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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

From Probabilistic Socio-Economic Vulnerability To An Integrated Framework For Flash Flood Prediction, Sepideh Khajehei Dec 2018

From Probabilistic Socio-Economic Vulnerability To An Integrated Framework For Flash Flood Prediction, Sepideh Khajehei

Dissertations and Theses

Flash flood is among the most hazardous natural disasters, and it can cause severe damages to the environment and human life. Flash floods are mainly caused by intense rainfall and due to their rapid onset (within six hours of rainfall), very limited opportunity can be left for effective response. Understanding the socio-economic characteristics involving natural hazards potential, vulnerability, and resilience is necessary to address the damages to economy and casualties from extreme natural hazards. The vulnerability to flash floods is dependent on both biophysical and socio-economic factors. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of socio-economic vulnerability to flash flood alongside ...


Ensemble Data Assimilation For Flood Forecasting In Operational Settings: From Noah-Mp To Wrf-Hydro And The National Water Model, Mahkameh Zarekarizi Nov 2018

Ensemble Data Assimilation For Flood Forecasting In Operational Settings: From Noah-Mp To Wrf-Hydro And The National Water Model, Mahkameh Zarekarizi

Dissertations and Theses

The National Water Center (NWC) started using the National Water Model (NWM) in 2016. The NWM delivers state-of-the-science hydrologic forecasts in the nation. The NWM aims at operationally forecasting streamflow in more than 2,000,000 river reaches while currently river forecasts are issued for 4,000. The NWM is a specific configuration of the community WRF-Hydro Land Surface Model (LSM) which has recently been introduced to the hydrologic community. The WRF-Hydro model, itself, uses another newly-developed LSM called Noah-MP as the core hydrologic model. In WRF-Hydro, Noah-MP results (such as soil moisture and runoff) are passed to routing modules ...


Multi-Dimensional Drought Risk Assessment Based On Socio-Economic Vulnerabilities And Hydro-Climatological Factors, Ali Ahmadalipour Nov 2017

Multi-Dimensional Drought Risk Assessment Based On Socio-Economic Vulnerabilities And Hydro-Climatological Factors, Ali Ahmadalipour

Dissertations and Theses

Drought is among the costliest natural hazards developing slowly and affecting large areas, which imposes severe consequences on society and economy. Anthropogenic climate change is expected to exacerbate drought in various regions of the globe, making its associated socioeconomic impacts more severe. Such impacts are of higher concern in Africa, which is mainly characterized by arid climate and lacking infrastructure as well as social development. Furthermore, the continent is expected to experience vast population growth, which will make it more vulnerable to the adverse effects of drought. This study provides the first comprehensive multi-dimensional assessment of drought risk across the ...


Utilization Of Remote Sensing In Drought Monitoring Over Iraq, Yousif Almamalachy May 2017

Utilization Of Remote Sensing In Drought Monitoring Over Iraq, Yousif Almamalachy

Dissertations and Theses

Agricultural drought is a creeping disaster that overshadows the vegetative cover in general and cropland specifically in Iraq, a country that was well known for its agricultural production and fertile soil. In the recent years, the arable lands in Iraq experienced increasing land degradation that led to desertification, economic losses, food insecurity, and deteriorating environment. Remote sensing is employed in this study and four different indices are utilized, each of which is derived from MODIS satellite mission products. Agricultural drought maps are produced from 2003 to 2015 after masking the vegetation cover. Year 2008 was found the most severe drought ...


Application Of Numerical Modeling To Study River Dynamics: Hydro-Geomorphological Evolution Due To Extreme Events In The Sandy River, Oregon, Sarkawt Hamarahim Muhammad Mar 2017

Application Of Numerical Modeling To Study River Dynamics: Hydro-Geomorphological Evolution Due To Extreme Events In The Sandy River, Oregon, Sarkawt Hamarahim Muhammad

Dissertations and Theses

The Sandy River (OR) is a coastal tributary of the Columbia River and has a steep hydroshed 1316 square kilometers which is located on the western side of Mount Hood (elevation range 3 m to 1800 m). The system exhibits highly variable flow: Its average discharge is ~40 m3/s, and the highest recorded discharge was 1739 m3/s in 1964. In this study I model the geomorphic sensitivity of an 1800m reach located the downstream of the former Marmot Dam, which was removed in 2007. The hydro-geomorphic response to major flood has implications for system management and ...


Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland Nov 2016

Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland

Dissertations and Theses

Volcanic eruption columns inject high concentrations of ash into the atmosphere. Some of this ash is carried downwind forming ash clouds in the atmosphere that are hazardous for private and commercial aviation. Current models rely on inputs such as plume height, duration, eruption rate, and meteorological wind fields. Eruption rate is estimated from plume height using relations that depend on the rate of air entrainment into the plume, which is not well quantified. A wind tunnel experiment has been designed to investigate these models by injecting a vertical air jet into a cross-flow. The ratio of the cross-flow and jet ...


A Multivariate Modeling Approach For Generating Ensemble Climatology Forcing For Hydrologic Applications, Sepideh Khajehei Jul 2015

A Multivariate Modeling Approach For Generating Ensemble Climatology Forcing For Hydrologic Applications, Sepideh Khajehei

Dissertations and Theses

Reliability and accuracy of the forcing data plays a vital role in the Hydrological Streamflow Prediction. Reliability of the forcing data leads to accurate predictions and ultimately reduction of uncertainty. Currently, Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are developing ensemble forecasts for various temporal and spatial scales. However, it is proven that the raw products of the NWP models may be biased at the basin scale; unlike model grid scale, depending on the size of the catchment. Due to the large space-time variability of precipitation, bias-correcting the ensemble forecasts has proven to be a challenging task. In recent years, Ensemble Pre-Processing ...


Evaluating Global Sensitivity Analysis Methods For Hydrologic Modeling Over The Columbia River Basin, Maysoun Ayad Hameed Jul 2015

Evaluating Global Sensitivity Analysis Methods For Hydrologic Modeling Over The Columbia River Basin, Maysoun Ayad Hameed

Dissertations and Theses

Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach helps to identify the effectiveness of model parameters or inputs and thus provides essential information about the model performance. The effects of 14 parameters and one input (forcing data) of the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model are analyzed by using two GSA methods: Sobol' and Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST). The simulations are carried out over five sub-basins within the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for three different periods: one-year, four-year, and seven-year. The main parameter sensitivities (first-order) and the interactions sensitivities (second-order) are evaluated in this study. Our results show that some hydrological processes ...


Applications Of Remote Sensing To The Study Of Estuarine Physics: Suspended Sediment Dynamics In The Columbia River Estuary, Austin Scott Hudson Dec 2014

Applications Of Remote Sensing To The Study Of Estuarine Physics: Suspended Sediment Dynamics In The Columbia River Estuary, Austin Scott Hudson

Dissertations and Theses

Estuarine circulation and its associated transport processes drive the environmental integrity of many near-shore habitats (the coastal ocean, rivers, estuaries and emergent wetlands). A thorough understanding and consideration of this circulation is, therefore, vital in the proper management of these habitats. The aim of this study is to bring together theory and new satellite observations in the Columbia River Estuary to increase our understanding of estuarine circulation and transport. Surface reflectance measurements gathered by the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are first compared to in situ observations to develop an empirical model for remotely derived surface turbidity. Results indicate that MODIS ...


The Influence Of Halloysite Content On The Shear Strength Of Kaolinite, Reka Katalin Gabor Jan 1981

The Influence Of Halloysite Content On The Shear Strength Of Kaolinite, Reka Katalin Gabor

Dissertations and Theses

The objective of this thesis is to determine the relative shear strengths of halloysite, kaolinite, synthetic mixtures, and local soils, to investigate the influence of halloysite content on the shear strength of kaolinite, and to explore the possibility that the strength properties of soil clays might be controlled by the relative content of their component minerals.