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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Comparing Methods Of Targeting Obesity Interventions In Populations: An Agent-Based Simulation, Rahmatollah Beheshti, Mehdi Jalalpour, Thomas A. Glass Nov 2019

Comparing Methods Of Targeting Obesity Interventions In Populations: An Agent-Based Simulation, Rahmatollah Beheshti, Mehdi Jalalpour, Thomas A. Glass

Mehdi Jalalpour

Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment. We develop an ABM to compare conventional targeting methods (random selection, based on individual obesity risk, and vulnerable areas) with network-based targeting methods. We adapt ...


Stress-Based Topology Optimization Of Steel-Frame Structures Using Members With Standard Cross Sections: Gradient-Based Approach, Navid Changizi, Mehdi Jalalpour Nov 2019

Stress-Based Topology Optimization Of Steel-Frame Structures Using Members With Standard Cross Sections: Gradient-Based Approach, Navid Changizi, Mehdi Jalalpour

Mehdi Jalalpour

This article presents a computationally efficient methodology for stress-based topology optimization of steel frame structures with cross-sectional properties that are mapped from I-beam sections of a design manual. To account for the natural variability of the data, this mapping is achieved via quantile regression to derive continuous relationships between cross-sectional area (the design variable) and other section properties. These relationships are used for deriving the gradient of structural performance, which allows using computationally efficient gradient-based optimization schemes. Three frame structures are designed using the proposed algorithm, the resulting designs are compared with traditional compliance-based topology optimization algorithms, and changes in ...


Determination Of Characteristic Odorants From Harmonia Axyridis Beetles Using In Vivo Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Matthew E. O'Neal Nov 2019

Determination Of Characteristic Odorants From Harmonia Axyridis Beetles Using In Vivo Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Matthew E. O'Neal

Matthew E. O'Neal

Homeowners, small fruit growers, and wine makers are concerned with noxious compounds released by multicolored Asian ladybird beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). A new method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (MDGC–MS–O) system was developed for extraction, isolation and simultaneous identification of compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of live H. axyridis. Four methoxypyrazines (MPs) were identified in headspace volatiles of live H. axyridis as those responsible for the characteristic odor: 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine (DMMP), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine (SBMP), and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). To the best of our knowledge this is the ...


Use Of Neural Networks To Identify Safety Prevention Priorities In Agro-Manufacturing Operations Within Commercial Grain Elevators, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Nov 2019

Use Of Neural Networks To Identify Safety Prevention Priorities In Agro-Manufacturing Operations Within Commercial Grain Elevators, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki

The grain handling industry plays a significant role in U.S. agriculture by storing, distributing, and processing a variety of agricultural commodities. Commercial grain elevators are hazardous agro-manufacturing work environments where workers are prone to severe injuries, due to the nature of the activities and workplace. Safety incidents in agro-manufacturing operations generally arise from a combination of factors, rather than a single cause, therefore, research on occupational incidents must look deeper into identifying the underlying causes, through the application of advanced analyses methods. In occupational safety, it is possible to estimate and predict probability of safety risks through developing artificial ...


Method For 3-D Scene Reconstruction Using Fused Lidar And Imagery From A Texel Camera, Taylor C. Bybee, Scott Budge Oct 2019

Method For 3-D Scene Reconstruction Using Fused Lidar And Imagery From A Texel Camera, Taylor C. Bybee, Scott Budge

Scott Budge

Reconstructing a 3-D scene from aerial sensor data creating a textured digital surface model (TDSM), consisting of a LiDAR point cloud and an overlaid image, is valuable in many applications including agriculture, military, surveying, and natural disaster response. When collecting LiDAR from an aircraft, the navigation system accuracy must exceed the LiDAR accuracy to properly reference returns in 3-D space. Precision navigation systems can be expensive and often require full-scale aircraft to house such systems. Synchronizing the LiDAR sensor and a camera, using a texel camera calibration, provides additional information that reduces the need for precision navigation equipment. This paper ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of A Low Temperature Closed-Cycle Grain Drying System, Mingjun Ma, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2019

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of A Low Temperature Closed-Cycle Grain Drying System, Mingjun Ma, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The aim of this study was to understand the environmental and economic impact of the low temperature closed-cycle grain drying system by using techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). For TEA, three scales including small (60 bu/batch), medium (600 bu/batch) and large (6000 bu/batch) were chosen for analysis the total annual drying cost and unit drying cost. For LCA, the greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission was the only environmental impact that considered in this study, since the electricity was the only energy source for this drying system. The TEA result shows that the drying costs for ...


