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Portland State University

Theses/Dissertations

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 43

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Multi-Agent System For Adaptive Control Of A Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle, Michal Podhradský Dec 2016

A Multi-Agent System For Adaptive Control Of A Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle, Michal Podhradský

Dissertations and Theses

Biomimetic flapping-wing vehicles have attracted recent interest because of their numerous potential military and civilian applications. In this dissertation is described the design of a multi-agent adaptive controller for such a vehicle. This controller is responsible for estimating the vehicle pose (position and orientation) and then generating four parameters needed for split-cycle control of wing movements to correct pose errors. These parameters are produced via a subsumption architecture rule base. The control strategy is fault tolerant. Using an online learning process, an agent continuously monitors the vehicle's behavior and initiates diagnostics if the behavior has degraded. This agent can ...


Algorithm For Premature Ventricular Contraction Detection From A Subcutaneous Electrocardiogram Signal, Iris Lynn Shelly Dec 2016

Algorithm For Premature Ventricular Contraction Detection From A Subcutaneous Electrocardiogram Signal, Iris Lynn Shelly

Dissertations and Theses

Cardiac arrhythmias occur when the normal pattern of electrical signals in the heart breaks down. A premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is a common type of arrhythmia that occurs when a heartbeat originates from an ectopic focus within the ventricles rather than from the sinus node in the right atrium. This and other arrhythmias are often diagnosed with the help of an electrocardiogram, or ECG, which records the electrical activity of the heart using electrodes placed on the skin. In an ECG signal, a PVC is characterized by both timing and morphological differences from a normal sinus beat.

An implantable cardiac ...


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Structure From Motion Biomass Inventory Estimates, Emily Jane Bedell Dec 2016

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Structure From Motion Biomass Inventory Estimates, Emily Jane Bedell

Dissertations and Theses

Riparian vegetation restoration efforts demand cost effective, accurate, and replicable impact assessments. In this thesis a method is presented using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a GoPro digital camera to collect photogrammetric data of a 2.02-acre riparian restoration. A three-dimensional point cloud was created from the photos using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques. The point cloud was analyzed and compared to traditional, ground-based monitoring techniques. Ground truth data collected using the status-quo approach was collected on 6.3% of the study site and averaged across the entire site to report stem heights in stems/acre in three ...


Development Of 3d Accelerometer Testing System, Mohammed Abbas Soudai Alsaedi Dec 2016

Development Of 3d Accelerometer Testing System, Mohammed Abbas Soudai Alsaedi

Dissertations and Theses

Accelerometers are used in numerous industries including aircrafts and missile navigations systems, rotary machines, and electronic devices such as tablets, cell phones, and cameras. Accelerometers of different purposes and specifications are being produced in large quantities. The large demand for accelerometers forces the need for accelerometer testing methodology that is more convenient and accurate. Inertial Micro-Electromechanical Systems Accelerometer (MEMS) require a series of tests that include physical stimuli. One of the key challenges is the cost associated with testing. Therefore, the accurate prediction of the sensor functions not only reduces the testing time but also more importantly contributes to reducing ...


A Study On The Current State Of Contaminants Of Concern Research, With A Focus On Biosolids And Regulations, Maren Fulton Dec 2016

A Study On The Current State Of Contaminants Of Concern Research, With A Focus On Biosolids And Regulations, Maren Fulton

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Wastewater treatment plants are a major source of contaminants of emerging concern, as these facilities are the main receptors of these products via household, commercial, and industrial drains, and transport via stormwater runoff. Biosolids are composed of numerous constituents, with a number of environmentally persistent and potentially toxic contaminants of emerging concern identified as present in large concentrations. Research is needed to understand the transport and fate mechanisms of these compounds in biosolids. Additionally, this research is needed to determine a new priority framework to regulate CECs, both on the national level and regional levels. Wastewater treatment plant influent and ...


Exploring Length-Based Vehicle Count Data, Byad Ahmed Dec 2016

Exploring Length-Based Vehicle Count Data, Byad Ahmed

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) requires high-quality traffic information within most urban areas worldwide, and under growing pressure for improving traffic management, there has been an increasing urge to collecting and monitoring of traffic data. One of the most reliable and recommended technology for drive thru or traffic control is the loop vehicle detection system. On the Portland freeway system, new software has been installed that allows the reporting of vehicle length in bins. This research investigates the use of this data (length based) by exploring time series analyses of the vehicle counts as freight and non-freight movement.


