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Portland State University

Theses/Dissertations

Civil and Environmental Engineering

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Relationships Between In-Situ Tests And Soil Cyclic Strength For Earthquake Hazard Characterization In The Pacific Northwest, Tanner Scott Bryantt Dec 2020

Relationships Between In-Situ Tests And Soil Cyclic Strength For Earthquake Hazard Characterization In The Pacific Northwest, Tanner Scott Bryantt

Dissertations and Theses

Strong earthquake shaking is a natural hazard threat in the Pacific Northwest. Soil failure due to strong earthquake shaking -- known as cyclic soil failure or liquefaction -- is expected to cause large ground deformations and damage to roads, bridges, and other civil infrastructure. Cyclic soil strength (CRR) is often characterized with in-situ geotechnical tests including the cone penetration test (CPT). Relationships between CRR and in-situ test data are not well established for soils in the Pacific Northwest. Portland State University, in partnership with New Albion Geotechnical has compiled a database of cyclic lab tests for Pacific Northwest soils to characterize the ...


Methodologies To Quantify Transit Performance Metrics At The System-Level Using High-Resolution Gps, Stop-Level, And Gtfs Archived Transit Data, Travis Bradley Glick Nov 2020

Methodologies To Quantify Transit Performance Metrics At The System-Level Using High-Resolution Gps, Stop-Level, And Gtfs Archived Transit Data, Travis Bradley Glick

Dissertations and Theses

Performance metrics have typically focused at two main scales: a microscopic scale that focuses on specific locations, time-periods, and trips; and, a macroscopic scale that averages metrics over longer times, entire routes, and networks. When applied to entire transit systems, microscopic methodologies often have computational limitations while macroscopic methodologies ascribe artificial uniformity to non-uniform analysis areas. These limitations highlight the need for a middle approach. This dissertation presents a mesoscopic analysis based around timepoint-segments, which are a novel application of an existing system for many transit agencies. In the United States, fix-route transit is typically defined by a small subset ...


An Equity Focused Study On The Trip Temporal Distributions Of Vulnerable Road Users, Santiago Espinosa Wild Oct 2020

An Equity Focused Study On The Trip Temporal Distributions Of Vulnerable Road Users, Santiago Espinosa Wild

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The United States is a megadiverse nation with a transportation system that, for decades, was designed to serve primarily able-bodied, white, male motorists. This legacy creates a situation in which varying socio-demographic groups experience the transportation system differently with contrasting safety, accessibility, and convenience outcomes. This project introduces descriptive statistics and binary logistic models that provide transportation professionals and policy makers with a quantitative understanding on how, why, and when certain socio-demographic groups are more likely to engage in a trip. This project provides tools to measure and understand the equity implications of a wide array of transportation policy decisions ...


The Seasonal Effects Of Photovoltaic Cells On Sedum Ecoroof Substrate Moisture, Brook M. Thompson Oct 2020

The Seasonal Effects Of Photovoltaic Cells On Sedum Ecoroof Substrate Moisture, Brook M. Thompson

University Honors Theses

This paper investigates a combined PV eco roof system and analyzes the soil moisture levels in front of the panels and directly underneath the PV Cells on an experimental ecoroof platform in Portland, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to examine how PV Cells create differences in the moisture level of the soil on the ecoroof. Four moisture sensors were set in different quadrants in four experimental testbeds, and the moisture level data was recorded from October 18th, 2018 to September 10th, 2019. The study found that in with heavy rainfall, the front of the testbed displayed ...


Ultrasonic Coda Wave Comparison For Quality Control Of Manufactured Parts: Proof Of Feasibility, Alexei Marin-Cortes Jul 2020

Ultrasonic Coda Wave Comparison For Quality Control Of Manufactured Parts: Proof Of Feasibility, Alexei Marin-Cortes

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Manufactured parts are a staple of modern urban life, visible in homes (e.g., kitchen appliances), offices (e.g., printers), the automobile and aerospace industries (e.g., body parts), and more. This M.S. project intended to determine whether ultrasonic testing could be used in a simple and rapid manner to perform quality control of manufactured parts. Ultrasonic testing is employed for this purpose using two surface-coupled transducers, one being a transmitter and the other one a receiver. An ultrasonic pulse, which is generated by the transmitting transducer, propagates through the part, collecting information about material and geometry, as well ...


