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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Review On Nanomaterials And Nanohybrids Based Bio-Nanocomposites For Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal Dec 2022

A Review On Nanomaterials And Nanohybrids Based Bio-Nanocomposites For Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal

Articles

With an increasing demand for a novel, eco-friendly, high-performance packaging material “bio-nanocomposites” has attracted great attention in recent years. The review article aims at to evaluating recent innovation in bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. The current trends and research over the last three years of the various bio-nanocomposites including inorganic, organic nanomaterials, and nanohybrids, which are suitable as food packaging materials due to their advanced properties such as high mechanical, thermal, barrier, antimicrobial, and antioxidant are described in detail. In addition, the legislation, migration studies, and SWOT analysis on bio-nanocomposite film have been discussed. It has been observed that the ...


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne May 2022

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review ...


The Heat Is On: The Collaborations, Capacities, And Management Style Required For The Establishment And Sustainability Of Community-Owned Renewable Energy District Heating Systems In Austria, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Wales, And Scotland, Gerard Doyle May 2022

The Heat Is On: The Collaborations, Capacities, And Management Style Required For The Establishment And Sustainability Of Community-Owned Renewable Energy District Heating Systems In Austria, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Wales, And Scotland, Gerard Doyle

Articles

International reviews of countries’ progress at tackling climate change show that Ireland is making small levels of progress on tackling issues associated with climate change. This paper will highlight the pivotal role the State performs, both at national and local level, in creating the conditions essential for the establishment of community-owned renewable energy district heating systems. In particular, the State can provide funding for these initiatives to acquire the management and technical expertise essential for their establishment and maintenance. This paper will also examine a theoretical framework, referred to as capacity analysis, to explain the capacities that need to be ...


Analysis Of Rule-Based And Shallow Statistical Models For Covid-19 Cough Detection For A Preliminary Diagnosis, Arshia Arif, Eisa Alanazi, Ayesha Zeb, Waqar Shahid Qureshi May 2022

Analysis Of Rule-Based And Shallow Statistical Models For Covid-19 Cough Detection For A Preliminary Diagnosis, Arshia Arif, Eisa Alanazi, Ayesha Zeb, Waqar Shahid Qureshi

Conference papers

Coronavirus pandemic that has spread all over the world, is one of its kind in the recent past, that has mobilized researchers in areas such as (not limited to) pre-screening solutions, contact tracing, vaccine developments, and crowd estimation. Pre-screening using symptoms identification, cough classification, and contact tracing mobile applications gained significant popularity during the initial outbreak of the pandemic. Audio recordings of coughing individuals are one of the sources that can help in the pre-screening of COVID-19 patients. This research focuses on quantitative analysis of covid cough classification using audio recordings of coughing individuals. For analysis, we used three different ...


Future Wireless Networking Experiments Escaping Simulations, Sachin Sharma, Saish Urumkar, Gianluca Fontanesi, Byrav Ramamurthy, Avishek Nag Apr 2022

Future Wireless Networking Experiments Escaping Simulations, Sachin Sharma, Saish Urumkar, Gianluca Fontanesi, Byrav Ramamurthy, Avishek Nag

Articles

In computer networking, simulations are widely used to test and analyse new protocols and ideas. Currently, there are a number of open real testbeds available to test the new protocols. In the EU, for example, there are Fed4Fire testbeds, while in the US, there are POWDER and COSMOS testbeds. Several other countries, including Japan, Brazil, India, and China, have also developed next-generation testbeds. Compared to simulations, these testbeds offer a more realistic way to test protocols and prototypes. In this paper, we examine some available wireless testbeds from the EU and the US, which are part of an open-call EU ...


