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Portland State University

Environmental Sciences

2013

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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Improving Global Impact: How The Integration Of Remotely Reporting Sensors In Water Projects May Demonstrate And Enhance Positive Change, Evan A. Thomas Dec 2013

Improving Global Impact: How The Integration Of Remotely Reporting Sensors In Water Projects May Demonstrate And Enhance Positive Change, Evan A. Thomas

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article argues that improved feedback on the actual impact of development programs may ensure the success of poverty reduction interventions such as water filters, water pumps, latrines, and cookstoves.


Evaluation Of Phase Change Materials For Cooling In A Super-Insulated Passive House, Jeffrey Stephen Lauck Oct 2013

Evaluation Of Phase Change Materials For Cooling In A Super-Insulated Passive House, Jeffrey Stephen Lauck

Dissertations and Theses

Due to factors such as rising energy costs, diminishing resources, and climate change, the demand for high performance buildings is on the rise. As a result, several new building standards have emerged including the Passive House Standard, a rigorous energy-use standard based on a super-insulated and very tightly sealed building envelope. The standard requires that that air infiltration is less than or equal to 0.6 air changes per hour at a 50 Pascal pressure difference, annual heating energy is less than or equal to 15kWh/m2, and total annual source energy is less than or equal to 120 kWh ...


Climate Change Impact On The Spatio-Temporal Variability Of Hydro-Climate Extremes, Mohammad Reza Najafi Jun 2013

Climate Change Impact On The Spatio-Temporal Variability Of Hydro-Climate Extremes, Mohammad Reza Najafi

Dissertations and Theses

The rising temperature of the earth due to climate change has shown to alter the variations of hydro-climate variables, including their intensities, frequencies and durations. Extreme events such as floods are, in particular, susceptible to any disturbances in climate cycles. As such it is important to provide policymakers with sufficient knowledge about the probable impacts of climate change on hydrologic extremes and most importantly on floods, which have the highest impacts on the societies. For this reason analysis of hydro-climate extremes is commonly performed using data at each site (or grid cell), however due to the limited number of extreme ...


Extending Technology Roadmap Through Fuzzy Cognitive Map-Based Scenarios: The Case Of The Wind Energy Sector Of Pakistan, Muhammad Amer May 2013

Extending Technology Roadmap Through Fuzzy Cognitive Map-Based Scenarios: The Case Of The Wind Energy Sector Of Pakistan, Muhammad Amer

Dissertations and Theses

In this modern era, energy is a key element required for sustainable development and prosperity of a society. Pakistan is an energy deficient country facing problems due to the shortage of over 4000 MW of electricity. The national energy sector is heavily dependent on imported fossil-fuel resources. The energy crisis is negatively affecting all economic and business activities, and it is widely recognized as a severe obstacle to growth and poverty reduction in the country. Establishment of wind farms can help to overcome the energy crisis.

In this research, a national level wind energy roadmap is developed through scenario planning ...


Energy And Climate Interactions In The Urban Environment, David J. Sailor May 2013

Energy And Climate Interactions In The Urban Environment, David J. Sailor

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This presentation focuses on sustainable design choices and characteristics


Effects Of Molecular Structure Of The Oxidation Products Of Reactive Atmospheric Hydrocarbons On The Formation Of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter, Including The Effects Of Water, Negar Niakan Jan 2013

Effects Of Molecular Structure Of The Oxidation Products Of Reactive Atmospheric Hydrocarbons On The Formation Of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter, Including The Effects Of Water, Negar Niakan

Dissertations and Theses

Organic aerosols have significant effects on human health, air quality and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are produced by the oxidation of primary-volatile organic compounds (VOC). For example, α-pinene reacts with oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O3), and nitrate radical (NO3), accounting for a significant portion of total organic aerosol in the atmosphere. Experimental studies have shown that the oxidation process between α-pinene and ozone has the most significant impact in the formation of SOA (Hoffmann et al., 1997). Most of the models used to predict SOA formation, however, are limited in that they neglect the ...


Analyzing Experimental Data And Model Parameters: Implications For Predictions Of Soa Using Chemical Transport Models, Kelley Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, Serena H. Chung Jan 2013

Analyzing Experimental Data And Model Parameters: Implications For Predictions Of Soa Using Chemical Transport Models, Kelley Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, Serena H. Chung

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Despite critical importance for air quality and climate predictions, accurate representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation remains elusive. An essential addition to the ongoing discussion of improving model predictions is an acknowledgement of the linkages between experimental conditions, parameter optimization and model output, as well as the linkage between empirically-derived partitioning parameters and the physicochemical properties of SOA they represent in models. In this work, a "best available" set of SOA modeling parameters is selected by comparing predicted SOA yields and mass concentrations with observed yields and mass concentrations from a comprehensive list of published smog chamber studies. Evaluated ...


Development Of Dynamic Thermal Performance Metrics For Eco-Roof Systems, Seth Sinclair Moody Jan 2013

Development Of Dynamic Thermal Performance Metrics For Eco-Roof Systems, Seth Sinclair Moody

Dissertations and Theses

In order to obtain credit for an eco-roof in building energy load calculations the steady state and time-varying thermal properties (thermal mass with evapotranspiration) must be fully understood. The following study presents results of experimentation and modeling in an effort to develop dynamic thermal mass performance metrics for eco-roof systems. The work is focused on understanding the thermal parameters (foliage & soil) of an eco-roof, further validation of the EnergyPlus Green Roof Module and development of a standardized metric for assessing the time-varying thermal benefits of eco-roof systems that can be applied across building types and climate zones. Eco-roof foliage, soil ...


Characterization Of Nano-Scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media, Sasha Norien Norwood Jan 2013

Characterization Of Nano-Scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media, Sasha Norien Norwood

Dissertations and Theses

Land application of biosolids has become common practice in the United States as an alternative to industrial fertilizers. Although nutrient rich, biosolids have been found to contain high concentrations of emerging contaminants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products) while containing a significant fraction of inorganic nano-scale colloidal materials such as oxides of iron, titanium, and aluminum.

Given their reactivity and small size, there are many questions concerning the potential migration of these nano-sized colloidal materials through the soil column and into our surface and groundwater bodies. Transport of emerging pollutants of concern through the soil column, at minimum, is impacted ...