Strategies To Enhance Learning In A Large Engineering Economics Course: Including Students’ Perceived Values In The Instructional Redesign Process, Kellie S. Grasman, D. Cernusca Oct 2019

Strategies To Enhance Learning In A Large Engineering Economics Course: Including Students’ Perceived Values In The Instructional Redesign Process, Kellie S. Grasman, D. Cernusca

Kellie S. Grasman

Purposeful implementation of technology in instructional design presents opportunities to increase institutional efficiency while simultaneously improving instructional quality. This paper presents findings from the implementation of a hybrid/buffet approach in an undergraduate Engineering Economics large course. A Design-Based Research (DBR) approach informed the instructional redesign and measured its effectiveness through multiple iterations, or macro-cycles, of implementation. Overall, pedagogical structure and specific technology solutions applied to each course component are described, as well as preliminary measures of effectiveness and student perception from a pilot offering of the hybrid/buffet course. Encouraged by positive preliminary results, a second implementation informed further ...


Mechatronics Education At Kettering University: Development Of Learning- Specific Hardware And Software, Jeffrey Hargrove, Theodore J. Stokes Oct 2019

Mechatronics Education At Kettering University: Development Of Learning- Specific Hardware And Software, Jeffrey Hargrove, Theodore J. Stokes

Jeffrey Hargrove

A series of learning-specific electronic circuit boards and associated software has been developed to support mechatronics education in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Kettering University. The boards are designed to interface to the Toshiba TLCS-900H Microprocessor Trainer and Evaluation Board. The purpose of these boards is to provide mechanical engineering students of mechatronics with robust hardware that readily permits interfacing of sensors and actuators to microcontrollers used in mechatronic applications. Further, the boards feature signal conditioning circuits for use in conjunction with sensors, and driver circuits for operating high-current actuating devices. Supporting software has been written to permit ready use ...


Development And Implementation Of Mechatronics Education At Kettering University, Jeffrey Hargrove Oct 2019

Development And Implementation Of Mechatronics Education At Kettering University, Jeffrey Hargrove

Jeffrey Hargrove

The Mechanical Engineering Department at Kettering University has completed development of a significant new component of education in mechatronics. The work began in the fall of 1997 as the principal part of an award for “Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement” by the Division of Undergraduate Education of the National Science Foundation. It has culminated with the successful implementation of two undergraduate courses in mechatronics, two mechatronics laboratories and a website to support the educational endeavors of the mechatronics students. As will be described in this paper, the first course and its laboratory exercises are designed specifically to provide the students with ...


Properties Of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Components Fabricated By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts Oct 2019

Properties Of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Components Fabricated By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts

Jeremy Watts

The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process is a novel additive manufacturing process for fabricating dense ceramic components from aqueous pastes of high solids loading. In this study, 3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) parts were fabricated using the CODE process. The parts were then dried in a humidity controlled environmental chamber and sintered under atmospheric pressure. Mechanical properties of the sintered parts were examined using ASTM standard test techniques, including density, Young’s modulus, flexural strength, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness. The microstructure was analyzed, and grain size was measured using scanning electron ...