Limits Of Detection Of Mycotoxins By Laminar Flow Strips: A Review, Xinyi Zhao, Hugh J. Byrne, Christine M. O’Connor, James Curtin, Furong Tian Apr 2022

Limits Of Detection Of Mycotoxins By Laminar Flow Strips: A Review, Xinyi Zhao, Hugh J. Byrne, Christine M. O’Connor, James Curtin, Furong Tian

Articles

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products of fungi. They are poisonous, carcinogenic, and mutagenic in nature and pose a serious health threat to both humans and animals, causing severe illnesses and even death. Rapid, simple and low-cost methods of detection of mycotoxins are of immense importance and in great demand in the food and beverage industry, as well as in agriculture and environmental monitoring, and, for this purpose, lateral flow immunochromatographic strips (ICSTs) have been widely used in food safety and environmental monitoring. The literature to date describing the development of ICSTs for the detection of different types of mycotoxins using ...


Development & Validation Of A Piv System For Obtaining Data From A Uasb Reactor, Camila D' Bastiani, Gerald Gallagher, David Kennedy, Anthony Reynolds Apr 2022

Development & Validation Of A Piv System For Obtaining Data From A Uasb Reactor, Camila D' Bastiani, Gerald Gallagher, David Kennedy, Anthony Reynolds

Conference Papers

Anaerobic digestion processes can generate energy in the form of biogas while treating organic wastewater. The efficiency of the treatment, and thus the generation of biogas, is closely linked to the type and design of the reactor, and the technology used. Granular anaerobic digestion technology offers advantages such as a higher loading rate and reduction of the space needed. However, the hydrodynamics inside this type of reactor can be complex due to the presence of solids (granules) and gas (biogas) phases along with the liquid phase (wastewater). This is one of the reasons why the study and optimization of reactors ...


Building Services Engineering March/April 2022 Apr 2022

Building Services Engineering March/April 2022

Building Services Engineering

No abstract provided.


Detecting Iot Attacks Using An Ensemble Machine Learning Model, Vikas Tomar, Sachin Sharma Mar 2022

Detecting Iot Attacks Using An Ensemble Machine Learning Model, Vikas Tomar, Sachin Sharma

Articles

Malicious attacks are becoming more prevalent due to the growing use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in homes, offices, transportation, healthcare, and other locations. By incorporating fog computing into IoT, attacks can be detected in a short amount of time, as the distance between IoT devices and fog devices is smaller than the distance between IoT devices and the cloud. Machine learning is frequently used for the detection of attacks due to the huge amount of data available from IoT devices. However, the problem is that fog devices may not have enough resources, such as processing power and memory ...


To Critically Review The Use Of Screencasts For Teaching Land Surveying, Eugen Niculae, Alain Chenaux Mar 2022

To Critically Review The Use Of Screencasts For Teaching Land Surveying, Eugen Niculae, Alain Chenaux

Conference papers

Screencasting tools allow for a screen capture of the actions on a computer screen with accompanying audio. This research initially reviews through the literature how screencasting has been used pedagogically and, through this primary research, the application of an existing screencast called Screencast-O-Matic and feedback from students from both Construction Management and Geospatial Surveying Undergraduate Programmes of TU Dublin, where and how it could be deployed for the surveying classes and fieldwork during the pandemic situation. This research occurred when all Irish third-level institutions lectures and tutorials moved online, and access to survey equipment for fieldwork was severely reduced. The ...


Childminding Professionalism And Professionalisation In Ireland: A Different Story, Miriam O'Regan, Ann Marie Halpenny, Noirin Hayes Feb 2022

Childminding Professionalism And Professionalisation In Ireland: A Different Story, Miriam O'Regan, Ann Marie Halpenny, Noirin Hayes

Articles

This research focussed on documenting the praxis and paedagogy of paid, professional childminding (family childcare/day care) in Ireland. It explored professionalism and professionalisation among childminders in the context of the evolving understanding of professionalism in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) nationally and internationally. The research was conducted within the framework of Ecocultural Theory (ECT) on the eve of mandatory regulation of childminding against the backdrop of Irish ECEC policy. A mixed method approach was adopted, using the Ecocultural Family Interview for Childminders (EFICh), including participants’ photographs, case study surveys, researcher field notes and holistic ratings. We present findings ...


