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Portland State University

Theses/Dissertations

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Synthesis Of Irreversible Incompletely Specified Multi-Output Functions To Reversible Eosops Circuits With Pse Gates, Robert Adrian Fiszer Dec 2014

Synthesis Of Irreversible Incompletely Specified Multi-Output Functions To Reversible Eosops Circuits With Pse Gates, Robert Adrian Fiszer

Dissertations and Theses

As quantum computers edge closer to viability, it becomes necessary to create logic synthesis and minimization algorithms that take into account the particular aspects of quantum computers that differentiate them from classical computers. Since quantum computers can be functionally described as reversible computers with superposition and entanglement, both advances in reversible synthesis and increased utilization of superposition and entanglement in quantum algorithms will increase the power of quantum computing.

One necessary component of any practical quantum computer is the computation of irreversible functions. However, very little work has been done on algorithms that synthesize and minimize irreversible functions into a ...


Applications Of Remote Sensing To The Study Of Estuarine Physics: Suspended Sediment Dynamics In The Columbia River Estuary, Austin Scott Hudson Dec 2014

Applications Of Remote Sensing To The Study Of Estuarine Physics: Suspended Sediment Dynamics In The Columbia River Estuary, Austin Scott Hudson

Dissertations and Theses

Estuarine circulation and its associated transport processes drive the environmental integrity of many near-shore habitats (the coastal ocean, rivers, estuaries and emergent wetlands). A thorough understanding and consideration of this circulation is, therefore, vital in the proper management of these habitats. The aim of this study is to bring together theory and new satellite observations in the Columbia River Estuary to increase our understanding of estuarine circulation and transport. Surface reflectance measurements gathered by the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are first compared to in situ observations to develop an empirical model for remotely derived surface turbidity. Results indicate that MODIS ...


Detection Of Variable Retention Time In Dram, Neraj Kumar Nov 2014

Detection Of Variable Retention Time In Dram, Neraj Kumar

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis investigates a test method to detect the presence of Variable Retention Time (VRT) bits in manufactured DRAM. The VRT bits retention time is modeled as a 2-state random telegraph process that includes miscorrelation between test and use. The VRT defect is particularly sensitive to test and use conditions. A new test method is proposed to screen the VRT bits by simulating the use conditions during manufacturing test. Evaluation of the proposed test method required a bit-level VRT model to be parameterized as a function of temperature and voltage conditions. The complete 2-state VRT bit model combines models for ...


Analog Implicit Functional Testing Using Supervised Machine Learning, Neerja Pramod Bawaskar Oct 2014

Analog Implicit Functional Testing Using Supervised Machine Learning, Neerja Pramod Bawaskar

Dissertations and Theses

Testing analog circuits is more difficult than digital circuits. The reasons for this difficulty include continuous time and amplitude signals, lack of well-accepted testing techniques and time and cost required for its realization. The traditional method for testing analog circuits involves measuring all the performance parameters and comparing the measured parameters with the limits of the data-sheet specifications. Because of the large number of data-sheet specifications, the test generation and application requires long test times and expensive test equipment.

This thesis proposes an implicit functional testing technique for analog circuits that can be easily implemented in BIST circuitry. The proposed ...


Training Set Design For Test Removal Classication In Ic Test, Nagarjun Hassan Ranganath Oct 2014

Training Set Design For Test Removal Classication In Ic Test, Nagarjun Hassan Ranganath

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis reports the performance of a simple classifier as a function of its training data set. The classifier is used to remove analog tests and is named the Test Removal Classifier (TRC).

The thesis proposes seven different training data set designs that vary by the number of wafers in the data set, the source of the wafers and the replacement scheme of the wafers. The training data set size ranges from a single wafer to a maximum of five wafers. Three of the training data sets include wafers from the Lot Under Test (LUT). The training wafers in the ...


Slm-Based Fourier Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy, Sahand Noorizadeh Oct 2014

Slm-Based Fourier Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy, Sahand Noorizadeh

Dissertations and Theses

Optical phase microscopy provides a view of objects that have minimal to no effect on the detected intensity of light that are unobservable by standard microscopy techniques. Since its inception just over 60 years ago that gave us a vision to an unseen world and earned Frits Zernike the Nobel prize in physics in 1953, phase microscopy has evolved to find various applications in biological cell imaging, crystallography, semiconductor failure analysis, and more. Two common and commercially available techniques are phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC). In phase contrast method, a large portion of the unscattered light that accounts ...


