly suited to the study of the dynamics of low Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) signals comprising multiple frequency components. One of the challenges of the time-resolved spectral method is that they are limited by the Heisenberg-Gabor uncertainty principle. Consequently, there is a trade-off between the temporal and spectral resolution. Most of the previous studies are time-averaged methods. The proposed method is a parameterisation method which can directly extract the dominant formants. The method is based on a $z$-plane analysis of the ...