Fabricating Functionally Graded Materials By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion With Dynamic Mixing, Wenbin Li, Austin J. Martin, Benjamin Kroehler, Alexander M. Henderson, Tieshu Huang, Jeremy Lee Watts, Greg Hilmas, Ming-Chuan Leu Oct 2019

Fabricating Functionally Graded Materials By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion With Dynamic Mixing, Wenbin Li, Austin J. Martin, Benjamin Kroehler, Alexander M. Henderson, Tieshu Huang, Jeremy Lee Watts, Greg Hilmas, Ming-Chuan Leu

Jeremy Watts

Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is an extrusion-based additive manufacturing process recently developed for fabricating dense, functional ceramic components. Presented in this paper is a further development of this process focusing on fabrication of functionally graded materials (FGM). A dynamic mixing mechanism was developed for mixing constituent ceramic pastes, and an extrusion control scheme was developed for fabricating specimens with desired material compositions graded in real time. FGM specimens with compositions graded between Al2O3 and ZrO2 were fabricated and ultimately densified by sintering to validate the effectiveness of the CODE process for FGM fabrication. Energy dispersive spectroscopy ...


Designed Extrudate For Additive Manufacturing Of Zirconium Diboride By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion, Devin Mcmillen, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts Oct 2019

Designed Extrudate For Additive Manufacturing Of Zirconium Diboride By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion, Devin Mcmillen, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts

Jeremy Watts

This work describes a process by which zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts may be fabricated using the Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process. An oxide-carbide-nitride system consisting of ceramic powders and pre-ceramic organics, designed to yield ZrB2 after reaction sintering, has been developed to produce an aqueous-based extrudate for subsequent processing in the CODE system. Pressurelessly sintered test specimens containing 1 wt% PVA binder achieve high relative density ≥ 99%. The viscoelastic response of the extrudate was characterized via spindle rheometry with a small sample adapter. Batches with 1 wt% PVA and 0.5 wt% Methocel show strong shear thinning characteristic, under ...


Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin T. Sutton, Caitlin S. Kriewall, Ming-Chuan Leu, Joseph William Newkirk Oct 2019

Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin T. Sutton, Caitlin S. Kriewall, Ming-Chuan Leu, Joseph William Newkirk

Joseph William Newkirk

During part fabrication by selective laser melting (SLM), a powder-bed fusion process in Additive Manufacturing (AM), a large amount of energy is input from the laser into the melt pool, causing generation of spatter and condensate, both of which have the potential to settle in the surrounding powder-bed compromising its reusability. In this study, 304L stainless steel powder is subjected to five reuses in the SLM process to assess its recyclability through characterization of both powder and mechanical properties. Powder was characterized morphologically by particle size distribution measurements, oxygen content with inert gas fusion analysis, and phase identification by X-ray ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Oct 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Lie Tang

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


Equilibrium Microstructures Of Diblock Copolymers Under 3d Confinement, Ananth Tenneti, David M. Ackerman, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Oct 2019

Equilibrium Microstructures Of Diblock Copolymers Under 3d Confinement, Ananth Tenneti, David M. Ackerman, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

We investigate equilibrium microstructures exhibited by diblock copolymers in confined 3D geometries. We perform Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) simulations using a finite-element based computational framework (Ackerman et al. 2017), that provides the flexibility to compute equilibrium structures under arbitrary geometries. We consider a sequence of 3D geometries (tetrahedron to sphere) that have the same volume but exhibit varying curvature. This allows us to study the interplay between edge and curvature effects of the 3D geometries on the equilibrium microstructures. We observe that beyond a length scale, the equilibrium structure changes from an interconnected network to a multi-layered concentric shell as ...


Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs The Immune Response To Intranasal Vaccination And Rsv Infection In Neonatal Calves, Jodi L. Mcgill, Sean M. Kelly, Mariana Guerra-Maupome, Emma Winkley, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E. Sacco Oct 2019

Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs The Immune Response To Intranasal Vaccination And Rsv Infection In Neonatal Calves, Jodi L. Mcgill, Sean M. Kelly, Mariana Guerra-Maupome, Emma Winkley, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E. Sacco

Balaji Narasimhan

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent nutrition-related health problems in the world and is a significant risk factor in the development of severe respiratory infections in infants and young children. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young cattle. The calf model of BRSV infection is useful to understand the immune response to human RSV infection. We have previously developed an amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccine (i.e ...


