Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Entrainment Processes For A Jet In Cross-Flow: The Quantification Of Turbulent Contributions And Their Importance On Accurate Modeling, Graham Asher Freedland Dec 2020

Entrainment Processes For A Jet In Cross-Flow: The Quantification Of Turbulent Contributions And Their Importance On Accurate Modeling, Graham Asher Freedland

Dissertations and Theses

A jet in cross flow (JICF) is examined experimentally by injecting a stream of air into crossing fluid with an aim into quantifying entrainment process and downstream evolution. The behavior of JICF is important to fields ranging from turbine-blade cooling to smokestack pollution and volcanic eruption dynamics. Existing simplified volcanic plume models are tested; most importantly, the near-field contributions of complex interconnected vortex systems, which present significant uncertainties because they assume negligible turbulence. While jets in irrotational cross-flow have been investigated, this analysis has focused on the interaction between a turbulent jet in low and highly turbulent cross-flow created by ...


Modeling Airflows And Voc Source Strengths For An Occupied School, Brett Stinson Oct 2020

Modeling Airflows And Voc Source Strengths For An Occupied School, Brett Stinson

University Honors Theses

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of air pollutants that can adversely impact human health, engage in chemistry indoors, and meaningfully degrade indoor and outdoor urban air quality. While extensive research with regard to VOC emission rates from indoor sources has been conducted, it was not until recently that this work began to focus on characterizing emissions from humans and human activity in depth. As buildings are constructed to be increasingly airtight, and the materials utilized are chosen to reduce VOC emissions, it follows that human contributions are poised to become increasingly important indoor sources of VOCs. Utilizing data ...


Indoor Air Quality Impacts Of A Woodstove Exchange Program In Washington County, Oregon, Matthew Forrest Survilo Sep 2020

Indoor Air Quality Impacts Of A Woodstove Exchange Program In Washington County, Oregon, Matthew Forrest Survilo

Dissertations and Theses

More than six million people in the United States use wood stoves as their primary heat source. Wood stoves emit air pollutants that may impact health, e.g., wood combustion products are associated with premature death and aggravation of pulmonary and cardiovascular conditions. There are few studies investigating the efficacy of wood stove exchange programs (WSEPs) as a method to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). In partnership with Washington County Department of Health and Human Services we conducted an air quality study to measure the impact of a WSEP on indoor and neighborhood levels of wood combustion products. Twenty households ...


Dynamic Effects Of Inertial Particles On The Wake Recovery Of A Model Wind Turbine, Sarah E. Smith Jul 2020

Dynamic Effects Of Inertial Particles On The Wake Recovery Of A Model Wind Turbine, Sarah E. Smith

Dissertations and Theses

Impacting particles such as rain, dust, and other debris can have devastating structural effects on wind turbines, but little is known about the interaction of such debris within turbine wakes. This study aims to characterize behavior of inertial particles within the turbulent wake of a wind turbine and relative effects on wake recovery. Here a model wind turbine is subjected to varied two-phase inflow conditions, with wind as the carrier fluid (Reλ = 49 - 88) and polydisperse water droplets (26 to 45µm in diameter) at varied concentrations (Φv=0.24 x 10-5 - 1.3 x 10 ...


Droplet Ejections During Wet Lab Operations Aboard Spacecraft, Caleb Cushman Turner Jul 2020

Droplet Ejections During Wet Lab Operations Aboard Spacecraft, Caleb Cushman Turner

Dissertations and Theses

The breakup and rupture of liquid bridges, thin films, bubbles, droplets, rivulets, and jets can produce satellite droplets that are subsequently ejected into their surrounding environment. For example, when any solid object is withdrawn from a liquid bath, the formation of an ever-thinning columnar liquid bridge eventually ruptures along the axis of the bridge. When rupture occurs under typical pipetting conditions the dynamics governing the rupture almost always produce at a minimum a satellite droplet. When these droplets occur they are often too small and too fast to be observed by the human eye. In a terrestrial environment they are ...


A Numerical Investigation Of Microgravity Evaporation, Daniel Peter Ringle Apr 2020

A Numerical Investigation Of Microgravity Evaporation, Daniel Peter Ringle

Dissertations and Theses

Evaporation is important to myriad engineering processes such as cooling, distillation, thin film deposition, and others. In fact, NASA has renewed interest in using cabin air pressure evaporation as a means to recycle waste water in space. As one example, NASA recently conducted experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to measure evaporation rates in microgravity and to determine the impacts of porous structure on the process. It has long been assumed that differences in evaporation rates between 1-g0 and microgravity are small. However, discrepancies by as much as 40% have been observed in practice. The assumption now ...


