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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Memristor-Based Reservoir Computing, Manjari S. Kulkarni Jan 2012

Memristor-Based Reservoir Computing, Manjari S. Kulkarni

Dissertations and Theses

In today's nanoscale era, scaling down to even smaller feature sizes poses a significant challenge in the device fabrication, the circuit, and the system design and integration. On the other hand, nanoscale technology has also led to novel materials and devices with unique properties. The memristor is one such emergent nanoscale device that exhibits non-linear current-voltage characteristics and has an inherent memory property, i.e., its current state depends on the past. Both the non-linear and the memory property of memristors have the potential to enable solving spatial and temporal pattern recognition tasks in radically different ways from traditional ...


Material Characterization Of Zinc Oxide In Bulk And Nanowire Form At Terahertz Frequencies, Forest Emerson Kernan Jan 2012

Material Characterization Of Zinc Oxide In Bulk And Nanowire Form At Terahertz Frequencies, Forest Emerson Kernan

Dissertations and Theses

Many new applications are being proposed and developed for use in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. Similarly, many new materials are being characterized for possible use in this area. Nanostructured forms are of particular interest since they may yield desirable properties, but they remain especially challenging to characterize. This work focuses on the characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) in bulk and nanowire form. A method for characterizing nanostructures at THz by use of a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) is presented. This method is novel in that it is simple, both in theory and practice, and does not require the use of ...


Measurement And Modeling Of Passive Surface Mount Devices On Fr4 Substrates, Rahulkumar Sadanand Koche Jan 2012

Measurement And Modeling Of Passive Surface Mount Devices On Fr4 Substrates, Rahulkumar Sadanand Koche

Dissertations and Theses

Passive components like resistors, capacitors and inductors are used in every electronic system. These are the very basic components which affect the system performance at higher frequencies and it is necessary to understand and model the behavior of these components in a very accurate manner. This work focuses on utilizing Printed Circuit Board (PCB) test boards, or fixtures, made of FR4 for characterizing Surface Mount Device (SMD) components. Agilent's Advanced Design System (ADS) microwave circuit simulation software was used for designing the microstrip transmission lines as well as for generating the layout for manufacturing of the PCB. SMD resistors ...


Demodulation Of Narrowband Radio Frequency Signals By Aliasing Sampling, Chun-Ching Lin Nov 1996

Demodulation Of Narrowband Radio Frequency Signals By Aliasing Sampling, Chun-Ching Lin

Dissertations and Theses

The objective of this thesis is to study the demodulation of narrowband radio frequency signals by aliasing sampling in order to reduce the sampling rate. The spectrum can be recreated at the lower frequency position by aliasing sampling. However, if the sampling rate is deviated from the desired one, error will occur. The sensitivity to the frequency error of aliasing sampling is studied. One main reason of the deviation of the sampling rate is the frequency drifting of the local oscillator. Being able to compensate the oscillator drifting errors inexpensively, automatic frequency control (AFC) loops are important at receivers. Two ...


Adaptive Color Correlation Of Knots In Wood Images And Weighted-Value Product Selection Methods In A Machine Vision System, John Robert Goulding Oct 1996

Adaptive Color Correlation Of Knots In Wood Images And Weighted-Value Product Selection Methods In A Machine Vision System, John Robert Goulding

Dissertations and Theses

The biggest obstacle to robust color image processing of wood is in developing a color model that represents all possible defect colors. When the color model is too general or too specific, defect recognition fails because too many or too few non-defect pixels match the model, respectively. Because a color image of wood contains far more clear and clear-grain colored pixels than grain-knot and knot colored pixels, it is beneficial to first statistically identify and remove the clear and clear-grain colors and to use the accumulated data to simultaneously enhance and normalize the remaining grainknot and knot colored pixels. This ...


