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Portland State University

Theses/Dissertations

Civil Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

The Seasonal Effects Of Photovoltaic Cells On Sedum Ecoroof Substrate Moisture, Brook M. Thompson Oct 2020

The Seasonal Effects Of Photovoltaic Cells On Sedum Ecoroof Substrate Moisture, Brook M. Thompson

University Honors Theses

This paper investigates a combined PV eco roof system and analyzes the soil moisture levels in front of the panels and directly underneath the PV Cells on an experimental ecoroof platform in Portland, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to examine how PV Cells create differences in the moisture level of the soil on the ecoroof. Four moisture sensors were set in different quadrants in four experimental testbeds, and the moisture level data was recorded from October 18th, 2018 to September 10th, 2019. The study found that in with heavy rainfall, the front of the testbed displayed ...


Robust Maximum Flow Network Interdiction Problem, Darshan Rajesh Chauhan Jan 2020

Robust Maximum Flow Network Interdiction Problem, Darshan Rajesh Chauhan

Dissertations and Theses

In this thesis, a maximum flow-based network interdiction problem considering uncertainties in arc capacities and interdiction resource consumption is solved. The problem consists of two entities with opposing objectives: the goal of the adversary is to maximize the flow of illicit drugs through the network, while the goal of the interdictor is to minimize the maximum flow by completely interdicting arcs given a specified amount of resources. Lack of complete information about the usage patterns of the transportation network by the adversary results in an uncertain estimate of arc capacity and resources required for interdiction by the interdictor. To account ...


Concrete Bridge Deck Performance Data And Metrics For The State Of Oregon, Jael Wettach-Glosser Sep 2019

Concrete Bridge Deck Performance Data And Metrics For The State Of Oregon, Jael Wettach-Glosser

Dissertations and Theses

Bridge decks are a critical element of a bridge that support and distribute vehicle loads to the superstructure. Because of the requirements of this role, bridge decks are exposed to severe conditions that typically lead to structural deficiency in bridges which is both costly and disruptive. Therefore, to keep bridges and highways in good repair, developing optimal preservation decisions for concrete bridge decks is key. In order to develop effective performance monitoring and preservation schedules, the parameters affecting bridge deck deterioration need to be better understood.

With guidance from the literature and Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) personnel, two datasets ...


Evaluation Of Low And High Frequency Dynamic Response For Condition Assessment Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Ali Hafiz Aug 2019

Evaluation Of Low And High Frequency Dynamic Response For Condition Assessment Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Ali Hafiz

Dissertations and Theses

Concrete is widely used for civil infrastructure structures and they experience deterioration and degradation due to aging, increases in the traffic loads, harsher environmental conditions, use of deicing chemicals, etc. Therefore, evaluating the integrity of reinforced concrete structures has become of increasing interest for infrastructure owners and managers. A number of non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) methods have been developed in recent decades to aid in evaluating structures and provide input for asset management. One family of these methods uses the dynamic response of a structural member: stress waves (high frequency) and structural vibrations (low frequency). Both ...


An Analytical System For Determining Disciplinary Vocabulary For Data-Driven Learning: An Example From Civil Engineering, Philippa Jean Otto Mar 2017

An Analytical System For Determining Disciplinary Vocabulary For Data-Driven Learning: An Example From Civil Engineering, Philippa Jean Otto

Dissertations and Theses

Data-driven learning (DDL), an inductive teaching approach in which students learn through corpus interaction, has gained recent traction as way to teach specialized vocabulary in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) classes. There is little research, however, that addresses how to choose specialized vocabulary for teaching with DDL.

This study addressed this gap in research by exploring the potential of a three-part analytical, corpus-based system for determining vocabulary to teach with DDL for a specific context of language use. This system included (1) identifying words that were significantly more frequent in a specialized expert corpus than in a corpus of general ...


An Assessment Of Post-Encroachment Times For Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions Observed In The Field, A Driving Simulator, And In Traffic Simulation Models, Ali Razmpa Nov 2016

An Assessment Of Post-Encroachment Times For Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions Observed In The Field, A Driving Simulator, And In Traffic Simulation Models, Ali Razmpa

Dissertations and Theses

Most safety analysis is conducted using crash data. Surrogate safety measures, such as various time-based measures of time-to-collision can be related to crash potential and used to gain insight into the frequency and severity of crashes at a specific location. One of the most common and acknowledged measures is post-encroachment time (PET) which defines the time between vehicles occupying a conflicting space. While commonly used in studies of motor vehicle interactions, studies of PET for bicycle-vehicle interactions are few. In this research, the PET of bicycle-vehicle interactions measured in the field, a driving simulator, and in a micro-simulation are compared ...


Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Beams With Cfrp Strands, Yasir Matloob Saeed Mar 2016

Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Beams With Cfrp Strands, Yasir Matloob Saeed

Dissertations and Theses

The high cost of repairing reinforced or prestressed concrete structures due to steel corrosion has driven engineers to look for solutions. Much research has been conducted over the last two decades to evaluate the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) in concrete structures. Structural engineering researchers have been testing FRP to determine their usability instead of steel for strengthening existing reinforced concrete structures, reinforcing new concrete members, and for prestressed concrete applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio of FRP materials, especially Carbon FRP (CFRP), and their non-corrosive nature are probably the most attractive features of FRPs.

In this study, an experimental ...


Evaluating The Effects Of A Congestion And Weather Responsive Advisory Variable Speed Limit System In Portland, Oregon, Matthew Blake Downey May 2015

Evaluating The Effects Of A Congestion And Weather Responsive Advisory Variable Speed Limit System In Portland, Oregon, Matthew Blake Downey

Dissertations and Theses

Safety and congestion are ever present and increasingly severe transportation problems in urban areas throughout the nation and world. These phenomena can have wide-ranging consequences relating to safety, the economy, and the environment. Adverse weather conditions represent another significant challenge to safety and mobility on highways. Oregon is not immune from either of these global issues. Oregon Route (OR) 217, to the southwest of the downtown Portland, is one of the worst freeways for congestion in the state and is also subject to the Pacific Northwest's frequently inclement and unpredictable climate. High crash rates, severe recurrent bottlenecks and highly ...


The Effect Of The Bicycle Detector Symbol And R10-22 Sign On Cyclist Queuing Position At Signalized Intersections, Stefan W. Bussey Dec 2013

The Effect Of The Bicycle Detector Symbol And R10-22 Sign On Cyclist Queuing Position At Signalized Intersections, Stefan W. Bussey

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Manual of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) includes a roadway marking and accompanying explanatory sign which may be installed on public roads to help guide cyclists position themselves over detection at actuated traffic signals. While adopted into the MUTCD in 2003, little research is available on the effectiveness of the marking and sign. This study evaluates the influence that the roadway marking, roadway marking installed in conjunction with the explanatory sign, and an alternative detector marking comprised of the MUTCD marking installed over a one foot by two feet green rectangle, have on cyclist queuing position at actuated, signalized intersections ...


Understanding Travel Modes To Non-Work Destinations: Analysis Of An Establishment Survey In Portland, Oregon, Christopher D. Muhs Jun 2013

Understanding Travel Modes To Non-Work Destinations: Analysis Of An Establishment Survey In Portland, Oregon, Christopher D. Muhs

Dissertations and Theses

During the past three decades, research in travel behavior has generally proceeded from broad-level, aggregate analysis of mode share--the proportions of walking, bicycling, transit, and vehicle travel occurring in traffic analysis zones, census tracts, neighborhood, or other geographical units--to fine-grained, disaggregate analysis of mode choices and other trip-making attributes at the individual level. One potential issue is whether there are differences in the types of conclusions drawn from results of analyses performed at these different levels, as these results directly inform transportation planning and policy.

This thesis aims in part to confirm whether the types of conclusions drawn from different ...


Coupling The Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Model Ce-Qual-W2 With A Multi-Trophic Fish Bio-Energetics Model For Lake Roosevelt, Washington, Michael Lee Mckillip Jan 2008

Coupling The Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Model Ce-Qual-W2 With A Multi-Trophic Fish Bio-Energetics Model For Lake Roosevelt, Washington, Michael Lee Mckillip

Dissertations and Theses

Grand Coulee Dam created Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake as part of the Columbia Basin Project. Located in northeastern Washington State, the Project provides economically important hydropower (19 billion kilowatt hours per year), irrigation (225,000 ha), flood control, and sport fishing ($5 to 20 million annually). A good system understanding aids in balancing these beneficial uses for the 230 km long reservoir. The reservoir's atypical 45-day mean residence time is much shorter than a typical lake, and much longer than for a riverine dam. The spring freshet requires drawdowns of 15 to 20 m for flood control—the driving ...


Water Quality Model For South Slough, Coos Bay, Oregon, Holly Kay Juza May 1995

Water Quality Model For South Slough, Coos Bay, Oregon, Holly Kay Juza

Dissertations and Theses

The South Slough Estuary is located off Coos Bay along the southern coast of Oregon. It is divided into two channels that meet and continue to Coos Bay at the Charleston Harbor. There are six major contributing streams to South Slough. After rainfall events, the level of coliform bacteria in the slough increases because of stream bacteria loading. This is due to cattle grazing in the drainage areas, failed septic systems from private homes, and sewage sludge applied to the County landfill, which drains into the slough. The Oregon Health Division has enforced a Sanitation Management Plan for Commercial Shellfish ...