Using Blind Source Separation And A Compact Microphone Array To Improve The Error Rate Of Speech Recognition, Jeffrey Dean Hoffman Dec 2016

Using Blind Source Separation And A Compact Microphone Array To Improve The Error Rate Of Speech Recognition, Jeffrey Dean Hoffman

Dissertations and Theses

Automatic speech recognition has become a standard feature on many consumer electronics and automotive products, and the accuracy of the decoded speech has improved dramatically over time. Often, designers of these products achieve accuracy by employing microphone arrays and beamforming algorithms to reduce interference. However, beamforming microphone arrays are too large for small form factor products such as smart watches. Yet these small form factor products, which have precious little space for tactile user input (i.e. knobs, buttons and touch screens), would benefit immensely from a user interface based on reliably accurate automatic speech recognition.

This thesis proposes a ...


Experimental Investigation Of Cfrp Wrapped Square Non-Ductile Reinforced Concrete Columns, Hayder Lateef Al-Khafaji Nov 2016

Experimental Investigation Of Cfrp Wrapped Square Non-Ductile Reinforced Concrete Columns, Hayder Lateef Al-Khafaji

Dissertations and Theses

The use of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) for retrofitting or strengthening deficient concrete columns noticeably increased in the past few decades. Plenty of research has been conducted on the behavior of FRP-strengthened circular concrete columns, but far less research has dealt with non-circular columns. In the current study, the focus was to investigate the behavior of square columns with low to medium grade concrete and low steel reinforcement that were strengthened using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrap. In the experimental portion of this investigation, twelve short square reinforced concrete columns (5" x 5" in cross section and 12" high) were ...


An Assessment Of Post-Encroachment Times For Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions Observed In The Field, A Driving Simulator, And In Traffic Simulation Models, Ali Razmpa Nov 2016

An Assessment Of Post-Encroachment Times For Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions Observed In The Field, A Driving Simulator, And In Traffic Simulation Models, Ali Razmpa

Dissertations and Theses

Most safety analysis is conducted using crash data. Surrogate safety measures, such as various time-based measures of time-to-collision can be related to crash potential and used to gain insight into the frequency and severity of crashes at a specific location. One of the most common and acknowledged measures is post-encroachment time (PET) which defines the time between vehicles occupying a conflicting space. While commonly used in studies of motor vehicle interactions, studies of PET for bicycle-vehicle interactions are few. In this research, the PET of bicycle-vehicle interactions measured in the field, a driving simulator, and in a micro-simulation are compared ...


Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland Nov 2016

Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland

Dissertations and Theses

Volcanic eruption columns inject high concentrations of ash into the atmosphere. Some of this ash is carried downwind forming ash clouds in the atmosphere that are hazardous for private and commercial aviation. Current models rely on inputs such as plume height, duration, eruption rate, and meteorological wind fields. Eruption rate is estimated from plume height using relations that depend on the rate of air entrainment into the plume, which is not well quantified. A wind tunnel experiment has been designed to investigate these models by injecting a vertical air jet into a cross-flow. The ratio of the cross-flow and jet ...


Configuring The Urban Smart Grid: Transitions, Experimentation, And Governance, Anthony Michael Levenda Sep 2016

Configuring The Urban Smart Grid: Transitions, Experimentation, And Governance, Anthony Michael Levenda

Dissertations and Theses

In the face of challenges of energy security, decarbonization, resilience, and the replacement of aging infrastructure systems, federal, state, and local actors are facilitating the development of smart electricity networks to transition towards a more sustainable electricity system. In the United States, development of "smart grids" is being pursued as a national policy mandate and goal, promising that the deployment of smart grid technologies -- referring in general to digital information and communication technologies that sense, monitor, control and manage the electric grid -- will make electricity systems more environmentally sustainable and reliable, and at the same time, provide opportunities for growth ...


Practical Wired Digital Communications Link Analysis, Raymond Matthew Schmelzer Aug 2016

Practical Wired Digital Communications Link Analysis, Raymond Matthew Schmelzer

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis deals with the analysis of a Wired High Speed Serial Data Link (PAM2) which is commonly used throughout the data-communications and tele-communications industry. The goal of this study is to build a scalable simulation tool using Matlab that ultimately uses Receiver Bit Error Ratio (BER) as the metric for data link health. This study is also designed to aid in link specification development.

The Matlab and theoretical development is broken up into three sections being Transmitter (TX), Channel (Hs) and Receiver (RX). Realistic noise impairments can be added to each section along the signal path creating signal stresses ...