The Optimization Of Machining Parameters For Milling Operations By Using The Nelder Mead Simplex Method, Yubin Lee Jan 2020

The Optimization Of Machining Parameters For Milling Operations By Using The Nelder Mead Simplex Method, Yubin Lee

Dissertations and Theses

Machining operations need to be optimized to maximize profit for computer numerical control (CNC) machines. Although minimum production time could mean high productivity, it can not guarantee maximum profit rate in CNC milling operations. The possible range of machining parameters is limited by several constraints, such as maximum machine power, surface finish requirements, and maximum cutting force for the stability of milling operations. Among CNC machining parameters, cutting speed and feed have the greatest effect on machining operations. Therefore, cutting speed and feed are considered as main process variables to maximize the profit rate of CNC milling operations.

A variety ...


Passive Separation Of Binary Fluid Mixtures In Microchannels Using Lattice Boltzmann Method, Mohanad Kamil Radhi Dec 2019

Passive Separation Of Binary Fluid Mixtures In Microchannels Using Lattice Boltzmann Method, Mohanad Kamil Radhi

Dissertations and Theses

Fluid mixtures in real life exist in two forms: miscible and immiscible. Separation of these mixtures using chemical agents or thermal energy has both environmental and economic disadvantages. The high cost and the environmental damage caused by the traditional separation techniques have stimulated both academia and industry to seek alternatives. The emergence of microfluidics offers robust solutions for a broad span of transport problems due to the high surface to volume ratio and reduced length scales. Particularly, the separation efficiency increases significantly due to the aforementioned feature. However, there is still a pressing need of passive separations for the sake ...


Tracking Center Of Mass With Limited Inertial Measurement Units, Connor Nathaniel Morrow Sep 2019

Tracking Center Of Mass With Limited Inertial Measurement Units, Connor Nathaniel Morrow

Dissertations and Theses

Wearable motion tracking systems pose an opportunity to study and correct human balance and posture during movement. Currently, these observations are either being conducted in laboratories with the use of camera systems and markers placed on the body, or through the use of suits containing large numbers (15-20) of inertial measurement units. However, to aid with rehabilitation of individuals with impaired balance, there needs to be an option to collect these observations outside of clinics and without incurring much cost from the user. I have focused on three inertial measurement units, one placed on each shank and one placed on ...


Non-Contact Distillation, Rawand Muzafar Rasheed Aug 2019

Non-Contact Distillation, Rawand Muzafar Rasheed

Dissertations and Theses

Leidenfrost phenomenon has been studied extensively for its role in applications ranging from nuclear reactor cooling, to metals manufacturing, combustion, and other fields. Herein, Leidenfrost phenomenon is pursued towards non-contact distillation processes with hopes of reducing or even eliminating contaminant fouling. In particular, the microgravity environment of a drop tower is exploited to demonstrate the facility with which droplets achieve and sustain the Leidenfrost state. Dynamic Leidenfrost impacts in microgravity are presented for impacts on hydrophilic and superhydrophobic planar substrates, macro-pillar arrays, confined passageways, and others. Nearly ideal elastic non-contact impacts and droplet oscillation modes are observed. Dynamic Leidenfrost impacts ...


Design Of A Canine Inspired Quadruped Robot As A Platform For Synthetic Neural Network Control, Cody Warren Scharzenberger Jul 2019

Design Of A Canine Inspired Quadruped Robot As A Platform For Synthetic Neural Network Control, Cody Warren Scharzenberger

Dissertations and Theses

Legged locomotion is a feat ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, but modern robots still fall far short of similar achievements. This paper presents the design of a canine-inspired quadruped robot named DoggyDeux as a platform for synthetic neural network (SNN) research that may be one avenue for robots to attain animal-like agility and adaptability. DoggyDeux features a fully 3D printed frame, 24 braided pneumatic actuators (BPAs) that drive four 3-DOF limbs in antagonistic extensor-flexor pairs, and an electrical system that allows it to respond to commands from a SNN comprised of central pattern generators (CPGs). Compared to the previous version ...


Characterizing Tilt Effects On Wind Plants, Ryan Scott Jun 2019

Characterizing Tilt Effects On Wind Plants, Ryan Scott

Dissertations and Theses

Tilting the nacelle of a wind turbine modifies entrainment into the wind plant and impacts total efficiency. Extreme angles can produce flying and crashing wakes where the wake either disrupts entertainment from the undisturbed flow above or is decimated on the ground. The effect of tilt angle on downstream wake behavior was investigated in a series of wind tunnel experiments. Scale model turbines with a hub height and diameter of 12 cm were arranged in a Cartesian array comprised of four rows of three turbines each. Nacelle tilt was varied in the third row from -15° to 15° in chosen ...