Ce-Qual-W2 Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Model Of The Cedar River Municipal Watershed, Amory Spencer Cervarich Jul 2020

Ce-Qual-W2 Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Model Of The Cedar River Municipal Watershed, Amory Spencer Cervarich

Dissertations and Theses

The laterally averaged, two-dimensional model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to develop a water quality model of the Cedar River Municipal Watershed as a reservoir management and climate change scenario tool. The 90,638-acre watershed, located 56 kilometers southeast of Seattle, WA, provides drinking water to over 1.4 million people. The watershed relies on two waterbodies for storage, Chester Morse Lake and the Masonry Pool. The Masonry Dam is the main storage structure in the watershed. The Cedar River flows downstream from the Masonry Dam for 57 kilometers to Lake Washington. The reservoir model simulated Chester Morse Lake and the Masonry ...


Chehalis River And Tributary Water Quality And Hydrodynamic Modeling: Model Setup, Calibration Analysis For 2013-2015, Tel Jensen Apr 2020

Chehalis River And Tributary Water Quality And Hydrodynamic Modeling: Model Setup, Calibration Analysis For 2013-2015, Tel Jensen

Dissertations and Theses

The Chehalis River is located in southwest Washington State. Its headwaters are in the Willapa Hills, and it drains parts of the Doty Hills, the western foothills of the Cascade Mountains, and the southern Olympic Mountains. The Chehalis River is over 125 miles long and its basin is over 2000 square miles spanning parts of seven counties and diverse land uses.

CE-QUAL-W2 is a widely used two-dimensional (vertical and longitudinal) hydrodynamic and water quality model developed by the US Army Corp of Engineers and the Water Quality Research Group at Portland State University. Version 4.2 includes the ability to ...


Robust Maximum Flow Network Interdiction Problem, Darshan Rajesh Chauhan Jan 2020

Robust Maximum Flow Network Interdiction Problem, Darshan Rajesh Chauhan

Dissertations and Theses

In this thesis, a maximum flow-based network interdiction problem considering uncertainties in arc capacities and interdiction resource consumption is solved. The problem consists of two entities with opposing objectives: the goal of the adversary is to maximize the flow of illicit drugs through the network, while the goal of the interdictor is to minimize the maximum flow by completely interdicting arcs given a specified amount of resources. Lack of complete information about the usage patterns of the transportation network by the adversary results in an uncertain estimate of arc capacity and resources required for interdiction by the interdictor. To account ...


Evaluation Of A Novel Remote Displacement Sensor Prototype Using Video And Laser-Based Technology For Civil Infrastructure Applications, Nicholas J. Brown Dec 2019

Evaluation Of A Novel Remote Displacement Sensor Prototype Using Video And Laser-Based Technology For Civil Infrastructure Applications, Nicholas J. Brown

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Deflection measurements on structures, especially with regards to long-term monitoring, continues to be a challenge with current sensor technologies. Material degradation and changes in the mechanical properties due to aging (for example, creep and shrinkage in concrete bridges) directly impact the deflections exhibited by a structure. In this article we introduce and discuss the evaluation of a novel laser and video-based displacement sensor prototype to monitor displacements and rotations in structures remotely. The sensor is both inexpensive, using off-the shelf components, but also accurate and practical for situations that do not allow the use of conventional displacement sensors, which require ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Impact Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles On Nutrient And Contaminant Reduction In Wastewater Treatment Wetlands, Madeline J. Hubbard Dec 2019

Impact Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles On Nutrient And Contaminant Reduction In Wastewater Treatment Wetlands, Madeline J. Hubbard

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Metallic nanoparticles are found in a variety of commercial products and industrial processes, and have become more common in the last few decades. As nanoparticles are toxic to biota and have the potential to spread other types of contamination, their increased use has become a concern. Research into the transport of nanoparticles in subsurface and surface waters shows a wide range in mobility, but that they are most likely to collect in systems with low linear velocities and high organic content. As a result, wetlands are the most vulnerable to nanoparticle contamination. Wetlands receiving and treating wastewater effluent have an ...