Architectures And Algorithms For Intrinsic Computation With Memristive Devices, Jens Bürger Aug 2016

Architectures And Algorithms For Intrinsic Computation With Memristive Devices, Jens Bürger

Dissertations and Theses

Neuromorphic engineering is the research field dedicated to the study and design of brain-inspired hardware and software tools. Recent advances in emerging nanoelectronics promote the implementation of synaptic connections based on memristive devices. Their non-volatile modifiable conductance was shown to exhibit the synaptic properties often used in connecting and training neural layers. With their nanoscale size and non-volatile memory property, they promise a next step in designing more area and energy efficient neuromorphic hardware.

My research deals with the challenges of harnessing memristive device properties that go beyond the behaviors utilized for synaptic weight storage. Based on devices that exhibit ...


Torsional Strengthening Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Cfrp Composites, Ranj Rafeeq Aug 2016

Torsional Strengthening Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Cfrp Composites, Ranj Rafeeq

Dissertations and Theses

Few decades ago, there were no guidelines for torsion design of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Hence, many existing beams in older buildings have a lack of adequate torsional strength since they were not properly designed for torsion. One way to regain/rehabilitate adequate torsional strength is through application of externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). To date, American Concrete Institute (ACI) code, as well as other building codes, do not have recommendations or provisions for strengthening RC beams for torsion using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites due to the inexistence of conclusive experimental and analytical data. Of the very limited ...


Determining The Power And Energy Capacity Of A Battery Energy Storage System Utilizing A Smoothing Feeder Profile To Accommodate High Photovoltaic Penetration On A Distribution Feeder, Osama Mohammed Abbas Aly Mansour Jul 2016

Determining The Power And Energy Capacity Of A Battery Energy Storage System Utilizing A Smoothing Feeder Profile To Accommodate High Photovoltaic Penetration On A Distribution Feeder, Osama Mohammed Abbas Aly Mansour

Dissertations and Theses

Electricity is a perishable commodity; once it is generated it needs to be consumed or stored. Electric energy storage provides both power and energy capacity. Power capacity applications reduce the need for generation, while energy capacity allows for energy consumption to be decoupled from generation. Previous research was done to develop an algorithm for determining the power (MW) and energy (MWh) capacities of a battery energy storage system (BESS) to mitigate the adverse impacts of high levels of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The algorithm used a flat feeder profile, and its performance was demonstrated on the equinoxes and solstices.

Managing feeder ...


Expanding The Versatility Of Nano Assembled Capsules As Platform Of Potential High Payload Mri Contrast Agents, Annah Farashishiko Jul 2016

Expanding The Versatility Of Nano Assembled Capsules As Platform Of Potential High Payload Mri Contrast Agents, Annah Farashishiko

Dissertations and Theses

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a powerful clinical modality in diagnostic medicine. It is non-invasive and offers high spatial and temporal resolution. The goal of molecular imaging is to reveal the pathophysiology underlying the observed anatomy and diagnose diseases. The detection of pathological biomarkers can lead to early recognition of diseases and improved monitoring for recurrence. Clinically available contrast agents are limited in their discrimination of contrast between tissues and they tend to have very high detection limits. Because biomarkers are very low in concentration there is a need for high payload deposition of contrast agent (CA) and targeted ...


Seismic Behavior And Design Of The Linked Column Steel Frame System For Rapid Return To Occupancy, Arlindo Pires Lopes Jul 2016

Seismic Behavior And Design Of The Linked Column Steel Frame System For Rapid Return To Occupancy, Arlindo Pires Lopes

Dissertations and Theses

The Linked Column Frame (LCF) is a new brace-free lateral structural steel system intended for rapid return to occupancy performance level. LCF is more resilient under a design level earthquake than the conventional approaches. The structural system consists of moment frames for gravity that combines with closely spaced dual columns (LC) interconnected with bolted links for the lateral system. The LC links are sacrificial and intended to be replaced following a design level earthquake. The centerpiece of this work was a unique full-scale experiment using hybrid simulation testing; a combination of physical test of a critical sub-system tied to a ...


Vision-Based Motion For A Humanoid Robot, Khalid Abdullah Alkhulayfi Jul 2016

Vision-Based Motion For A Humanoid Robot, Khalid Abdullah Alkhulayfi

Dissertations and Theses

The overall objective of this thesis is to build an integrated, inexpensive, human-sized humanoid robot from scratch that looks and behaves like a human. More specifically, my goal is to build an android robot called Marie Curie robot that can act like a human actor in the Portland Cyber Theater in the play Quantum Debate with a known script of every robot behavior. In order to achieve this goal, the humanoid robot need to has degrees of freedom (DOF) similar to human DOFs. Each part of the Curie robot was built to achieve the goal of building a complete humanoid ...