Improved Finite Analytic Methods For Solving Advection-Dominated Transport Equation In Highly Variable Velocity Field, Wei Cuifeng Apr 1995

Improved Finite Analytic Methods For Solving Advection-Dominated Transport Equation In Highly Variable Velocity Field, Wei Cuifeng

Dissertations and Theses

Solute transport studies frequently rely on numerical solutions of the classical advection-diffusion equation. Unfortunately, solutions obtained with traditional finite difference and finite element techniques typically exhibit excessive numerical diffusion or spurious oscillation when advection dominates, especially when velocity field is highly variable. One recently developed technique, the finite analytic method, offers an attractive alternative. Finite analytic methods utilize local analytic solutions in discrete elements to obtain the algebraic representations of the governing partial differential equations, thus eliminating the truncation error in the finite difference and the use of approximating functions in the finite element method. The finite analytic solutions have ...


Predicting Solute Transport In Natural Streams - A Stochastic Approach, Xueqing Zhou Dec 1994

Predicting Solute Transport In Natural Streams - A Stochastic Approach, Xueqing Zhou

Dissertations and Theses

The existing theories for predicting longitudinal dispersion in straight open channels have long been recognized as inadequate when applied to natural rivers. These theories tend to grossly underestimate dispersion in real streams since an important mixing mechanism due to nonuniform river cross-section variations is not explicitly taken into account. Recognizing the important role of stream irregularities on solute transport and the analytical difficulties of classical deterministic analysis, we develop a stochastic approach for analyzing solute transport in natural streams. Variations in river width and bed elevation are conveniently represented as one-dimensional random fields, characterized by their autocorrelation functions. Advection and ...


Two Dimensional Finite Element Modeling Of Swift Delta Soil Nail Wall By "Abaqus", Richard James Barrows Nov 1994

Two Dimensional Finite Element Modeling Of Swift Delta Soil Nail Wall By "Abaqus", Richard James Barrows

Dissertations and Theses

Soil nail walls are a form of mechanical earth stabilization for cut situations. They consist of the introduction of passive inclusions (nails) into soil cut lifts. These nailed lifts are then tied together with a structural facing (usually shotcrete) . The wall lifts are constructed incrementally from the top of cut down. Soil nail walls are being recognized as having potential for large cost savings over other alternatives. The increasing need to provide high capacity roadways in restricted rights of way under structures such as bridges will require increasing use of techniques such as combined soil nail and piling walls. The ...


Modeling Of Flow And Water Quality In Henry Hagg Lake Near Forest Grove, Oregon, Michael T. Knutson Sep 1993

Modeling Of Flow And Water Quality In Henry Hagg Lake Near Forest Grove, Oregon, Michael T. Knutson

Dissertations and Theses

Increased population growth in Washington County, Oregon, has helped cause the water quality of the Tualatin River to decline. Henry Hagg Lake is a storage reservoir which was built to augment summer low flows in the Tualatin River. Hagg Lake also supplies the Tualatin River Basin with both irrigation and municipal water in the summer. Using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer's model CE-QUAL-W2 (a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model) , a model of Henry Hagg Lake was created. The model was calibrated using water quality and hydraulic data for 1990 at the Hagg Lake outflow in Scoggins ...


Water Quality Modeling Of The Tualitin River, Christopher John Berger Sep 1993

Water Quality Modeling Of The Tualitin River, Christopher John Berger

Dissertations and Theses

Water quality problems related to excessive algal growth, high nutrient loading, and low flows have been occurring along Oregon's Tualatin River. The Tualatin River is 86 miles long and has a drainage basin of 711 square miles. The drainage basin incorporates forest, agricultural, and urban areas. Located in the Portland metropolitan area, these problems have been acerbated by the effects of urban growth. To help analyze pollution control alternatives, a river model study, funded by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ}, was undertaken. An in-stream model of hydraulics and water quality was developed. The Corps of Engineer's ...