Influence Of Site And System Parameters On The Performance Of Roof-Top Grid-Connected Pv Systems Installed In Harlequins, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Chibuisi Chinasaokwu Okorieimoh, Brian Norton, Michael Conlon, Desmond Lalor, Ciaran Mcnamara Feb 2022

Influence Of Site And System Parameters On The Performance Of Roof-Top Grid-Connected Pv Systems Installed In Harlequins, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Chibuisi Chinasaokwu Okorieimoh, Brian Norton, Michael Conlon, Desmond Lalor, Ciaran Mcnamara

Other Resources

The problem of energy scarcity has hit a global scale because of the dependency of most of the energy generation on non-renewable sources (e.g., fossil fuels). As in supply and demand laws, the lower the amount of energy provided, the more expensive it becomes, causing a major problem for the industry in general, which is dependent on it. These non-renewable energy sources contribute to environmental degradation effects and depletion of the ozone layer from the atmosphere. To reduce this effect, the use of renewable energy sources which is environmentally friendly has been on the growing index across the globe ...


Age Specific Models To Capture The Change In Risk Factor Contribution By Age To Short Term Primary Ischemic Stroke Risk, Elizabeth Hunter, John D. Kelleher Feb 2022

Age Specific Models To Capture The Change In Risk Factor Contribution By Age To Short Term Primary Ischemic Stroke Risk, Elizabeth Hunter, John D. Kelleher

Articles

Age is one of the most important risk factors when it comes to stroke risk prediction. However, including age as a risk factor in a stroke prediction model can give rise to a number of difficulties. Age often dominates the risk score, and also not all risk factors contribute proportionally to stroke risk by age. In this study we investigate a number of common stroke risk factors, using Framingham heart study data from the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center to determine if they appear to contribute proportionally by age to a stroke risk score. As we ...


Using Phreeqc To Model Cement Hydration, Niall Holmes Dr., Mark Tyrer, Roger P. West Prof, Aaron Lowe, Denis Kelliher Feb 2022

Using Phreeqc To Model Cement Hydration, Niall Holmes Dr., Mark Tyrer, Roger P. West Prof, Aaron Lowe, Denis Kelliher

Articles

This paper presents the steps involved in undertaking an analysis of hydrating cements with different levels of limestone powder using the PHREEQC geochemical software with the Notepad++ editor. The analysis begins with determining which solid phases are thermodynamically predicted to precipitate and form using the oxide compositions of commercial CEM I and CEM II/A-L cements. When the phases are known, PHREEQC is programmed to provide predictions of the phase dissolution and phase assemblage over time (here, 1000 days of hydration) as well as the pore solution chemistry. Thermodynamics has been successfully applied to the field of cement hydration to ...


Optimizing The Fabrication Process For Next Generation Nano-Textured Solar Cells With High Conversion Efficiency Using Industrially Viable Solar Cell Processes, Orlagh Murphy Jan 2022

Optimizing The Fabrication Process For Next Generation Nano-Textured Solar Cells With High Conversion Efficiency Using Industrially Viable Solar Cell Processes, Orlagh Murphy

Masters

The need for photovoltaic (PV) cells with high conversion efficiency and low surface reflectance has been on the rise. With this in mind, the fabrication process of PV cells has been investigated with interest in the surface etching phase in order to reduce surface reflectance using nanotexturing. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how to improve the etching phase by optimising the key parameters for an atmospheric dry etch (ADE) with different processes to determine which can aid in reducing surface reflectance.

To obtain a process which provides a low surface reflectance, parameters in the etching phase are ...


An Analysis On Network Flow-Based Iot Botnet Detection Using Weka, Cian Porteous Jan 2022

An Analysis On Network Flow-Based Iot Botnet Detection Using Weka, Cian Porteous

Dissertations

Botnets pose a significant and growing risk to modern networks. Detection of botnets remains an important area of open research in order to prevent the proliferation of botnets and to mitigate the damage that can be caused by botnets that have already been established. Botnet detection can be broadly categorised into two main categories: signature-based detection and anomaly-based detection. This paper sets out to measure the accuracy, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate of four algorithms that are available in Weka for anomaly-based detection of a dataset of HTTP and IRC botnet data. The algorithms that were selected to detect botnets ...