Seasonal Hidden Markov Models For Stochastic Time Series With Periodically Varying Characteristics, Arthur M. Lewis Jul 1995

Seasonal Hidden Markov Models For Stochastic Time Series With Periodically Varying Characteristics, Arthur M. Lewis

Dissertations and Theses

Novel seasonal hidden Markov models (SHMMs) for stochastic time series with periodically varying characteristics are developed. Nonlinear interactions among SHMM parameters prevent the use of the forward-backward algorithms which are usually used to fit hidden Markov models to a data sequence. Instead, Powell's direction set method for optimizing a function is repeatedly applied to adjust SHMM parameters to fit a data sequence. SHMMs are applied to a set of meteorological data consisting of 9 years of daily rain gauge readings from four sites. The fitted models capture both the annual patterns and the short term persistence of rainfall patterns ...


Automatic Synthesis Of Vlsi Layout For Analog Continuous-Time Filters, David Lyle Robinson Mar 1995

Automatic Synthesis Of Vlsi Layout For Analog Continuous-Time Filters, David Lyle Robinson

Dissertations and Theses

Automatic synthesis of digital VLSI layout has been available for many years. It has become a necessary part of the design industry as the window of time from conception to production shrinks with ever increasing competition. However, automatic synthesis of analog VLSI layout remains rare. With digital circuits, there is often room for signal drift. In a digital circuit, a signal can drift within a range before hitting the threshold which triggers a change in logic state. The effect of parasitic capacitances for the most part, hinders the timing margins of the signal, but not its functionality. The logic functionality ...


Erp Analysis Using Matched Filtering And Wavelet Transform, Xueming Lin Nov 1994

Erp Analysis Using Matched Filtering And Wavelet Transform, Xueming Lin

Dissertations and Theses

Event related potentials (ERP's) carry very important information that relates to the performance of the brain functions of the human being. Further studies have identified that one component, in particular, P 300, is affected by the memory process. Matched filter is used to improved the SNR of signal ERP' s. We use the output of the matched filter to distinguish the difference of the waveforms between normal subjects and memory-impaired subjects. In our study, we found that the peak values of the matched filtering output were different between normal subjects and memoryimpaired subjects. Also, as an application, wavelet transform ...


Logic Synthesis With High Testability For Cellular Arrays, Andisheh Sarabi Jan 1994

Logic Synthesis With High Testability For Cellular Arrays, Andisheh Sarabi

Dissertations and Theses

The new Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologies and their structures have opened up new approaches to logic design and synthesis. The main feature of an FPGA is an array of logic blocks surrounded by a programmable interconnection structure. Cellular FPGAs are a special class of FPGAs which are distinguished by their fine granularity and their emphasis on local cell interconnects. While these characteristics call for specialized synthesis tools, the availability of logic gates other than Boolean AND, OR and NOT in these architectures opens up new possibilities for synthesis. Among the possible realizations of Boolean functions, XOR logic is ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Bipolar Transistor At Low Temperature, Swarupa Madhav Nerurkar Nov 1993

Modeling And Simulation Of Bipolar Transistor At Low Temperature, Swarupa Madhav Nerurkar

Dissertations and Theses

The BICMOS technology which integrates the CMOS technology with bipolar technology has drawn considerable attention as an attractive VLSI technology because of the high speed performance and low power consumption of the BICMOS. However, continued down scaling of CMOS devices has caused increased concerns with problems such as latch up, hot carriers and short channel effect. Most of the above mentioned problems can be avoided by operating the CMOS at liquid-nitrogen temperature(LNT). At low-temperatures, the CMOS exhibits lower sub threshold leakage, higher carrier mobility (which yields improved speed performance), and a steeper logarithmic currentvoltage slope. On the other hand ...


Pattern Recognition And Erp Waveform Analysis Using Wavelet Transform, Hong Qi Nov 1993

Pattern Recognition And Erp Waveform Analysis Using Wavelet Transform, Hong Qi

Dissertations and Theses

Wavelet transform provides an alternative to the classical Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT). In contrast to the STFT, which uses a single analysis window, the Wavelet Transform uses shorter windows at higher frequencies and longer windows at lower frequencies. For some particular wavelet functions, the local maxima of the wavelet transform correspond to the sharp variation points of the signal. As an application, wavelet transform is introduced to the character recognition. Local maximum of wavelet transform is used as a local feature to describe character boundary. The wavelet method performs well in the presence of noise. The maximum of wavelet transform ...