The Design, Implementation, Evaluation And Results Of A Race Car For The Collegiate Formula Sae Electric Competition, Quinn Jasha Bryan Sullivan Jul 2016

The Design, Implementation, Evaluation And Results Of A Race Car For The Collegiate Formula Sae Electric Competition, Quinn Jasha Bryan Sullivan

Dissertations and Theses

The Formula SAE Electric competition is a collegiate autocross event in which teams design, build, and race an open-wheeled electric race car. The main motivation is the efficiency advantage of electric motors over internal combustion motors. This thesis presents the design and evaluation of two generations of Portland State University electric race cars.

The constraints are the competition rules, finances, human resources, and time required to complete a race car in one year. The design includes the implementation of existing components: battery cells, controllers, electric motors, drivetrains, and tire data for an optimized race car. Also, several circuits were designed ...


Frequency Multiplication In Silicon Nanowires, Marius Mugurel Ghita Jul 2016

Frequency Multiplication In Silicon Nanowires, Marius Mugurel Ghita

Dissertations and Theses

Frequency multiplication is an effect that arises in electronic components that exhibit a non-linear response to electromagnetic stimuli. Barriers to achieving very high frequency response from electronic devices are the device capacitance and other parasitic effects such as resistances that arise from the device geometry and are in general a function of the size of the device. In general, smaller device geometries and features lead to a faster response to electromagnetic stimuli. It was posited that the small size of the silicon nanowires (SiNWs) would lead to small device capacitance and spreading resistance, thus making the silicon nanowires useful in ...


Wake Character In The Wind Turbine Array: (Dis-)Organization, Spatial And Dynamic Evolution And Low-Dimensional Modeling, Nicholas Michael Hamilton Jul 2016

Wake Character In The Wind Turbine Array: (Dis-)Organization, Spatial And Dynamic Evolution And Low-Dimensional Modeling, Nicholas Michael Hamilton

Dissertations and Theses

To maximize the effectiveness of the rapidly increasing capacity of installed wind energy resources, new models must be developed that are capable of more nuanced control of each wind turbine so that each device is more responsive to inflow events. Models used to plan wind turbine arrays and control behavior of devices within the farm currently make questionable estimates of the incoming atmospheric flow and update turbine configurations infrequently. As a result, wind turbines often operate at diminished capacities, especially in arrays where wind turbine wakes interact and inflow conditions are far from ideal. New turbine control and wake prediction ...


Performance Implications Of Bicycle Specific Treatments At Signalized Intersections, Andrew Kading Jun 2016

Performance Implications Of Bicycle Specific Treatments At Signalized Intersections, Andrew Kading

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

A rise in cycling nationwide has brought an increased awareness of bicycle specific safety concerns, particularly right-hook crashes at signalized intersections. There are several common and emerging signal timing strategies that are can be used to improve the safety and efficiency of traffic signals for people on bicycles, including the Leading Bicycle Intervals (LBI), Split LBI, and Exclusive Bicycle Phasing (EBP). The leading and split bicycle intervals provide a head start for bicycles in advance of concurrent and conflicting motor vehicle movements, typically about 3-5 seconds. The EBP provides an interval only when bicycles are moving. To examine the performance ...


Potential Of Using High Resolution Bus Gps Data To Assess Traffic Speeds, Nicholas B. Stoll Jun 2016

Potential Of Using High Resolution Bus Gps Data To Assess Traffic Speeds, Nicholas B. Stoll

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

This research investigates the potential of using archived high resolution bus data to describe traffic speeds on roadways; effectively using buses as probe vehicles. This is not only a simple and inexpensive way for transit agencies to better understand their road networks, but also utilizing buses as probe vehicles provides the potential to understand traffic conditions, to understand potential consequences of changes in road infrastructure, and many aspects of traffic utilizing already archived data. Using speed information derived from high resolution bus GPS data and stationary sensor data, this research examines the accuracy of bus GPS data and also discusses ...


The Investigation And Optimization Of A Two-Heat-Pump System Incorporating Thermal Storage For Shaping Residential Heating Load, Emily Lord Barrett Jun 2016

The Investigation And Optimization Of A Two-Heat-Pump System Incorporating Thermal Storage For Shaping Residential Heating Load, Emily Lord Barrett

Dissertations and Theses

Portland General Electric has proposed coupling one or more water tanks with two heat pumps in order to perform load-shifting in residential customer heating and cooling applications. By using the water tanks as a thermal storage unit, this project attempts to partially decouple energy consumption from generation to provide peak demand reduction and to better facilitate the integration of variable renewable energy resources. A scoping study was performed to evaluate the potential impact of this project if implemented in single family homes in Portland, Oregon. This study revealed that the system could provide meaningful savings in the cost of electricity ...