Dark Patterns: Effect On Overall User Experience And Site Revisitation, Deon Soul Calawen Jan 2022

Dark Patterns: Effect On Overall User Experience And Site Revisitation, Deon Soul Calawen

Dissertations

Dark patterns are user interfaces purposefully designed to manipulate users into doing something they might not otherwise do for the benefit of an online service. This study investigates the impact of dark patterns on overall user experience and site revisitation in the context of airline websites. In order to assess potential dark pattern effects, two versions of the same airline website were compared: a dark version containing dark pattern elements and a bright version free of manipulative interfaces. User experience for both websites were assessed quantitatively through a survey containing a User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) and a System Usability Scale ...


Measuring And Comparing Social Bias In Static And Contextual Word Embeddings, Alan Cueva Mora Jan 2022

Measuring And Comparing Social Bias In Static And Contextual Word Embeddings, Alan Cueva Mora

Dissertations

Word embeddings have been considered one of the biggest breakthroughs of deep learning for natural language processing. They are learned numerical vector representations of words where similar words have similar representations. Contextual word embeddings are the promising second-generation of word embeddings assigning a representation to a word based on its context. This can result in different representations for the same word depending on the context (e.g. river bank and commercial bank). There is evidence of social bias (human-like implicit biases based on gender, race, and other social constructs) in word embeddings. While detecting bias in static (classical or non-contextual ...


Evaluating The Performance Of Vision Transformer Architecture For Deepfake Image Classification, Devesan Govindasamy Jan 2022

Evaluating The Performance Of Vision Transformer Architecture For Deepfake Image Classification, Devesan Govindasamy

Dissertations

Deepfake classification has seen some impressive results lately, with the experimentation of various deep learning methodologies, researchers were able to design some state-of-the art techniques. This study attempts to use an existing technology “Transformers” in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) which has been a de-facto standard in text processing for the purposes of Computer Vision. Transformers use a mechanism called “self-attention”, which is different from CNN and LSTM. This study uses a novel technique that considers images as 16x16 words (Dosovitskiy et al., 2021) to train a deep neural network with “self-attention” blocks to detect deepfakes. It creates ...


Building Services Engineering January/February 2022 Jan 2022

Building Services Engineering January/February 2022

Building Services Engineering

No abstract provided.


Quantum Mechanics And Control Using Fractional Calculus: A Study Of The Shutter Problem For Fractional Quantum Fields, Jonathan Blackledge Jan 2022

Quantum Mechanics And Control Using Fractional Calculus: A Study Of The Shutter Problem For Fractional Quantum Fields, Jonathan Blackledge

Articles

The ‘diffraction in space’ and the ‘diffraction in time’ phenomena are considered in regard to a continuously open, and a closed shutter that is opened at an instant in time, respectively. The purpose of this is to provide a background to the principal theme of this article, which is to extend the ‘quantum shutter problem’ for the case when the wave function is determined by the fundamental solution to a partial differential equation with a fractional derivative of space or of time. This involves the development of Green’s function solutions for the space- and time-fractional Schrödinger equation and the ...


Advancing Competency In Managing Risk And Knowledge: Steps Toward Operationalisation Of The Risk-Knowledge Infinity Cycle (Rki Cycle) Part 3: Uncovering Knowledge For Qrm Through Knowledge Mapping At Node 1, Martin Lipa, Valerie Mulholland, Anne Greene Jan 2022

Advancing Competency In Managing Risk And Knowledge: Steps Toward Operationalisation Of The Risk-Knowledge Infinity Cycle (Rki Cycle) Part 3: Uncovering Knowledge For Qrm Through Knowledge Mapping At Node 1, Martin Lipa, Valerie Mulholland, Anne Greene

Articles

To date, literature on the Risk-Knowledge Infinity Cycle (RKI Cycle) has mainly been theoretical. This paper series intent is to focus on the operationalisation of the RKI Cycle by describing a series of steps – the “How to” – for RKI Cycle deployment, to help move the RKI Cycle from theory to practice. The third paper in this series focuses on ensuring the best available knowledge flows into QRM through a case study demonstrating knowledge mapping to support effective quality risk assessment during commissioning and qualification activities.


