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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Torrefaction Kinetics Of Hemp Hurds, An Emerging Agricultural Byproduct, In A Small Retort, Tel Jensen Sep 2017

Torrefaction Kinetics Of Hemp Hurds, An Emerging Agricultural Byproduct, In A Small Retort, Tel Jensen

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As knowledge concerning the consequences of unsustainable energy sources and agricultural practices grows, development of low-impact alternatives to both becomes more important. Sustainable sources of biomass offer solutions to both problems. This study characterized the reaction kinetics of torrefying an agricultural byproduct, the woody interior of hemp stems, or hurds. Torrefaction was carried out at 250 °C in small and simple retorts made of galvanized steel pipe. A first-order model most closely approximated the reaction. A sensitivity analysis was performed and the data was adjusted to correct for three potential sources of error, and regressed to find the best fit ...


Wake Character In The Wind Turbine Array: (Dis-)Organization, Spatial And Dynamic Evolution And Low-Dimensional Modeling, Nicholas Michael Hamilton Jul 2016

Wake Character In The Wind Turbine Array: (Dis-)Organization, Spatial And Dynamic Evolution And Low-Dimensional Modeling, Nicholas Michael Hamilton

Dissertations and Theses

To maximize the effectiveness of the rapidly increasing capacity of installed wind energy resources, new models must be developed that are capable of more nuanced control of each wind turbine so that each device is more responsive to inflow events. Models used to plan wind turbine arrays and control behavior of devices within the farm currently make questionable estimates of the incoming atmospheric flow and update turbine configurations infrequently. As a result, wind turbines often operate at diminished capacities, especially in arrays where wind turbine wakes interact and inflow conditions are far from ideal. New turbine control and wake prediction ...


Vortex Identification In The Wake Of A Wind Turbine Array, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Aseyev Mar 2015

Vortex Identification In The Wake Of A Wind Turbine Array, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Aseyev

Dissertations and Theses

Vortex identification techniques are used to analyze the flow structure in a 4 x 3 array of scale model wind turbines. Q-criterion, Δ-criterion, and λ2-criterion are applied to Particle Image Velocimetry data gathered fore and aft of the last row centerline turbine. Q-criterion and λ2-criterion provide a clear indication of regions where vortical activity exists while the Δ-criterion does not. Galilean decomposition, Reynolds decomposition, vorticity, and swirling strength are used to further understand the location and behavior of the vortices. The techniques identify and display the high magnitude vortices in high shear zones resulting from the ...


Global Time-Independent Agent-Based Simulation For Transactive Energy System Dispatch And Schedule Forecasting, Shawn Aaron Chandler Mar 2015

Global Time-Independent Agent-Based Simulation For Transactive Energy System Dispatch And Schedule Forecasting, Shawn Aaron Chandler

Dissertations and Theses

Electricity service providers (ESP) worldwide have increased their interest in the use of electrical distribution, transmission, generation, storage, and responsive load resources as integrated systems. Referred to commonly as "smart grid," their interest is driven by widespread goals to improve the operations, management and control of large-scale power systems. In this thesis I provide research into a novel agent-based simulation (ABS) approach for exploring smart grid system (SGS) dispatch, schedule forecasting and resource coordination. I model an electrical grid and its assets as an adaptive ABS, assigning an agent construct to every SGS resource including demand response, energy storage, and ...


Sensible Air To Air Heat Recovery Strategies In A Passive House, Santiago Martin Rodriguez-Anderson Jan 2015

Sensible Air To Air Heat Recovery Strategies In A Passive House, Santiago Martin Rodriguez-Anderson

Dissertations and Theses

Due to rising energy costs and concerns about global climate change, high performance buildings are more in demand than ever before. With roughly 20% of the total energy consumption in the United States being devoted to residential use, this sector represents a significant opportunity for future savings. There are many guidelines and standards for reducing building energy consumption. One of the most stringent is the Passive House Standard. The standard requires that that air infiltration is less than or equal to 0.6 air changes per hour at a 50 Pascal pressure difference (ACH 50), annual heating energy is less ...