Infinite Photovoltaic Solar Arrays: Considering Flux Of Momentum And Heat Transfer, Andrew D. S. Glick Jun 2019

Infinite Photovoltaic Solar Arrays: Considering Flux Of Momentum And Heat Transfer, Andrew D. S. Glick

Dissertations and Theses

Large scale solar farms supply an increasing amount of the worlds electricity supply. However, in order to reach cost parity with fossil fuels, further reductions are necessary. Towards this end, photovoltaic (PV) panel cooling becomes increasingly important; high temperatures both decrease efficiency and panel lifetime. To better understand, characterize, and exploit the natural convective cooling of utility scale solar farms, a model solar farm was created. Using both thermal measurements and particle image velocimetry to characterize heat transfer and velocity fields, wind tunnel experiments were conducted using the model solar farm. Three parameters were examined for their effect on heat ...


Fatigue Characteristics Of New Eco Series Aluminum 7175 Alloy, Chinh Q.L. Vu May 2019

Fatigue Characteristics Of New Eco Series Aluminum 7175 Alloy, Chinh Q.L. Vu

Dissertations and Theses

In this dissertation, the fatigue characteristics of three newly developed experimental compositions for aluminum 7175, with improved mechanical strength, that uses magnesium-calcium alloy instead of pure magnesium are studied.

Specimens of each variant were fabricated and subjected to fatigue life testing, fatigue life data analysis, and observation of their fracture characteristics through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and metallography to study their grains and surface characteristics.

Fatigue life testing shows all three variants have a fatigue strength that is approaching approximately 200 MPa. ECO7175v3 is shown to have the highest fatigue strength of approximately 220 MPa at 5x10 ...


A Study Of Thermal Energy Storage Of Phase Change Materials: Thermophysical Properties And Numerical Simulations, Kyung-Eun Min Apr 2019

A Study Of Thermal Energy Storage Of Phase Change Materials: Thermophysical Properties And Numerical Simulations, Kyung-Eun Min

Dissertations and Theses

A Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system is meant for holding thermal energy in the form of hot or cold materials for later utilization. A TES system is an important technological system in providing energy savings as well as efficient and optimum energy use. The main types of a TES system are sensible heat and latent heat. A latent heat storage is a very efficient method for storing or releasing thermal energy due to its high energy storage density at constant temperatures, and a latent heat storage material can store 5-14 times more heat per unit volume than a sensible heat ...


Thermally (Un-) Stratified Wind Plants: Stochastic And Data-Driven Reduced Order Descriptions/Modeling, Naseem Kamil Ali Nov 2018

Thermally (Un-) Stratified Wind Plants: Stochastic And Data-Driven Reduced Order Descriptions/Modeling, Naseem Kamil Ali

Dissertations and Theses

Wind energy is one of the significant sources of renewable energy, yet a number of challenges preclude optimal operation of wind plants. Research is warranted in order to minimize the power losses and improve the productivity of wind plants. Here, a framework combining turbulence theory and data mining techniques is built to elucidate physics and mechanisms driving the energy extraction of the wind plants under a number of atmospheric/operating conditions. The performance of wind turbines is subjected to adverse effects caused by wake interactions. Therefore, it is crucial to understand wake-to-wake interactions as well as wake-to-atmospheric boundary layer interactions ...


Ozone-Surface Exchange And Transport And Transformation Near Ventilation Air Supply, Pradeep Ramasubramanian Sep 2018

Ozone-Surface Exchange And Transport And Transformation Near Ventilation Air Supply, Pradeep Ramasubramanian

Dissertations and Theses

Ozone in indoor environments can pose a health risk to human occupants; around half of exposure to this pollutant occurs inside buildings. One approach to reducing indoor O3 levels is to mitigate O3 as it enters a building via outdoor air ventilation supply. Often, mechanical systems that introduce outdoor air into buildings are placed on building rooftops. At the urban scale, greenery has been shown to reduce levels of some harmful pollutants, including ozone and cities like Portland, OR, are mandating green roofs be built on large commercial buildings to increase urban green surfaces. We investigate if rooftop ...


Chemo-Thermo Cure Of Viscoelastic Materials For Semiconductor Packaging Applications, Anjali Pradeep Kumar Aug 2018

Chemo-Thermo Cure Of Viscoelastic Materials For Semiconductor Packaging Applications, Anjali Pradeep Kumar

Dissertations and Theses

Viscoelastic polymer materials are being actively considered as a novel material for semiconductor packaging applications as a result of their ability to develop strong adhesive bonds at lower temperatures. Viscoelastic thermoset materials are impacted by the stresses generated during the curing process, which is also accompanied by a dissipation of thermal energy. There is a need to develop a generic modeling formulation that is applicable to any material of interest in order to enable the study of different bonding materials and develop optimized curing cycles. This study reports a numerical formulation to evaluate the stress generated and energy dissipated during ...