Concrete Bridge Deck Performance Data And Metrics For The State Of Oregon, Jael Wettach-Glosser Sep 2019

Concrete Bridge Deck Performance Data And Metrics For The State Of Oregon, Jael Wettach-Glosser

Dissertations and Theses

Bridge decks are a critical element of a bridge that support and distribute vehicle loads to the superstructure. Because of the requirements of this role, bridge decks are exposed to severe conditions that typically lead to structural deficiency in bridges which is both costly and disruptive. Therefore, to keep bridges and highways in good repair, developing optimal preservation decisions for concrete bridge decks is key. In order to develop effective performance monitoring and preservation schedules, the parameters affecting bridge deck deterioration need to be better understood.

With guidance from the literature and Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) personnel, two datasets ...


Water Quality Analysis Of Ecoroof Runoff In Portland, Pranoti P. Deshmukh Aug 2019

Water Quality Analysis Of Ecoroof Runoff In Portland, Pranoti P. Deshmukh

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Portland, Oregon is internationally recognized for its implementation of sustainable stormwater management technologies. Ecoroof is one of the sustainable solutions to reduce stormwater runoff which also provides multiple environmental benefits. However, very little is known about the impact of ecoroofs on water quality of roof runoff. Stormwater runoff carries a significant amount of pollutants, which, if it directly enters a stream or river, degrades water quality and severely harms aquatic life.

This study evaluates the trends in the long-term water quality data from ecoroofs and conventional roofs in the Portland area. Mann Kendall trend test was used to detect the ...


Modeling Vertical Migration Of Cyanobacteria And Zooplankton, Corina Christina Mae Overman Aug 2019

Modeling Vertical Migration Of Cyanobacteria And Zooplankton, Corina Christina Mae Overman

Dissertations and Theses

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, often cause harmful algal blooms and release toxic substances that can harm humans and other animals. Accurately modeling these phytoplankton is a step towards predicting, preventing, and controlling such blooms. Cyanobacteria and zooplankton species are known to migrate vertically in the water column on a daily cycle. Capturing this behavior is one aspect of correctly modeling their dynamics. Here, several models of cyanobacteria vertical movement were tested in proof-of-concept models before being applied to data from field studies. These models included both continuum and particle-tracking frameworks. Four continuum-framework models of cyanobacteria vertical migration were ...


Evaluation Of Low And High Frequency Dynamic Response For Condition Assessment Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Ali Hafiz Aug 2019

Evaluation Of Low And High Frequency Dynamic Response For Condition Assessment Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Ali Hafiz

Dissertations and Theses

Concrete is widely used for civil infrastructure structures and they experience deterioration and degradation due to aging, increases in the traffic loads, harsher environmental conditions, use of deicing chemicals, etc. Therefore, evaluating the integrity of reinforced concrete structures has become of increasing interest for infrastructure owners and managers. A number of non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) methods have been developed in recent decades to aid in evaluating structures and provide input for asset management. One family of these methods uses the dynamic response of a structural member: stress waves (high frequency) and structural vibrations (low frequency). Both ...