Anisotropy Of The Reynolds Stress Tensor In The Wakes Of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbine Arrays, Nicholas Michael Hamilton Apr 2014

Anisotropy Of The Reynolds Stress Tensor In The Wakes Of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbine Arrays, Nicholas Michael Hamilton

Dissertations and Theses

A wind turbine array was constructed in the wind tunnel at Portland State University in a standard Cartesian arrangement. Configurations of the turbine array were tested with rotor blades set to rotate in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise sense. Measurements of velocity were made with stereo particle-image velocimetry. Mean statistics of velocities and Reynolds stresses clearly show the effect of direction of rotation of rotor blades for both entrance and exit row turbines. Rotational sense of the turbine blades is visible in the mean spanwise velocity W and the Reynolds shear stress -[macron over vw]. The normalized anisotropy tensor was ...


A Parametric Study On Power Variation For Model Wind Turbine Arrays, Dominic Delucia Aug 2013

A Parametric Study On Power Variation For Model Wind Turbine Arrays, Dominic Delucia

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis presents the results of wind tunnel experiments performed for various model wind turbine arrays. The aim is to understand how siting affects power output. To optimize wind farm efficiency the experiments vary the parameters of the model wind turbines and the layout of the wind turbine array. The parameters include the alignment, height, spacing, and the rotational direction of the model wind turbines. These experiments employ mechanical torque sensors to simultaneously measure the torque and rotor angular velocity, which yields a direct measurement of the fluid mechanical power extracted by the turbine at multiple locations. For a 4 ...


Assessment Of Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Using Multiple Perspectives And Hierarchical Decision Modeling, Nasir Jamil Sheikh Apr 2013

Assessment Of Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Using Multiple Perspectives And Hierarchical Decision Modeling, Nasir Jamil Sheikh

Dissertations and Theses

The objective of this research is to build a decision model for a comprehensive assessment of solar photovoltaic technologies using multiple perspectives. These perspectives include: social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) with each perspective consisting of multiple criteria. Hierarchical decision modeling and expert judgment quantification are used to provide the relative ranking of the perspectives and criteria. Such modeling is effective in addressing technology evaluations with competing and contrasting perspectives and criteria where both quantitative and qualitative measurements are represented. The model is then operationalized by constructing desirability functions for each criterion. The combined results provide an overall numerical ...


A Feasibility Study Of Model-Based Natural Ventilation Control In A Midrise Student Dormitory Building, Steven James Gross Jan 2011

A Feasibility Study Of Model-Based Natural Ventilation Control In A Midrise Student Dormitory Building, Steven James Gross

Dissertations and Theses

Past research has shown that natural ventilation can be used to satisfy upwards of 98% of the yearly cooling demand when utilized in the appropriate climate zone. Yet widespread implementation of natural ventilation has been limited in practice. This delay in market adoption is mainly due to lack of effective and reliable control. Historically, control of natural ventilation was left to the occupant (i.e. they are responsible for opening and closing their windows) because occupants are more readily satisfied when given control of the indoor environment. This strategy has been shown to be effective during summer months, but can ...


Phase Change Materials As A Thermal Storage Device For Passive Houses, Kevin Ryan Campbell Jan 2011

Phase Change Materials As A Thermal Storage Device For Passive Houses, Kevin Ryan Campbell

Dissertations and Theses

This study describes a simulation-based approach for informing the incorporation of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in buildings designed to the "Passive House" standard. PCMs provide a minimally invasive method of adding thermal mass to a building, thus mitigating overheating events. Phase change transition temperature, quantity, and location of PCM were all considered while incrementally adding PCM to Passive House simulation models in multiple climate zones across the United States. Whole building energy simulations were performed using EnergyPlus from the US Department of Energy. A prototypical Passive House with a 1500 Watt electric heater and no mechanical cooling was modeled. The ...


Using Building Energy Simulation And Geospatial Modeling Techniques In Determine High Resolution Building Sector Energy Consumption Profiles, Shem C. Heiple Jan 2007

Using Building Energy Simulation And Geospatial Modeling Techniques In Determine High Resolution Building Sector Energy Consumption Profiles, Shem C. Heiple

Dissertations and Theses

A technique is presented for estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual taxlot or parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for cityspecific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a Geographical Information System (GIS) framework. Hourly results can be extracted for any day and exported as a raster output at spatial scales as fine as an individual parcel (