Predicting Seepage Of Leachate From The St. Johns Landfill To Ground And Surface Water Systems, Kevin A. Schock Jun 1993

Predicting Seepage Of Leachate From The St. Johns Landfill To Ground And Surface Water Systems, Kevin A. Schock

Dissertations and Theses

Determination of the vertical and horizontal groundwater hydraulic gradient within a landfill is the first step in determining the potential of groundwater contamination from the landfill leachate. The length of a study and the frequency at which measurements are recorded can greatly affect the description of the local groundwater environment. A more comprehensive analysis can be preformed for longer periods of study and greater measurement frequency. The intent of this study was to install a continuous groundwater level monitoring system around the st. Johns Landfill for a minimum study length of one year. This would allow a more thorough study ...


Gravity Sedimentation: A One-Dimensional Numerical Model, Joanna Robin Karl May 1993

Gravity Sedimentation: A One-Dimensional Numerical Model, Joanna Robin Karl

Dissertations and Theses

A large fraction of the current cost of wastewater treatment is from the treatment and disposal of wastewater sludge. Improved design, energy efficiency, and performance of dewatering facilities could significantly decrease transport and disposal costs. Dewatering facilities are designed based on field experience, trial and error, pilot plant testing, and/or full scale testing. Design is generally time-consuming and expensive. A full-scale test typically consists_ of side-by-side operation of 4 to 5 full-scale dewatering units for several weeks to more than 6 months. Theoretical modeling of the physics of dewatering units such as the belt filter press, based on laboratory ...


One-Dimensional Computer Modeling Of Thermal And Water Quality Characteristics Of Coldwater Lake, Wa, David Kevin Whitaker Apr 1993

One-Dimensional Computer Modeling Of Thermal And Water Quality Characteristics Of Coldwater Lake, Wa, David Kevin Whitaker

Dissertations and Theses

Coldwater Lake is a new lake formed when a massive mudflow down the Toutle River Valley, caused by the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, blocked the natural outlet of Coldwater Creek. This research utilizes physical, biological and chemical data collected at Coldwater Lake during the sun1mers of 1989 and 1990 to calibrate and verify the one-dimensional computer models CE-THERMRl and CE-QUAL-Rl for Coldwater Lake. CE-THERM-R1 was used to simulate thermal characteristics in Coldwater Lake during the summer stratification periods of 1989 and 1990. The model was calibrated to 1989 data and was verified with 1990 data ...


The Use Of Laboratory Testing To Understand The Behavior Of Collapsible Soil Upon Wetting, Martha H. Denham Oct 1992

The Use Of Laboratory Testing To Understand The Behavior Of Collapsible Soil Upon Wetting, Martha H. Denham

Dissertations and Theses

In developing a constitutive model that could predict the settlement due to the collapse, several goals needed to be met. These were to gain an understanding of the collapse phenomenon, knowing the soil properties at the natural water content and how they change after collapse, and develop and test the new model. It was felt that laboratory testing could be of use. The types of test conducted included use of the Oedometer, Pressuremeter, and Triaxial tests. The material that was used for the testing was a "generic" soil manufactured out of diatomite. In all of the tests the soil was ...


Improved Methodology For Limit States Finite Element Analysis Of Lattice Type Structures Using Nonlinear Post-Buckling Member Performance, Markus Ostendorp Jan 1992

Improved Methodology For Limit States Finite Element Analysis Of Lattice Type Structures Using Nonlinear Post-Buckling Member Performance, Markus Ostendorp

Dissertations and Theses

In an attempt to achieve more efficient designs, the technological frontier is pushed further and further. Every year science probes for a better understanding of natural phenomena, discovering new and improved methods to perform the same task more efficiently and with better results. One of the new technologies is the nonlinear analysis of structural systems using inelastic post-buckling member performance. Inelastic post-buckling member performance is defined as the constitutive relationship between axial load and displacement after the ultimate member capacity has been exceeded. A nonlinear analysis is able to predict the failure behavior of a structural system under ultimate loads ...


Stochastic Hydrologic Modeling In Real Time Using A Deterministic Model (Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation Model), Time Series Model, And Kalman Filter, Philip Kwok Fan Tang Nov 1991

Stochastic Hydrologic Modeling In Real Time Using A Deterministic Model (Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation Model), Time Series Model, And Kalman Filter, Philip Kwok Fan Tang

Dissertations and Theses

The basic concepts of hydrologic forecasting using the Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation Model of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, auto-regressive-moving-average time series models (including Greens' functions, inverse functions, auto covariance Functions, and model estimation algorithm), and the Kalman filter (including state space modeling, system uncertainty, and filter algorithm), were explored. A computational experiment was conducted in which the Kalman filter was applied to update Mehama local basin model (Mehama is a 227 sq. miles watershed located on the North Santiam River near Salem, Oregon.), a typical SSARR basin model, to streamflow measurements as they became available in ...