The Gouda, The Bad, And The Ugly: Prioritizing Intersections For Pedestrian Safety In Tillamook, Or With Different Risk Estimation Methods, Kelly M. White Jun 2019

The Gouda, The Bad, And The Ugly: Prioritizing Intersections For Pedestrian Safety In Tillamook, Or With Different Risk Estimation Methods, Kelly M. White

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The following report explores five different pedestrian risk estimation methods at urban intersections. Six study intersections in Tillamook, Oregon were chosen as a case study to analyze each risk estimation method and apply the values to a project prioritization process. Ultimately, risk factors of both exposure and infrastructure contribute to the highest amount of risk for pedestrians. The Oregon Department of Transportation’s State Planning and Research Report 779 was identified as the most comprehensive risk estimation method.


Test Setup Design And Cyclic Evaluation Of Rocking Clt Wall And Floor Restoring Force Lateral System, Aaron Davis Smith Jun 2019

Test Setup Design And Cyclic Evaluation Of Rocking Clt Wall And Floor Restoring Force Lateral System, Aaron Davis Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The introduction of the demand for mass timber buildings in areas with seismic hazards has called for new lateral systems. Lateral systems in mass timber building typically utilize a rocking shear wall with post-tensioned rods to provide system re-centering. These post-tensioned rods add axial load to the shear wall and potentially endure long term creep affects. Mass Timber buildings consist of cross laminated (clt) shear walls and floor slabs along with glulam beams. The flexural capacity of the CLT floor slabs along with dead load can provide an alternative source for the restoring force. This project developed a test setup ...


Travel Behaviors Of Persons With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Joseph C. Totten Jun 2019

Travel Behaviors Of Persons With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Joseph C. Totten

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

People with intellectual and developmental disabilities live different lives than the general population. Often prohibited from driving, persons with intellectual disabilities cite transportation as top concern, limiting their independence and freedom to live, work or recreate where and when they choose. Improving services for persons with developmental disabilities requires that engineers and planners understand how persons with intellectual disabilities travel, and what types of transportation are available to them. This report hopes to identify the availability of transportation options to persons with developmental disabilities such that planners, engineers and advocates can determine how altering the transportation system might affect persons ...


Analytical And Numerical Modeling Of Long Term Changes To Tides, Storm Surge, And Total Water Level Due To Bathymetric Changes And Surge Characteristics, Ramin Familkhalili Jun 2019

Analytical And Numerical Modeling Of Long Term Changes To Tides, Storm Surge, And Total Water Level Due To Bathymetric Changes And Surge Characteristics, Ramin Familkhalili

Dissertations and Theses

Natural and local anthropogenic changes in estuaries (e.g., sea-level rise, navigation channel construction and loss of wetlands) interact with each other and produce non-linear effects. There is also a growing recognition that tides in estuaries are not stationary. These factors together are changing the estuarine water level regime, however the implications for extreme water levels remain largely unknown. Changes over the past century in many estuaries, such as channel deepening and streamlining for navigation have significantly altered the hydrodynamics of long waves, often resulting in amplified tides (a ~85% increase in Wilmington, NC since 1900) and storm surge in ...


Strength Tuned Steel Eccentric Braced Frames, Hosam Abdullah Al-Azzawi Jun 2019

Strength Tuned Steel Eccentric Braced Frames, Hosam Abdullah Al-Azzawi

Dissertations and Theses

The primary component in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) is the link as its plastic strength controls the design of the frame as well as the entire building within which it is installed. EBFs are the first part of building design and every other component is sized based on the forces developed in the link. Oversized link elements lead to the use of unnecessary materials and can increase construction costs. Additionally, the advantages of using a continuous member of the same depth for both the link and the controller beam (in terms of the cost and the time) motivates researchers to ...


Seismic Performance Of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Under Subduction-Zone Ground Motions, Alvaro Francisco Lopez Ibaceta Jun 2019

Seismic Performance Of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Under Subduction-Zone Ground Motions, Alvaro Francisco Lopez Ibaceta

Dissertations and Theses

A large magnitude, long duration subduction earthquake is impending in the Pacific Northwest, which lies near the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). Great subduction zone earthquakes are the largest earthquakes in the world and are the sole source zones that can produce earthquakes greater than M8.5. Additionally, the increased duration of a CSZ earthquake may result in more structural damage than expected. Given such seismic hazard, the assessment of reinforced concrete substructures has become crucial in order to prioritize the bridges that may need to be retrofitted and to maintain the highway network operable after a major seismic event. Recent ...