A Flexible Dual-Mode Pressure Sensor With Ultra-High Sensitivity Based On Bto@Mwcnts Core-Shell Nanofibers, Bangze Zhou, Chenchen Li, Yanfen Zhou, Zhanxu Liu, Xue Gao, Xueqin Wang, Liang Jiang, Mingwei Tian, Feng-Lei Zhou, Stephen Jerrams, Jianyong Yu Jan 2022

A Flexible Dual-Mode Pressure Sensor With Ultra-High Sensitivity Based On Bto@Mwcnts Core-Shell Nanofibers, Bangze Zhou, Chenchen Li, Yanfen Zhou, Zhanxu Liu, Xue Gao, Xueqin Wang, Liang Jiang, Mingwei Tian, Feng-Lei Zhou, Stephen Jerrams, Jianyong Yu

Articles

Wearable flexible sensors have developed rapidly in recent years because of their improved capacity to detect human motion in wide-ranging situations. In order to meet the requirements of flexibility and low detection limits, a new pressure sensor was fabricated based on electrospun barium titanate/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (BTO@MWCNTs) core-shell nanofibers coated with styrene-ethylene-butene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS). The sensor material (BTO@MWCNTs/SEBS) had a SEBS to BTO/MWCNTs mass ratio of 20:1 and exhibited an excellent piezoelectricity over a wide range of workable pressures from 1 to 50 kPa, higher output current of 56.37 nA and a ...


Home Energy Management System Considering Effective Demand Response Strategies And Uncertainties, Marcos Tostado-Véliz, Paul Arévalo, Salah Kamel, Hossam Zawbaa, Francisco Jurado Jan 2022

Home Energy Management System Considering Effective Demand Response Strategies And Uncertainties, Marcos Tostado-Véliz, Paul Arévalo, Salah Kamel, Hossam Zawbaa, Francisco Jurado

Articles

Nowadays, load serving entities require more active participation from consumers. In this context, demand response programs and home energy management systems play a crucial role in achieving multiple goals such as peak clipping. However, the adoption of demand response initiatives typically has a negative impact on the monetary expenditures of the users. This way, a demand response program should be as effective as possible to make the different goals more easily achievable without compromising the financial requirements of the users. This paper develops a home energy management system that incorporates three novel effective demand response strategies. The effectiveness of the ...


Improvement Of Active Distribution Systems With High Penetration Capacities Of Shunt Reactive Compensators And Distributed Generators Using Bald Eagle Search, Ahmad Eid, Salah Kamel, Dr Hossam Zawbaa, Mostafa Dardeer Jan 2022

Improvement Of Active Distribution Systems With High Penetration Capacities Of Shunt Reactive Compensators And Distributed Generators Using Bald Eagle Search, Ahmad Eid, Salah Kamel, Dr Hossam Zawbaa, Mostafa Dardeer

Articles

This work proposes an intelligent allocation of distributed generation (DG) units and shunt reactive compensators (SRC) with high penetration capacities into distribution systems for power loss mitigation using the Bald Eagle Search (BES) optimization algorithm. The intelligent allocation causes a reduction in voltage variations and enhances the voltage stability of the systems. The SRC units include shunt capacitors (SC), Static Var Compensators (SVC), and Distribution Static Compensators (DSTATCOM), which are determined according to their capacities. The optimization study includes the 33-bus and the 118-bus distribution systems as medium to large systems. Performance parameters, including the reactive power loss, Total Voltage ...


Tidal Current Turbine Blade Optimisation With Improved Blade Element Momentum Theory And A Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm, Eng Jet Yeo, David Kennedy, Fergal O'Rourke Jan 2022

Tidal Current Turbine Blade Optimisation With Improved Blade Element Momentum Theory And A Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm, Eng Jet Yeo, David Kennedy, Fergal O'Rourke

Articles

Tidal current energy has the advantage of predictability over most of the other renewable energy resources. However, due to the harsh operating environment and complicated site conditions, developments in this domain have been gradual. Paramount to these points is device design and optimisation of hydrodynamic performance. Recent developments in the correction models of BEM theory have further improved the accuracy of the prediction model. Using an improved blade element momentum theory model that is capable of accurately capturing the downwash angle and combining it with a well-developed and reliable non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm model, an effective and efficient tidal current ...