Last Mile Asset Monitoring: Low Cost Rapid Deployment Asset Monitoring, Zdenek Zumr Sep 2014

Last Mile Asset Monitoring: Low Cost Rapid Deployment Asset Monitoring, Zdenek Zumr

Dissertations and Theses

Installation and utilization of residential distribution transformers has not changed substantially over a long period of time. Utilities typically size their transformers based on a formula that takes into account broadly what types and how many dwellings will be connected.

Most new residential dwellings feature 200 Amp service per household with an anticipated energy demand of under 20,000 kWh per year. Average electrical energy consumption varies from state to state but averages to 11,280 kWh per year. Energy demand is expected to fall into a typical residential load curve that shows increased demand early in the morning, then ...


Assessment Of Similarity In Chemically Complex Samples, Jessica Elise Brown Aug 2014

Assessment Of Similarity In Chemically Complex Samples, Jessica Elise Brown

Dissertations and Theses

Concern within the public health community is mounting regarding what some deem as "candy-flavored tobacco". A recent study by King et al. (2014) found that >40% of middle and high school student smokers use flavored cigarettes or flavored little cigars. This study investigated the validity of the "candy-flavored tobacco" designation by comparing flavor profiles of 18 flavored tobacco products with 15 candy and Kool-Aid products using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Significant compositional overlap was found; nearly 75% of the compounds detected were present in at least one flavored tobacco and one candy or Kool-Aid product. Benzaldehyde and or ...


Predicting Bicyclist Comfort In Protected Bike Lanes, Nicholas Mark-Andrew Foster Aug 2014

Predicting Bicyclist Comfort In Protected Bike Lanes, Nicholas Mark-Andrew Foster

Dissertations and Theses

Long popular in northern Europe, protected bike lanes, also known as "cycle tracks" or "separated bike lanes," are seeing increased interest in the United States. One of the primary benefits of protected bike lanes is that they may provide a higher level of comfort than a standard bike lane that is only delineated by an inches-wide painted stripe. Several methods exist for quantifying the quality of service provided by a roadway for a bicyclist; however, many of these models do not consider protected bike lanes and of those that do, none are based on empirical data from the US. This ...


Optical Properties Of Nanostructured Dielectric Coatings, Brandon Giatti Aug 2014

Optical Properties Of Nanostructured Dielectric Coatings, Brandon Giatti

Dissertations and Theses

Solar cells have extrinsic losses from a variety of sources which can be minimized by optimization of the design and fabrication processes. Reflection from the front surface is one such loss mechanism and has been managed in the past with the usage of planar antireflection coatings. While effective, these coatings are each limited to a single wavelength of light and do not account for varying incident angles of the incoming light source. Three-dimensional nanostructures have shown the ability to inhibit reflection for differing wavelengths and angles of incidence. Nanocones were modeled and show a broadband, multi-angled reflectance decrease due to ...


Exploring Pedestrian Responsive Traffic Signal Timing Strategies In Urban Areas, Sirisha Murthy Kothuri Jul 2014

Exploring Pedestrian Responsive Traffic Signal Timing Strategies In Urban Areas, Sirisha Murthy Kothuri

Dissertations and Theses

The role of walking in the development of healthy, livable communities is being increasingly recognized. In urban areas, intersections represent locations where different modes converge, and are often viewed as deterrents to walking. This is due to the unwarranted and often unnecessary delays imposed by signal timing policies for pedestrians and increased potential for conflicts. Traditional signal timing design prioritizes vehicles over pedestrians leading to undesirable consequences such as large delays and risky pedestrian behaviors. Pedestrians are accommodated in a manner that is designed to cause least interruption to the flow of motor vehicles. This lack of pedestrian accommodation at ...


Advances In Aquatic Target Localization With Passive Sonar, John Thomas Gebbie Jul 2014

Advances In Aquatic Target Localization With Passive Sonar, John Thomas Gebbie

Dissertations and Theses

New underwater passive sonar techniques are developed for enhancing target localization capabilities in shallow ocean environments. The ocean surface and the seabed act as acoustic mirrors that reflect sound created by boats or subsurface vehicles, which gives rise to echoes that can be heard by hydrophone receivers (underwater microphones). The goal of this work is to leverage this "multipath" phenomenon in new ways to determine the origin of the sound, and thus the location of the target. However, this is difficult for propeller driven vehicles because the noise they produce is both random and continuous in time, which complicates its ...