On The Drought Recovery And Resiliency: How Terrestrial And Riverine Ecosystems Recover From Agricultural And Hydrological Droughts, Behzad Ahmadi Mar 2019

On The Drought Recovery And Resiliency: How Terrestrial And Riverine Ecosystems Recover From Agricultural And Hydrological Droughts, Behzad Ahmadi

Dissertations and Theses

Climate extremes, in particular droughts are significant driving forces towards riverine and terrestrial ecosystems disturbance. Drought impacts on stream ecosystems include losses that can either be direct (e.g. destruction of habitat for aquatic species) or indirect (e.g. deterioration of water quality, soil quality, and increased chance of wildfires). This study investigates hydrological and agricultural droughts and their recovery durations. For the riverine ecosystems, this study combines hydrologic drought and water quality changes during droughts and represents a multi-stage framework to detect and characterize hydrological droughts, while considering water quality parameters. Hydrological droughts are categorized into three stages of ...


Behavior Of Non-Ductile Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit By Cfrp Under Cyclic Loading, Wisam Amer Aules Mar 2019

Behavior Of Non-Ductile Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit By Cfrp Under Cyclic Loading, Wisam Amer Aules

Dissertations and Theses

In the Middle East region and many countries in the world, older reinforced concrete (RC) columns are deemed to be weak in seismic resistance because of their low amount of reinforcement, low grades of concrete, and large spacing between the transverse reinforcement. The capacity of older RC columns that are also slender is further reduced due to the secondary moments. Appropriate retrofit techniques can improve the capacity and behavior of concrete members. In this study, externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) retrofit technique was implemented to improve the behavior of RC columns tested under constant axial load and cyclic ...


From Drought To Food-Energy-Water-Security Nexus: An Assessment Of Food Insecurity In The Middle East, Maysoun Ayad Hameed Jan 2019

From Drought To Food-Energy-Water-Security Nexus: An Assessment Of Food Insecurity In The Middle East, Maysoun Ayad Hameed

Dissertations and Theses

Drought is an extreme climate phenomenon that happens slowly and periodically threatens the environmental and socio-economic sectors. Developing countries have experienced crucial conditions in meeting the needs for food, energy, and water security. Natural disasters contribute as risky sources of food insecurity and vulnerability in the Middle East. This dissertation presents a country-level review and quantitative assessment of the current issues associated with the Food-Energy-Water-Security (FEWS) Nexus in the Middle East. In this study, sixteen countries in the Middle East are chosen, namely, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Turkey. The most recent datasets are used to ...


From Probabilistic Socio-Economic Vulnerability To An Integrated Framework For Flash Flood Prediction, Sepideh Khajehei Dec 2018

From Probabilistic Socio-Economic Vulnerability To An Integrated Framework For Flash Flood Prediction, Sepideh Khajehei

Dissertations and Theses

Flash flood is among the most hazardous natural disasters, and it can cause severe damages to the environment and human life. Flash floods are mainly caused by intense rainfall and due to their rapid onset (within six hours of rainfall), very limited opportunity can be left for effective response. Understanding the socio-economic characteristics involving natural hazards potential, vulnerability, and resilience is necessary to address the damages to economy and casualties from extreme natural hazards. The vulnerability to flash floods is dependent on both biophysical and socio-economic factors. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of socio-economic vulnerability to flash flood alongside ...