Automatic Tuning Of Integrated Filters Using Neural Networks, Lutz Henning Lenz Jul 1993

Automatic Tuning Of Integrated Filters Using Neural Networks, Lutz Henning Lenz

Dissertations and Theses

Component values of integrated filters vary considerably due to· manufacturing tolerances and environmental changes. Thus it is of major importance that the components of an integrated filter be electronically tunable. The method explored in this thesis is the transconductance-C-method. A method of realizing higher-order filters is to use a cascade structure of second-order filters. In this context, a method of tuning second-order filters becomes important The research objective of this thesis is to determine if the Neural Network methodology can be used to facilitate the filter tuning process for a second-order filter (realized via the transconductance-C-method). Since this thesis is ...


Unified Bias Analysis Of Subspace-Based Doa Estimation Algorithms, Yang Lu Jul 1993

Unified Bias Analysis Of Subspace-Based Doa Estimation Algorithms, Yang Lu

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis presents the unified bias analysis of subspace-based DOA estimation algorithms in terms of physical parameters such as source separation, signal coherence, number of senors and snapshots. The analysis reveals the direct relationship between the performance of the DOA algorithms and signal measurement conditions. Insights into different algorithms are provided. Based upon previous first-order subspace perturbations, second-order subspace perturbations are developed which provide basis for bias analysis and unification. Simulations verifying the theoretical bias analysis are presented.


Waveform Estimation With Jitter Noise By Pseudo Symmetrical Probability Density Function, Wei-Da Hao Jun 1993

Waveform Estimation With Jitter Noise By Pseudo Symmetrical Probability Density Function, Wei-Da Hao

Dissertations and Theses

A new method for solving jitter noise in estimating high frequency waveform is proposed. It reduces the bias of the estimation in those points where all the other methods fail to achieve. It provides preliminary models for estimating percentiles in Normal, Exponential probability density function. Based on the model for Normal probability density function, a model for any probability density function is derived. The resulting percentiles, in turn, are used as estimates for the amplitude of the waveform. Simulation results show us with satisfactory accuracy.


Designing And Simulating A Multistage Sampling Rate Conversion System Using A Set Of Pc Programs, David Joseph Hagerty May 1993

Designing And Simulating A Multistage Sampling Rate Conversion System Using A Set Of Pc Programs, David Joseph Hagerty

Dissertations and Theses

The thesis covers a series of PC programs that we have written that will enable users to easily design FIR linear phase lowpass digital filters and multistage sampling rate conversion systems. The first program is a rewrite of the McClellanParks computer program with some slight modifications. The second program uses an algorithm proposed by Rabiner that determines the length of a lowpass digital filter. Rabiner used a formula proposed by Herrmann et al. to initially estimate the filter length in his algorithm. The formula, however, assumes unity gain. We present a modification to the formula so that the gain of ...


Exact Modeling Of Time-Interval-Modulated Switched Networks, Weihe Niu Feb 1993

Exact Modeling Of Time-Interval-Modulated Switched Networks, Weihe Niu

Dissertations and Theses

The frequency response analysis of switched networks plays a very important part in designing various kinds of power converter circuits. In this thesis two frequency response techniques for analyzing switching power converters are discussed. One method provides a mathematical description which treats the converter as a periodic time varying system. A linearized small signal model is subsequently derived. The major part of the thesis concentrates on this accurate exact small-signal technique. The derivation involves state space representation and the use of the time varying transfer function. A Fourier analysis is performed to show the relationship between the frequency response of ...