Computational Aspects Of Bayesian Solution Estimators In Stochastic Optimization, Danial Davarnia, Burak Kocuk, Gerard Cornuejols Oct 2019

Computational Aspects Of Bayesian Solution Estimators In Stochastic Optimization, Danial Davarnia, Burak Kocuk, Gerard Cornuejols

Danial Davarnia

We study a class of stochastic programs where some of the elements in the objective function are random, and their probability distribution has unknown parameters. The goal is to find a good estimate for the optimal solution of the stochastic program using data sampled from the distribution of the random elements. We investigate two common optimization criteria for evaluating the quality of a solution estimator, one based on the difference in objective values, and the other based on the Euclidean distance between solutions. We use risk as the expected value of such criteria over the sample space. Under a Bayesian ...


Computational Framework For The Identification Of Bioprivileged Molecules, Xiaowei Zhou, Zachary J. Brentzel, George A. Kraus, Peter L. Keeling, James A. Dumesic, Brent H. Shanks, Linda J. Broadbelt Oct 2019

Computational Framework For The Identification Of Bioprivileged Molecules, Xiaowei Zhou, Zachary J. Brentzel, George A. Kraus, Peter L. Keeling, James A. Dumesic, Brent H. Shanks, Linda J. Broadbelt

Brent H. Shanks

Bioprivileged molecules are biology-derived chemical intermediates that can be efficiently converted to a diversity of chemical products including both novel molecules and drop-in replacements. Bridging chemical and biological catalysis by bioprivileged molecules provides a useful and flexible new paradigm for producing biobased chemicals. However, the discovery of bioprivileged molecules has been demonstrated to require extensive experimental effort over a long period of time. In this work, we developed a computational framework for identification of all possible C6HxOy molecules (29252) that can be honed down to a manageable number of candidate bioprivileged molecules based on analysis of structural ...


The Biotic And Abiotic Carbon Monoxide Formation During Aerobic Co-Digestion Of Dairy Cattle Manure With Green Waste And Sawdust, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Grzegorz Drabczyński, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Oct 2019

The Biotic And Abiotic Carbon Monoxide Formation During Aerobic Co-Digestion Of Dairy Cattle Manure With Green Waste And Sawdust, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Grzegorz Drabczyński, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and a toxic gas to humans, can be generated during aerobic digestion of organic waste. CO is produced due to thermochemical processes, and also produced or consumed by cohorts of methanogenic, acetogenic, or sulfate-reducing bacteria. The exact mechanisms of biotic and abiotic formation of CO in aerobic digestion (particularly the effects of process temperature) are still not known. This study aimed to determine the temporal variation in CO concentrations during the aerobic digestion as a function of process temperature and activity of microorganisms. All experiments were conducted in controlled temperature reactors using homogeneous materials ...


Properties Of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Components Fabricated By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts Oct 2019

Properties Of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Components Fabricated By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts

Greg Hilmas

The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process is a novel additive manufacturing process for fabricating dense ceramic components from aqueous pastes of high solids loading. In this study, 3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) parts were fabricated using the CODE process. The parts were then dried in a humidity controlled environmental chamber and sintered under atmospheric pressure. Mechanical properties of the sintered parts were examined using ASTM standard test techniques, including density, Young’s modulus, flexural strength, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness. The microstructure was analyzed, and grain size was measured using scanning electron ...


Method And Apparatus For Fabricating Ceramic And Metal Components Via Additive Manufacturing With Uniform Layered Radiation Drying, Ming-Chuan Leu, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Greg Hilmas, Robert G. Landers Oct 2019

Method And Apparatus For Fabricating Ceramic And Metal Components Via Additive Manufacturing With Uniform Layered Radiation Drying, Ming-Chuan Leu, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Greg Hilmas, Robert G. Landers

Greg Hilmas

A freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing three - dimensional ceramic, metal and functionally gradient composite objects, including the steps of filling a plurality of paste sources with a respective plurality of aqueous paste compositions, operationally connecting respective syringes containing respective aqueous paste compositions to a mix ing chamber, moving a first aqueous paste composition from a first respective paste source into the mixing chamber, moving a second aqueous paste composition from a second respective paste source into the mixing chamber, mixing the first and second aqueous paste compositions to define a first admixture having a first admixture composition, extruding the ...