Ensemble Data Assimilation For Flood Forecasting In Operational Settings: From Noah-Mp To Wrf-Hydro And The National Water Model, Mahkameh Zarekarizi Nov 2018

Ensemble Data Assimilation For Flood Forecasting In Operational Settings: From Noah-Mp To Wrf-Hydro And The National Water Model, Mahkameh Zarekarizi

Dissertations and Theses

The National Water Center (NWC) started using the National Water Model (NWM) in 2016. The NWM delivers state-of-the-science hydrologic forecasts in the nation. The NWM aims at operationally forecasting streamflow in more than 2,000,000 river reaches while currently river forecasts are issued for 4,000. The NWM is a specific configuration of the community WRF-Hydro Land Surface Model (LSM) which has recently been introduced to the hydrologic community. The WRF-Hydro model, itself, uses another newly-developed LSM called Noah-MP as the core hydrologic model. In WRF-Hydro, Noah-MP results (such as soil moisture and runoff) are passed to routing modules ...


Removal Efficiencies, Uptake Mechanisms And Competitive Effects Of Copper And Zinc In Various Stormwater Filter Media, Emily Heleva-Ponaski Sep 2018

Removal Efficiencies, Uptake Mechanisms And Competitive Effects Of Copper And Zinc In Various Stormwater Filter Media, Emily Heleva-Ponaski

Dissertations and Theses

Polluted stormwater, if not treated, can compromise water quality throughout our hydrologic cycle, adversely affecting aquatic ecosystems. Common stormwater pollutants, copper and zinc, have been identified as primary toxicants in multiple freshwater and marine environments. For small-scale generators, stormwater management can be cumbersome and implementation of common BMPs impractical thus catch basins are popular though not the most environmentally conscious and sustainable option. This study aims to characterize the potential of a mobile media filter operation for the treatment and on-site recycling of catch basin stormwater. The removal capacities of various commercially available filter media (e.g. a common perlite ...


Driver Distraction In Microsimulation Of A Mid-Block Pedestrian Crossing, Darryl Joseph Michaud Sep 2018

Driver Distraction In Microsimulation Of A Mid-Block Pedestrian Crossing, Darryl Joseph Michaud

Dissertations and Theses

Traffic simulation has become an invaluable part of the traffic engineering toolbox. However, the majority of driver models are designed to recreate traffic performance based on interactions among vehicles. In keeping with this pursuit, most are fundamentally built to avoid collisions. This limits the applicability of using these models for addressing safety concerns, especially those regarding pedestrian safety performance. However, by explicitly including some of the sources of human error, these limitations can, in theory, be overcome. While much work has been done toward including these human factors in simulation platforms, one key aspect of human behavior has been largely ...


Methods For Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption In Urban Road Networks Using Geographical Attributes, Ryan G. Conrad Aug 2018

Methods For Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption In Urban Road Networks Using Geographical Attributes, Ryan G. Conrad

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

This paper presents statistical techniques for estimating vehicle fuel consumption in urban road networks based on vehicle and geographical factors. A routing algorithm utilizing mapping data from OpenStreetMap and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is presented and used to generate paths that minimize vehicle fuel consumption. The concept of a fuel consumption estimating function is proposed as an extension of the well-known distance-estimating functions that are widely used in logistics planning and research.

Statistical models are developed that estimate fuel consumption in three tested urban areas with vehicle weight, elevation and regional travel speed characteristics being the ...


Lateral Deformation Behavior Of Mass Timber Beam To Column Gravity Connection, Tyler James Williams Aug 2018

Lateral Deformation Behavior Of Mass Timber Beam To Column Gravity Connection, Tyler James Williams

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

A beam-to-column connection consisting of glulam beam and column and cross laminated timber floor slab was developed and experimentally evaluated for use in buildings that are expected to undergo earthquake-­­induced lateral drift. The connection utilized a passive gap closure mechanism designed to allow beam rotations during lateral drift while minimizing residual separation between the beam and the column following an earthquake. Full scale cyclic experiments were used to validate the connection’s minimal rotational stiffness and demonstrate low damage performance for lateral drifts exceeding 4.5% drift. The connection exhibited no degradation in gravity load capacity throughout the imposed ...