Probabilistic Analysis For Reliable Logic Circuits, Scott Blakely Jun 2014

Probabilistic Analysis For Reliable Logic Circuits, Scott Blakely

Dissertations and Theses

Continued aggressive scaling of electronic technology poses obstacles for maintaining circuit reliability. To this end, analysis of reliability is of increasing importance. Large scale number of inputs and gates or correlations of failures render such analysis computationally complex. This paper presents an accurate framework for reliability analysis of logic circuits, while inherently handling reconvergent fan-out without additional complexity. Combinational circuits are modeled stochastically as Discrete-Time Markov Chains, where propagation of node logic levels and error probability distributions through circuitry are used to determine error probabilities at nodes in the circuit. Model construction is scalable, as it is done so on ...


Experimental Investigation Of Lateral Cyclic Behavior Of Wood-Based Screen-Grid Insulated Concrete Form Walls, John Stuart Garth Jun 2014

Experimental Investigation Of Lateral Cyclic Behavior Of Wood-Based Screen-Grid Insulated Concrete Form Walls, John Stuart Garth

Dissertations and Theses

Insulated concrete forms (ICFs) are green building components that are primarily used for residential wall construction. Unlike most polystyrene based ICF variants, the Faswall ICFs used in these experiments were significantly denser because they were made from recycled wood particles and cement. The current design approach for structures constructed with this type of wall form only allows the designer to consider the contribution of the reinforced concrete cores. Previous research has shown that this approach may be conservative. This project experimentally evaluated the lateral structural response of these types of grid ICF walls under increasing amplitude of in-plane cyclic loading ...


Stress Analysis For Chip Scale Packages With Embedded Active Devices Under Thermal Cycling, Hyunwook Yeo Jun 2014

Stress Analysis For Chip Scale Packages With Embedded Active Devices Under Thermal Cycling, Hyunwook Yeo

Dissertations and Theses

One of the main challenges in the electronics manufacturing and packaging development is how to integrate more functions inside the same or even smaller size. To meet the demand for higher integration, the interest toward passive and active component embedding has been increasing during the past few years. One of the main reasons for the growing interest toward embedded active components, in addition to demand for higher packaging density, is the need for better electrical performance of the component assemblies. However, it is little known how embedded IC and passives affect the reliability of IC packaging.

Solder joints have been ...


System-Wide Performance Analysis For Virtualization, Deron Eugene Jensen Jun 2014

System-Wide Performance Analysis For Virtualization, Deron Eugene Jensen

Dissertations and Theses

With the current trend in cloud computing and virtualization, more organizations are moving their systems from a physical host to a virtual server.

Although this can significantly reduce hardware, power, and administration costs, it can increase the cost of analyzing performance problems. With virtualization, there is an initial performance overhead, and as more virtual machines are added to a physical host the interference increases between various guest machines. When this interference occurs, a virtualized guest application may not perform as expected. There is little or no information to the virtual OS about the interference, and the current performance tools in ...


A 3.6 Ghz Doherty Power Amplifier With A 40 Dbm Saturated Output Power Using Gan On Sic Hemt Devices, Bryant Baker Jun 2014

A 3.6 Ghz Doherty Power Amplifier With A 40 Dbm Saturated Output Power Using Gan On Sic Hemt Devices, Bryant Baker

Dissertations and Theses

This manuscript describes the design, development, and implementation of a linear high efficiency power amplifier. The symmetrical Doherty power amplifier utilizes TriQuint's 2nd Generation Gallium Nitride (GaN) on Silicon Carbide (SiC) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices (T1G6001032-SM) for a specified design frequency of 3.6 GHz and saturated output power of 40 dBm. Advanced Design Systems (ADS) simulation software, in conjunction with Modelithic's active and passive device models, were used during the design process and will be evaluated against the final measured results. The use of these device models demonstrate a successful first-pass design, putting less dependence ...


Ranked Similarity Search Of Scientific Datasets: An Information Retrieval Approach, Veronika Margaret Megler Jun 2014

Ranked Similarity Search Of Scientific Datasets: An Information Retrieval Approach, Veronika Margaret Megler

Dissertations and Theses

In the past decade, the amount of scientific data collected and generated by scientists has grown dramatically. This growth has intensified an existing problem: in large archives consisting of datasets stored in many files, formats and locations, how can scientists find data relevant to their research interests? We approach this problem in a new way: by adapting Information Retrieval techniques, developed for searching text documents, into the world of (primarily numeric) scientific data. We propose an approach that uses a blend of automated and curated methods to extract metadata from large repositories of scientific data. We then perform searches over ...