A Utility-Scale Deployment Project Of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage For Use In Ancillary Services, Energy Resiliency, Grid Infrastructure Investment Deferment, And Demand-Response Integration, Joseph Nathanael Wilson Jun 2016

A Utility-Scale Deployment Project Of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage For Use In Ancillary Services, Energy Resiliency, Grid Infrastructure Investment Deferment, And Demand-Response Integration, Joseph Nathanael Wilson

Dissertations and Theses

Electric utilities are increasingly incentivized to integrate new renewable energy generation resources to their systems; however, operations-related issues arise due to the non-dispatchable and stochastic nature of these renewable energy sources. These characteristics lead to a variety of issues for utilities, among which are voltage fluctuations, balancing dispatch against ramping events, short-duration power fluctuations, and the need to invest in peaking generation facilities just to accommodate the renewable energy. A traditional solution to these issues is to employ renewable generation-following techniques using either newly constructed gas peaking plants, or by shifting existing generation resources to this following responsibility. Unfortunately, use ...


Complete Design Methodology Of A Massively Parallel And Pipelined Memristive Stateful Imply Logic Based Reconfigurable Architecture, Kamela Choudhury Rahman Jun 2016

Complete Design Methodology Of A Massively Parallel And Pipelined Memristive Stateful Imply Logic Based Reconfigurable Architecture, Kamela Choudhury Rahman

Dissertations and Theses

Continued dimensional scaling of CMOS processes is approaching fundamental limits and therefore, alternate new devices and microarchitectures are explored to address the growing need of area scaling and performance gain. New nanotechnologies, such as memristors, emerge. Memristors can be used to perform stateful logic with nanowire crossbars, which allows for implementation of very large binary networks that can be easily reconfigured. This research involves the design of a memristor-based massively parallel datapath for various applications, specifically SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) like architecture, and parallel pipelines. The dissertation develops a new model of massively parallel memristor-CMOS hybrid datapath architectures at ...


Large Length Scale Capillary Fluidics: From Jumping Bubbles To Drinking In Space, Andrew Paul Wollman Jun 2016

Large Length Scale Capillary Fluidics: From Jumping Bubbles To Drinking In Space, Andrew Paul Wollman

Dissertations and Theses

In orbit, finding the "bottom" of your coffee cup is a non-trivial task. Subtle forces often masked by gravity influence the containment and transport of fluids aboard spacecraft, often in surprising non-intuitive ways. Terrestrial experience with capillary forces is typically relegated to the micro-scale, but engineering community exposure to large length scale capillary fluidics critical to spacecraft fluid management design is low indeed. Low-cost drop towers and fast-to-flight International Space Station (ISS) experiments are increasing designer exposure to this fresh field of study. This work first provides a wide variety of drop tower tests that demonstrate fundamental and applied capillary ...


Event Detection Using Correlation Within Arrays Of Streaming Pmu Data, Jordan Landford May 2016

Event Detection Using Correlation Within Arrays Of Streaming Pmu Data, Jordan Landford

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis provides a synchrophasor data analysis methodology that leverages both statistical correlation techniques and a statistical distribution in order to identify data inconsistencies, as well as power system contingencies. This research utilizes archived Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data obtained from the Bonneville Power Administration in order to show that this methodology is not only feasible, but extremely useful for power systems monitoring, decision support, and planning purposes.

By analyzing positive sequence voltage angles between a pair of PMUs at two different substation locations, an historic record of correlation is established. From this record, a Rayleigh distribution of correlation coefficients ...


The Effects Of Phosphonic Acids In Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Keith Edward James May 2016

The Effects Of Phosphonic Acids In Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Keith Edward James

Dissertations and Theses

Novel methods for the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were developed. A thin dense underlayer of TiO2 was applied on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using as a precursor Tyzor AA-105. Subsequently a mesoporous film of P-25 TiO2 was applied by spreading a suspension uniformly over the surface of the underlayer and allowing the plate to slowly dry while resting on a level surface. After sintering at 500° C slides were treated with TCPP as a sensitizing dye and assembled into DSSCs. A novel method was used to seal the cells; strips of Parafilm® were used as ...


Developing A Hierarchical Decision Model To Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies, Marwan Mossa Lingga May 2016

Developing A Hierarchical Decision Model To Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies, Marwan Mossa Lingga

Dissertations and Theses

A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction.

Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the ...