Reliability Of Solder Joints In Embedded Packages Using Finite Element Methods, Valeri Aisha Yunusa Jul 2018

Reliability Of Solder Joints In Embedded Packages Using Finite Element Methods, Valeri Aisha Yunusa

Dissertations and Theses

Solder joints serve as both mechanical and electrical connections between elements in a package. They are subjected to shear strains generated as a result of the different behaviors of the elements in the package (tension and compression) due to the differences in coefficients of thermal expansion during service conditions.

Some of the causes of solder joint failures are due to the following:

Vibration: small rapid displacements of parts of the assembly. This is not necessarily an issue with electronic components but larger parts like automobiles.

Humidity: the package being exposed to water or ionic species can undergo corrosion if an ...


Emulating Balance Control Observed In Human Test Subjects With A Neural Network, Wade William Hilts Jul 2018

Emulating Balance Control Observed In Human Test Subjects With A Neural Network, Wade William Hilts

Dissertations and Theses

Human balance control is a complex feedback system that must be adaptable and robust in an infinitely varying external environment. It is probable that there are many concurrent control loops occurring in the central nervous system that achieve stability for a variety of postural perturbations. Though many engineering models of human balance control have been tested, no models of how these controllers might operate within the nervous system have yet been developed. We have focused on building a model of a proprioceptive feedback loop with simulated neurons. The proprioceptive referenced portion of human balance control has been successfully modeled by ...


Biomimetic Design And Construction Of A Bipedal Walking Robot, Alexander Gabriel Steele Jun 2018

Biomimetic Design And Construction Of A Bipedal Walking Robot, Alexander Gabriel Steele

Dissertations and Theses

Human balance and locomotion control is highly complex and not well understood. To understand how the nervous system controls balance and locomotion works, we test how the body responds to controlled perturbations, the results are analyzed, and control models are developed. However, to recreate this system of control there is a need for a robot with human-like kinematics. Unfortunately, such a robotic testbed does not exist despite the numerous applications such a design would have in mobile robotics, healthcare, and prosthetics.

This thesis presents a robotic testbed model of human lower legs. By using MRI and CT scans, I designed ...


Wind Energy And Wind-Energy-Inspired Turbulent Wakes: Modulation Of Structures, Mechanisms And Flow Regimes, Elizabeth H. Camp Jun 2018

Wind Energy And Wind-Energy-Inspired Turbulent Wakes: Modulation Of Structures, Mechanisms And Flow Regimes, Elizabeth H. Camp

Dissertations and Theses

The interaction of turbulent wakes with one another and with the adjacent fluid directly impacts the generation of electricity in wind turbine arrays. Computational modeling is well suited to the repeated iterations of data generation that may be required to inform understanding of the function of wind farms as well as to develop control schemes for plant function. In order to perform such computational studies, a simplified model of the turbine must be implemented. One of the most computationally efficient parametrizations of the blade utilizes a stationary disk which has a prescribed drag and produces a wake. However, since accurate ...


Design Optimization For A Cnc Machine, Alin Resiga Apr 2018

Design Optimization For A Cnc Machine, Alin Resiga

Dissertations and Theses

Minimizing cost and optimization of nonlinear problems are important for industries in order to be competitive. The need of optimization strategies provides significant benefits for companies when providing quotes for products. Accurate and easily attained estimates allow for less waste, tighter tolerances, and better productivity. The Nelder-Mead Simplex method with exterior penalty functions was employed to solve optimum machining parameters. Two case studies were presented for optimizing cost and time for a multiple tools scenario. In this study, the optimum machining parameters for milling operations were investigated. Cutting speed and feed rate are considered as the most impactful design variables ...


Relationship Between Anisotropy And Dispersive Stress In Wind Plants With Variable Spacing, Tamara S. Dib Mar 2018

Relationship Between Anisotropy And Dispersive Stress In Wind Plants With Variable Spacing, Tamara S. Dib

Dissertations and Theses

Large eddy simulations are considered for wind plants with varied spanwise and streamwise spacing. Data from five different configurations of staggered and aligned LES wind turbine arrays with a neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer are employed for analysis. Fields are analyzed by evaluating the anisotropy stress invariants based on the Reynolds shear stresses and dispersive stress tensor. The relationship between quantities are drawn as a function of the wind plant packing. Reynolds stresses and dispersive stresses are investigated alongside a domain altered version of the second and third scalar invariants, ξ, η, as well as the combination of the two ...