Fabricating Functionally Graded Materials By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion With Dynamic Mixing, Wenbin Li, Austin J. Martin, Benjamin Kroehler, Alexander M. Henderson, Tieshu Huang, Jeremy Lee Watts, Greg Hilmas, Ming-Chuan Leu Oct 2019

Fabricating Functionally Graded Materials By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion With Dynamic Mixing, Wenbin Li, Austin J. Martin, Benjamin Kroehler, Alexander M. Henderson, Tieshu Huang, Jeremy Lee Watts, Greg Hilmas, Ming-Chuan Leu

Greg Hilmas

Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is an extrusion-based additive manufacturing process recently developed for fabricating dense, functional ceramic components. Presented in this paper is a further development of this process focusing on fabrication of functionally graded materials (FGM). A dynamic mixing mechanism was developed for mixing constituent ceramic pastes, and an extrusion control scheme was developed for fabricating specimens with desired material compositions graded in real time. FGM specimens with compositions graded between Al2O3 and ZrO2 were fabricated and ultimately densified by sintering to validate the effectiveness of the CODE process for FGM fabrication. Energy dispersive spectroscopy ...


Designed Extrudate For Additive Manufacturing Of Zirconium Diboride By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion, Devin Mcmillen, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts Oct 2019

Designed Extrudate For Additive Manufacturing Of Zirconium Diboride By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion, Devin Mcmillen, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts

Greg Hilmas

This work describes a process by which zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts may be fabricated using the Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process. An oxide-carbide-nitride system consisting of ceramic powders and pre-ceramic organics, designed to yield ZrB2 after reaction sintering, has been developed to produce an aqueous-based extrudate for subsequent processing in the CODE system. Pressurelessly sintered test specimens containing 1 wt% PVA binder achieve high relative density ≥ 99%. The viscoelastic response of the extrudate was characterized via spindle rheometry with a small sample adapter. Batches with 1 wt% PVA and 0.5 wt% Methocel show strong shear thinning characteristic, under ...


3d Printing Of A Polymer Bioactive Glass Composite For Bone Repair, Caroline Murphy, Krishna C. R. Kolan, M. Long, Ming-Chuan Leu, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day Oct 2019

3d Printing Of A Polymer Bioactive Glass Composite For Bone Repair, Caroline Murphy, Krishna C. R. Kolan, M. Long, Ming-Chuan Leu, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day

Julie A. Semon

A major limitation of synthetic bone repair is insufficient vascularization of the interior region of the scaffold. In this study, we investigated the 3D printing of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) with polycaprolactone (PCL)/bioactive glass composite in a single process. This offered a three-dimensional environment for complex and dynamic interactions that govern the cell’s behavior in vivo3 in overall dimensions with a filament width of ~500 μm and pore sizes ranging from 100 to 200 μm were fabricated. Strut formability dependence on paste viscosity, scaffold integrity, and printing parameters for droplets of ADMSCs suspended in Matrigel were ...


Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli Oct 2019

Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli

Pankaj Lal

The growing attention to renewable energy and rural development has created greater demand for production of biomass feedstock for bioenergy. However, forest growth rates and the amount of land in most existing forests may not be sufficient to sustainably supply the forest biomass required to support existing forest products industries and the expanding bioenergy industry. Additionally, concerns about agricultural land use competition have dampened expansion of biomass production on agricultural land base. One of the ways to meet the growing forest biomass feedstock demand for bioenergy production is by allocating currently marginal non-forested land for growing bioenergy feedstocks. In Virginia ...