Novel Cylindrical Illuminator Tip For Ultraviolet Light Delivery, Hanqun Shangguan Feb 1993

Novel Cylindrical Illuminator Tip For Ultraviolet Light Delivery, Hanqun Shangguan

Dissertations and Theses

The design, processing, and sequential testing of a novel cylindrical diffusing optical fiber tip for ultraviolet light delivery is described. This device has been shown to uniformly(+/- 15%) illuminate angioplasty balloons, 20 mm in length, that are used in an experimental photochemotherapeutic treatment of swine intimal hyperplasia. Our experiments show that uniform diffusing tips of < 400 micron diameter can be reliably constructed for this and other interstitial applications. Modeling results indicate that this design is scalable to smaller diameters. The diffusing tips are made by stripping the protective buffer and etching away the cladding over a length of 20 mm from the fiber tip and replacing it with a thin layer of optical epoxy mixed with A/203 powder. To improve the uniformity and ease of fabrication, we have evaluated a new device configuration where the tip is etched into a modified conical shape, and the distal end face is polished and then coated with an optically opaque epoxy. This is shown to uniformly scatter - 70% of the light launched into the fiber without forward transmission. To our knowledge, we are the first to use this device configuration, and we have achieved a uniform cylindrical pattern of laser energy with uniformity < ± 15% of the average value. A simple computational model suitable for the interpretation of laser energy irradiance along the bare core surface of multimode optical fiber tips is proposed and experimentally verified. The model used is based on geometrical optics and Gaussian approximation. Good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experiment. We have measured the optical properties of the tips through all the sequences of the fabrication. The performances of the diffusing tips for illuminating angioplasty balloons are then evaluated by Ultraviolet Light at 365 nm. A Ti:Sapphire Ring Laser System with a doubling crystal pumped by an argon ion laser is used to generate the wavelength in this study.


Semiconductor P-N Junction Space Charge Region Capacitance, Mohammad Humayun Habib Dec 1992

Semiconductor P-N Junction Space Charge Region Capacitance, Mohammad Humayun Habib

Dissertations and Theses

The classical capacitance voltage characteristics based on the depletion approximation, is adequate at reverse bias, but introduces errors at high forward bias. Because of its inherent simplicity and compactness this classical depletion model is well studied and widely used in circuit simulators. In this work, a new model for the semiconductor space charge region (SCR) capacitance, based on physical justification, will be derived. This new model takes three input parameters, C0 , Vbi and m, thus eliminating the fitting parameter FC currently used in SPICE. This new model is applicable for any applied voltage and will be compared with the SCR ...


Applications Of Digital Signal Processing With Cardiac Pacemakers, Merry Thi Tran May 1992

Applications Of Digital Signal Processing With Cardiac Pacemakers, Merry Thi Tran

Dissertations and Theses

Because the voltage amplitude of a heart beat is small compared to the amplitude of exponential noise, pacemakers have difficulty registering the responding heart beat immediately after a pacing pulse. This thesis investigates use of digital filters, an inverse filter and a lowpass filter, to eliminate the effects of exponential noise following a pace pulse. The goal was to create a filter which makes recognition of a haversine wave less dependent on natural subsidence of exponential noise. Research included the design of heart system, pacemaker, pulse generation, and D sensor system simulations. The simulation model includes the following components: \ • Signal ...


A Multiple Coupled Microstrip Transmission Line Model For High-Speed Vlsi Interconnect Simulation, Lawrence Stevan Uzelac Dec 1991

A Multiple Coupled Microstrip Transmission Line Model For High-Speed Vlsi Interconnect Simulation, Lawrence Stevan Uzelac

Dissertations and Theses

A model is presented which incorporates the advantages of a mixed mode simulation to characterize transmission line behavior in multiple coupled Transmission line systems. The model is intended for use by digital circuit designers who wish to be able to obtain accurate transmission line behavior for complex digital systems for which continuous time simulation tools such as SPICE would time prohibitive. The model uses a transverse electromagnetic wave approximation to obtain solutions to the basic transmission line equations. A modal analysis technique is used to solve for the attenuation and propagation constants for the transmission lines. Modal analysis done in ...


Digital Computer Solution Of Electromagnetic Transients In Large Power Systems, Bijan Navidbakhsh May 1973

Digital Computer Solution Of Electromagnetic Transients In Large Power Systems, Bijan Navidbakhsh

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis is an introduction to the solution of electromagnetic transients by a combination of the Bergeran method of characteristics and the application of trapezoidal rule of integration.

Three test examples solved by digital computer illustrate the step by step solution and computer programming. To compare this method with the Laplace transformation technique, a test problem solved by both methods and also digital computer is illustrated. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are compared