Limits Of Limit Equilibrium And Finite Element Techniques Applied To Cracked Debris Dams On Collapsing Foundations, Stanley Soliday Jr. Jan 1991

Limits Of Limit Equilibrium And Finite Element Techniques Applied To Cracked Debris Dams On Collapsing Foundations, Stanley Soliday Jr.

Dissertations and Theses

Limits of slope stability, limit equilibrium methods, and of the finite element code FEADAM are reached in the application of these methods to the problem of cracked dams constructed on collapsing soils.


Density Currents In Circular Wastewater Treatment Tanks, David M. Laliberte Jan 1990

Density Currents In Circular Wastewater Treatment Tanks, David M. Laliberte

Dissertations and Theses

Deviations from ideal flow and settling occur in circular wastewater treatment tanks because of tank geometry, flow conditions, and density currents caused by variations in suspended solids concentration and temperature distributions. Thermally induced density currents were investigated in this study. Under winter, low flow conditions, measurements were made of vertical and radial temperature distributions in the circular chlorination tank at Lake Oswego, Or., and in the circular primary and secondary clarifiers at Bend, Or. Thermistor arrays were used to collect the data which exhibited both vertically well-mixed and a two-layer flow regime. Inlet geometry and suspended solids in the secondary ...


Hyperbolic Soil Parameters For Granular Soils Derived From Pressuremeter Tests For Finite Element Programs, Dieter Neumann Jan 1987

Hyperbolic Soil Parameters For Granular Soils Derived From Pressuremeter Tests For Finite Element Programs, Dieter Neumann

Dissertations and Theses

In the discipline of geotechnical Engineering the majority of finite element program users is familiar with the hyperbolic soil model. The input parameters are commonly obtained from a series of triaxial tests. For cohesionless soil ls however, today's sampling techniques fail to provide undisturbed soil specimen. Furthermore, routine triaxial tests can not be carried out on soils with grains exceeding 10 - 15 mm in size.


Elastic-Plastic Analysis Of Axisymmetrically Loaded Isotropic Circular And Annular Plates Undergoing Large Deflections, Aiman R. Akileh Jan 1986

Elastic-Plastic Analysis Of Axisymmetrically Loaded Isotropic Circular And Annular Plates Undergoing Large Deflections, Aiman R. Akileh

Dissertations and Theses

The concept of load analogy is used in the elastic and elastic-plastic analysis of isotropic circular and annular plates undergoing moderately large deflection. The effects of the nonlinear terms of lateral displacement and the plastic strains are considered as additional fictitious lateral loads, edge moments, and in-plane forces acting on the plate. The solution of an elastic or elastic-plastic Von Karman type plate is hence reduced to a set of two equivalent elastic plate problems with small displacements, namely, a plane problem in elasticity and a linear elastic plate bending problem. The method of finite element is employed to solve ...


Post-Buckled Performance Of Partially Restrained And Intermediately Supported Steel Angles, Perumal Radhakrishnan Jan 1986

Post-Buckled Performance Of Partially Restrained And Intermediately Supported Steel Angles, Perumal Radhakrishnan

Dissertations and Theses

The post-buckled performance of cross-braced single angles was experimentally determined. The results of this study will be used by the Bonneville Power Administration for the analysis of member performance in transmission towers.


Analysis And Prediction Of The Water Temperature Of The Mckenzie River, Oregon Using The Equilibrium Temperature Approach, R. Peder Hansen Jan 1986

Analysis And Prediction Of The Water Temperature Of The Mckenzie River, Oregon Using The Equilibrium Temperature Approach, R. Peder Hansen

Dissertations and Theses

A one dimensional, steady flow, unsteady temperature model is used to evaluate the effects of two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) dams and resulting reservoirs on hourly water temperatures of the mainstem McKenzie River from Delta Park (RM 62.1) to Leaburg Dam (RM 38.8). Both COE projects are on tributaries to the McKenzie River and at present have only bottom withdrawl capabilities.


The Applicability Of Microcomputers To Local Water Management, Roderick Lee Allen Jan 1985

The Applicability Of Microcomputers To Local Water Management, Roderick Lee Allen

Dissertations and Theses

Historically, hydrologic models have been available only on mainframe computers and have therefore not been used by local water managers to support daily decisions. The development of the microcomputer presents an opportunity for that to change.

Mathematical models of soil moisture and river routing are selected, developed and tested for use on a microcomputer as an aid to local water management. The models are then integrated with an appropriate data base in a computer program written for a microcomputer. The result is a Decision Support System for local water managers.

In order to evaluate the feasibility of using the Decision ...