An Assessment Model For Energy Efficiency Program Planning In Electric Utilities: Case Of The Pacific Of Northwest U.S.A., Ibrahim Iskin Jun 2014

An Assessment Model For Energy Efficiency Program Planning In Electric Utilities: Case Of The Pacific Of Northwest U.S.A., Ibrahim Iskin

Dissertations and Theses

Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as ...


Quantifying The Impacts Of Initial Condition And Model Uncertainty On Hydrological Forecasts, Caleb Matthew Dechant May 2014

Quantifying The Impacts Of Initial Condition And Model Uncertainty On Hydrological Forecasts, Caleb Matthew Dechant

Dissertations and Theses

Forecasts of hydrological information are vital for many of society's functions. Availability of water is a requirement for any civilization, and this necessitates quantitative estimates of water for effective resource management. The research in this dissertation will focus on the forecasting of hydrological quantities, with emphasis on times of anomalously low water availability, commonly referred to as droughts. Of particular focus is the quantification of uncertainty in hydrological forecasts, and the factors that affect that uncertainty. With this focus, Bayesian methods, including ensemble data assimilation and multi-model combinations, are utilized to develop a probabilistic forecasting system. This system is ...


Design And Prototyping Of An Antenna-Coupled Cryotron, Shauna Jensen May 2014

Design And Prototyping Of An Antenna-Coupled Cryotron, Shauna Jensen

Dissertations and Theses

Grid-scale integration of renewable energy sources and smart grid devices has created new demands in flexible power conversion. State-of-the-art semiconductor power switches present limitations in power handling capability, as well as forward and reverse breakdown voltages. Superconducting materials are a viable alternative due to their robustness against high ampacities, large electric fields and abrupt changes in power flow. This work pays focus to material testing and apparatus design for an antenna-coupled cryotron (ACC), which is a superconducting power switch.
Design, fabrication and testing are examined for a longitudinal resonant cavity, paired with monopole transmit and modified slot receive antennae. These ...


Anisotropy Of The Reynolds Stress Tensor In The Wakes Of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbine Arrays, Nicholas Michael Hamilton Apr 2014

Anisotropy Of The Reynolds Stress Tensor In The Wakes Of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbine Arrays, Nicholas Michael Hamilton

Dissertations and Theses

A wind turbine array was constructed in the wind tunnel at Portland State University in a standard Cartesian arrangement. Configurations of the turbine array were tested with rotor blades set to rotate in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise sense. Measurements of velocity were made with stereo particle-image velocimetry. Mean statistics of velocities and Reynolds stresses clearly show the effect of direction of rotation of rotor blades for both entrance and exit row turbines. Rotational sense of the turbine blades is visible in the mean spanwise velocity W and the Reynolds shear stress -[macron over vw]. The normalized anisotropy tensor was ...


An Analysis Of Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions At Signalized Intersections With Bicycle Boxes, William Robert Farley Mar 2014

An Analysis Of Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions At Signalized Intersections With Bicycle Boxes, William Robert Farley

Dissertations and Theses

A before-and-after analysis was performed at eleven intersections where a bike box was installed in Portland, Oregon to explore the safety effects of the treatment. Video data were gathered prior to installation at 14 intersections where a bike box installation was planned by the Portland Bureau of Transportation. Cameras were set up to capture three full twenty-four hour days (72 hours) of data for each intersection from Tuesday through Thursday. Of the 14 original selected intersections, 11 intersections actually received the bike box treatment. Video data were again gathered for these intersections after the installation of the bike box for ...


The Design, Implementation, Assessment, And Evaluation Of A Power Systems Protection Laboratory Curriculum, Jennifer Ferris Mar 2014

The Design, Implementation, Assessment, And Evaluation Of A Power Systems Protection Laboratory Curriculum, Jennifer Ferris

Dissertations and Theses

Over the last the last three decades, there has been a significant and documented decrease of power engineering curriculum within U.S. electrical engineering programs. Development of lifelong learners capable of critical and independent thinking is required to replace the large number of upcoming retirees from the industry and to prepare for the engineering challenges new technologies, laws and regulations are bringing to the electrical power system. In response to these challenges, Portland State University redesigned its BSEE and MSECE power engineering programs in order to create a launching pad for successful power engineering careers. A course series on power ...