Stress Analysis Of Embedded Devices Under Thermal Cycling, Sadhana Radhakrishnan Jan 2018

Stress Analysis Of Embedded Devices Under Thermal Cycling, Sadhana Radhakrishnan

Dissertations and Theses

Embedded active and passive devices has been increasingly used by in order to integrate more functions inside the same or smaller size device and to meet the need for better electrical performance of the component assemblies.

Solder joints have been used in the electronic industry as both structural and electrical interconnections between electronic packages and printed circuit boards (PCB). When solder joints are under thermal cyclic loading, mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the printed circuit boards and the solder balls creates thermal strains and stresses on the joints, which may finally result in cracking. Consequently, the mechanical ...


Torrefaction Kinetics Of Hemp Hurds, An Emerging Agricultural Byproduct, In A Small Retort, Tel Jensen Sep 2017

Torrefaction Kinetics Of Hemp Hurds, An Emerging Agricultural Byproduct, In A Small Retort, Tel Jensen

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As knowledge concerning the consequences of unsustainable energy sources and agricultural practices grows, development of low-impact alternatives to both becomes more important. Sustainable sources of biomass offer solutions to both problems. This study characterized the reaction kinetics of torrefying an agricultural byproduct, the woody interior of hemp stems, or hurds. Torrefaction was carried out at 250 °C in small and simple retorts made of galvanized steel pipe. A first-order model most closely approximated the reaction. A sensitivity analysis was performed and the data was adjusted to correct for three potential sources of error, and regressed to find the best fit ...


Reduced Order Description Of Experimental Two-Phase Pipe Flows: Characterization Of Flow Structures And Dynamics Via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Bianca Fontanin Viggiano Aug 2017

Reduced Order Description Of Experimental Two-Phase Pipe Flows: Characterization Of Flow Structures And Dynamics Via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Bianca Fontanin Viggiano

Dissertations and Theses

Multiphase pipe flow is investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition for tomographic X-ray data, where holdup, cross-sectional phase distributions and phase interface characteristics within the pipe are obtained. Six cases of stratified and mixed flow with water content of 10%, 30% and 80% are investigated to gain insight into effects of velocity and proportion of water on the flow fields. Dispersed and slug flows are separately analyzed to consider the added interface complexity of the flow fields. These regimes are also highly applicable to industry operational flows. Instantaneous and fluctuating phase fractions of the four flow regime are analyzed and reduced ...


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Structure From Motion Biomass Inventory Estimates, Emily Jane Bedell Dec 2016

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Structure From Motion Biomass Inventory Estimates, Emily Jane Bedell

Dissertations and Theses

Riparian vegetation restoration efforts demand cost effective, accurate, and replicable impact assessments. In this thesis a method is presented using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a GoPro digital camera to collect photogrammetric data of a 2.02-acre riparian restoration. A three-dimensional point cloud was created from the photos using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques. The point cloud was analyzed and compared to traditional, ground-based monitoring techniques. Ground truth data collected using the status-quo approach was collected on 6.3% of the study site and averaged across the entire site to report stem heights in stems/acre in three ...


Development Of 3d Accelerometer Testing System, Mohammed Abbas Soudai Alsaedi Dec 2016

Development Of 3d Accelerometer Testing System, Mohammed Abbas Soudai Alsaedi

Dissertations and Theses

Accelerometers are used in numerous industries including aircrafts and missile navigations systems, rotary machines, and electronic devices such as tablets, cell phones, and cameras. Accelerometers of different purposes and specifications are being produced in large quantities. The large demand for accelerometers forces the need for accelerometer testing methodology that is more convenient and accurate. Inertial Micro-Electromechanical Systems Accelerometer (MEMS) require a series of tests that include physical stimuli. One of the key challenges is the cost associated with testing. Therefore, the accurate prediction of the sensor functions not only reduces the testing time but also more importantly contributes to reducing ...


Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland Nov 2016

Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland

Dissertations and Theses

Volcanic eruption columns inject high concentrations of ash into the atmosphere. Some of this ash is carried downwind forming ash clouds in the atmosphere that are hazardous for private and commercial aviation. Current models rely on inputs such as plume height, duration, eruption rate, and meteorological wind fields. Eruption rate is estimated from plume height using relations that depend on the rate of air entrainment into the plume, which is not well quantified. A wind tunnel experiment has been designed to investigate these models by injecting a vertical air jet into a cross-flow. The ratio of the cross-flow and jet ...