A Study Of Brain Neuronal And Functional Complexities Estimated Using Multiscale Entropy In Healthy Young Adults, Sreevalsan S. Menon, K. Krishnamurthy Oct 2019

A Study Of Brain Neuronal And Functional Complexities Estimated Using Multiscale Entropy In Healthy Young Adults, Sreevalsan S. Menon, K. Krishnamurthy

K. Krishnamurthy

Brain complexity estimated using sample entropy and multiscale entropy (MSE) has recently gained much attention to compare brain function between diseased or neurologically impaired groups and healthy control groups. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals in a large cohort (n = 967) of healthy young adults, the present study maps neuronal and functional complexities estimated by using MSE of BOLD signals and BOLD phase coherence connectivity, respectively, at various levels of the brain’s organization. The functional complexity explores patterns in a higher dimension than neuronal complexity and may better discern changes in brain functioning ...


Transparent Solar Windows From Labs To Industry, Towards Smart Cities - Encyclopedia- Oct 2019.Pdf, Mohammad Nur-E-Alam, Mikhail Vasiliev, Kamal Alameh Oct 2019

Transparent Solar Windows From Labs To Industry, Towards Smart Cities - Encyclopedia- Oct 2019.Pdf, Mohammad Nur-E-Alam, Mikhail Vasiliev, Kamal Alameh

Mikhail Vasiliev

Many modern glass and window products are based on metal-dielectric coatings, which can control properties such as thermal emissivity, heat gain, colour, and transparency. These can also enable solar energy harvesting through PV integration, if the glazing structure is purpose-designed, to include luminescent materials and special microstructures. Recently, significant progress has been demonstrated in building integrated transparent solar windows, which are expected to add momentum towards the development of smart cities. These window systems are, at present in 2019, the only type of transparent and clear construction materials capable of providing significant energy savings in buildings, simultaneously with renewable energy ...


Performance, Workload, And Usability In A Multiscreen, Multi-Device, Information-Rich Environment, Jason J. Saleem, Dustin T. Weiler Oct 2019

Performance, Workload, And Usability In A Multiscreen, Multi-Device, Information-Rich Environment, Jason J. Saleem, Dustin T. Weiler

Jason Saleem

Potential benefits of multiscreen and multiple device environments were assessed using three different computing environments. A single factor, within-subject study was conducted with 18 engineering students in a laboratory experiment. Three levels for the computing environment factor included one with a desktop computer with a single monitor (control, condition A); one with a desktop with dual monitors, as well as a single tablet computer (condition B); and one with a desktop with a single monitor, as well as two tablet computers (condition C). There was no statistically significant difference in efficiency or workload when completing scenarios for the three computing ...


Ambulatory Clinic Exam Room Design With Respect To Computing Devices: A Laboratory Simulation Study, Dustin T. Weiler, Tyler Satterly, Shakaib U. Rehman, Maury A. Nussbaum, Neale R. Chumbler, Gary M. Fischer, Jason J. Saleem Oct 2019

Ambulatory Clinic Exam Room Design With Respect To Computing Devices: A Laboratory Simulation Study, Dustin T. Weiler, Tyler Satterly, Shakaib U. Rehman, Maury A. Nussbaum, Neale R. Chumbler, Gary M. Fischer, Jason J. Saleem

Jason Saleem

Background—Challenges persist regarding how to integrate computing effectively into the exam room, while maintaining patient-centered care. Purpose—Our objective was to evaluate a new exam room design with respect to the computing layout, which included a wall-mounted monitor for ease of (re)-positioning. Methods—In a lab-based experiment, 28 providers used prototypes of the new and older “legacy” outpatient exam room layouts in a within-subject comparison using simulated patient encounters. We measured efficiency, errors, workload, patient-centeredness (proportion of time the provider was focused on the patient), amount of screen sharing with the patient, workflow integration, and provider situation awareness ...


Advances In Controlling Differentiation Of Adult Stem Cells For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Metin Uz, Suprem R. Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya Mallapragada Oct 2019

Advances In Controlling Differentiation Of Adult Stem Cells For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Metin Uz, Suprem R. Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya Mallapragada

Donald Sakaguchi

Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes including, neuronal or glial cell types, constitute a great asset for biomedical applications involving peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cell plasticity, in particular their ability to undergo transdifferentiation, is sensitive to various cellto- cell interactions and external stimuli involving the interactions with physical, mechanical and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e.g., glial cells and neurons). These techniques include using chemical and/or electrical induction as well ...