Project Nano: Will Allowing High School Students To Use Research Grade Scanning Electron Microscopes Increase Their Interest In Science?, Leslie Teneyck Smith Jan 2014

Project Nano: Will Allowing High School Students To Use Research Grade Scanning Electron Microscopes Increase Their Interest In Science?, Leslie Teneyck Smith

Dissertations and Theses

In this study, one AP Biology curriculum unit and one general Biology curriculum unit that included tabletop Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technology provided by Project NANO, a grant-funded, collaborative initiative designed to integrate cutting-edge nanotechnology into high school classrooms were implemented at a public high school in rural Oregon. Nine students participated in the AP unit and 52 students participated in the general Biology unit. Each student completed an opinion-based pre and post survey to determine if using the SEM as a part of the curriculum unit had an impact on his or her interest in science or in nanoscience ...


Mobile Robot Localization Based On Kalman Filter, Omar Q. Mohsin Jan 2014

Mobile Robot Localization Based On Kalman Filter, Omar Q. Mohsin

Dissertations and Theses

Robot localization is one of the most important subjects in the Robotics science. It is an interesting and complicated topic. There are many algorithms to solve the problem of localization. Each localization system has its own set of features, and based on them, a solution will be chosen. In my thesis, I want to present a solution to find the best estimate for a robot position in certain space for which a map is available. The thesis started with an elementary introduction to the probability and the Gaussian theories. Simple and advanced practical examples are presented to illustrate each concept ...


The Small Volume Autonomous Water Sampler (Svaws): An Innovative, Cost- Effective, Adaptable Protocol, Nicholas B. Fitzgerald Jan 2014

The Small Volume Autonomous Water Sampler (Svaws): An Innovative, Cost- Effective, Adaptable Protocol, Nicholas B. Fitzgerald

Dissertations and Theses

As of 2007, U.S. pesticide use stood at 1.1 billion pounds with 80% of all usage in agriculture. Such realities pose a potentially dangerous threat to our surface water bodies. This research provides a detailed analysis of the design, operation and field testing of a prototype water sampler, the Small Volume Autonomous Water Sampler (SVAWS). The research includes a discussion of the design and construction of the SVAWS. Seven USGS employees operated the SVAWS in a number of different states and conditions in order to collect samples for pesticide analysis. Field-testing outcomes of the SVAWS were measured through ...


Small-Scale Minimal-Maintenance Anaerobic Digestion Of Food Waste For Solids Reduction And Methane Production: Feasibility Study, Leland C. Scantlebury Jan 2014

Small-Scale Minimal-Maintenance Anaerobic Digestion Of Food Waste For Solids Reduction And Methane Production: Feasibility Study, Leland C. Scantlebury

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Six gallons of food waste was anaerobically digested for 76 days in two small-scale digesters sitting by a lab window. The main difference, besides waste sources, of these digesters was substrate processing: chopping versus blending. An effort was made to minimize the maintenance of the digesters, however, after 45 days of overly acidic (pH


Benchtop Minimal-Intervention Anaerobic Digestion Of Vegetarian Food Waste For Ph And Methane Production: Conceivability And Control Study, Emily J. Heleva-Ponaski Jan 2014

Benchtop Minimal-Intervention Anaerobic Digestion Of Vegetarian Food Waste For Ph And Methane Production: Conceivability And Control Study, Emily J. Heleva-Ponaski

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cities around the world transport large quantities of waste to landfills at a great expense to their residents, infrastructures, and environments. The objective of this study was to run an anaerobic food waste digester with minimal interference or maintenance. One specific goal of this research was to evaluate the relationship between anaerobic food waste and pH. Two benchop digesters were started with vegetarian food waste collected from the Portland State University campus. Measurements were collected over the course of the digestion process. Due to low pH and lack of biogas production, the digesters were buffered with sodium carbonate and seeded ...


Implementation Of A Sediment Transport Model For Ce-Qual-W2, Rachel Hanna Jan 2014

Implementation Of A Sediment Transport Model For Ce-Qual-W2, Rachel Hanna

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The CE-QUAL-W2 model, developed by Portland State University, simulates water quality and flow. Recommendations to expand on this model and have it include sediment transport are implemented in this report. Existing one-, two-, and three-dimensional models are reviewed and assessed for their sediment transport methodology. A laterally (width) averaged sediment concentration model is developed as an Upwind Center Space Scheme using CE-QUAL-W2 data. The scheme includes a method to calculate scour for sediment concentration and results of the model are shown for a simulated branch of the Spokane River.