The Evolution Of The Internet And Social Media: A Literature Review, Charles Alves De Castro, Isobel O'Reilly Dr, Aiden Carthy Dec 2021

The Evolution Of The Internet And Social Media: A Literature Review, Charles Alves De Castro, Isobel O'Reilly Dr, Aiden Carthy

Articles

This article reviews and analyses factors impacting the evolution of the internet, the web, and social media channels, charting historic trends and highlight recent technological developments. The review comprised a deep search using electronic journal databases. Articles were chosen according to specific criteria with a group of 34 papers and books selected for complete reading and deep analysis. The 34 elements were analysed and processed using NVIVO 12 Pro, enabling the creation of dimensions and categories, codes and nodes, identifying the most frequent words, cluster analysis of the terms, and creating a word cloud based on each word's frequency ...


Application Of Competitive Intelligence For Insular Territories: Automatic Analysis Of Scientific And Technology Trends To Fight The Negative Effects Of Climate Change, Henri Dou, Pierre Fournie Dec 2021

Application Of Competitive Intelligence For Insular Territories: Automatic Analysis Of Scientific And Technology Trends To Fight The Negative Effects Of Climate Change, Henri Dou, Pierre Fournie

International Journal of Islands Research

Islands are fragile territories because of their geographical position. As a result, climate impacts can have serious consequences, of which some are irreversible. Therefore, it is necessary to allow insular territories to benefit from the latest scientific and technological advances in combating climate effects. The current article shows how to deal with automatic analysis of scientific information on the one hand, but also its applications via patents. We will analyse the latest scientific results as well as their possible applications using patent analysis. We will also focus on experts, laboratories, and leading companies, that are active on the field. The ...


Optimum Implementation Of Compound Compression Of A Computer Screen For Real-Time Transmission In Low Network Bandwidth Environments, Conor Paxton Dec 2021

Optimum Implementation Of Compound Compression Of A Computer Screen For Real-Time Transmission In Low Network Bandwidth Environments, Conor Paxton

Masters

Remote working is becoming increasingly more prevalent in recent times. A large part of remote working involves sharing computer screens between servers and clients. The image content that is presented when sharing computer screens consists of both natural camera captured image data as well as computer generated graphics and text. The attributes of natural camera captured image data differ greatly to the attributes of computer generated image data. An image containing a mixture of both natural camera captured image and computer generated image data is known as a compound image. The research presented in this thesis focuses on the challenge ...


Artificial Intelligence-Based Power System Stabilizers For Frequency Stability Enhancement In Multi-Machine Power Systems, Aliyu Sabo, Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab, Mohammad Lutfi Othman, Mai Zurwatul Ahlam Mohd Jaffar, Hakan Acikgoz, Hamed Nafisi, Hossein Shahinzadeh Dec 2021

Artificial Intelligence-Based Power System Stabilizers For Frequency Stability Enhancement In Multi-Machine Power Systems, Aliyu Sabo, Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab, Mohammad Lutfi Othman, Mai Zurwatul Ahlam Mohd Jaffar, Hakan Acikgoz, Hamed Nafisi, Hossein Shahinzadeh

Articles

Low frequency oscillations (LFOs) occur in a system of interconnected generators connected by weak interconnection. A power system stabilizer (PSS) is commonly used to improve the capacity of the power system dampening. Under a variety of operating conditions, traditional PSSs fail to deliver superior damping. To address this issue, a Farmland Fertility Algorithm (FFA-PSSs controller) was used to solve an optimization problem for optimal design of PSSs system parameters, and its performance efficiency was compared to GA and PSO-based PSSs controllers. In addition to PSS, flexible current transmission (FACTS) devices are widely used. PSSs controllers and FACTS devices are frequently ...