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Portland State University

Environmental Sciences

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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Storm Tide Amplification And Habitat Changes Due To Urbanization Of A Lagoonal Estuary, Philip Orton, Eric W. Sanderson, Stefan Talke, Mario Giampieri, Kytt Macmanus Jan 2020

Storm Tide Amplification And Habitat Changes Due To Urbanization Of A Lagoonal Estuary, Philip Orton, Eric W. Sanderson, Stefan Talke, Mario Giampieri, Kytt Macmanus

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

In recent centuries, human activities have greatly modified the geomorphology of coastal regions. However, studies of historical and possible future changes in coastal flood extremes typically ignore the influence of geomorphic change. Here, we quantify the influence of 20th-century man-made changes to Jamaica Bay, New York City, on present-day storm tides. We develop and validate a hydrodynamic model for the 1870s based on detailed maps of bathymetry, seabed characteristics, topography, and tide observations for use alongside a present-day model. Predominantly through dredging, landfill, and inlet stabilization, the average water depth of the bay increased from 1.7 to 4.5 ...


Twelve Questions For The Participatory Modeling Community, Rebecca Jordan, Steven Gray, Moira Zellner, Pierre D. Glynn, Alexey Voinov, Beatrice Hedelin, Eleanor J. Sterling, Kirsten Leong, Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Klaus Hubacek, Pierre Bommel, Todd K. Bendor, Antoine J. Jetter, Bethany Laursen, Alison Singer, Philippe J. Giabbanelli, Nagesh Kolagani, Laura Basco Carrera, Karen Jenni, Christina Prell, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center Participatory Modeling Pursuit Working Group Aug 2018

Twelve Questions For The Participatory Modeling Community, Rebecca Jordan, Steven Gray, Moira Zellner, Pierre D. Glynn, Alexey Voinov, Beatrice Hedelin, Eleanor J. Sterling, Kirsten Leong, Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Klaus Hubacek, Pierre Bommel, Todd K. Bendor, Antoine J. Jetter, Bethany Laursen, Alison Singer, Philippe J. Giabbanelli, Nagesh Kolagani, Laura Basco Carrera, Karen Jenni, Christina Prell, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center Participatory Modeling Pursuit Working Group

Engineering and Technology Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Participatory modeling engages the implicit and explicit knowledge of stakeholders to create formalized and shared representations of reality and has evolved into a field of study as well as a practice. Participatory modeling researchers and practitioners who focus specifically on environmental resources met at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) in Annapolis, Maryland, over the course of 2 years to discuss the state of the field and future directions for participatory modeling. What follows is a description of 12 overarching groups of questions that could guide future inquiry.


Designing Model Experiments Around Harriet Tubman Middle School, Ryan Crist, Sarah Smith, Greg Sakradse, Ryan Scott May 2018

Designing Model Experiments Around Harriet Tubman Middle School, Ryan Crist, Sarah Smith, Greg Sakradse, Ryan Scott

Undergraduate Research & Mentoring Program

Air quality is of concern in densely populated areas and especially near sources of inefficiently exhausted fossil fuel such as near the highway. Harriet Tubman middle school in North Portland, Oregon is situated alongside highway 5. Here, model experiments are designed and proposed to observe the instantaneous flow fields reflect modifications. LIDAR data was used to model the school and surrounding topography three-dimensionally in order to construct a model school and surrounding area from laser cut cardboard with a surface smoothed with paper mache. This model will be placed in the Portland State University wind tunnel; transport of mean and ...


Decision Support System For The Design And Planning Of Low-Impact Development Practices: The Case Of Seoul, Jae-Yeol Song, Eun-Sung Chung, Soo Hyun Kim Feb 2018

Decision Support System For The Design And Planning Of Low-Impact Development Practices: The Case Of Seoul, Jae-Yeol Song, Eun-Sung Chung, Soo Hyun Kim

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study presented the conceptual framework of the water-management analysis module (WMAM) to derive effective physical specifications for the design and planning of low-impact development (LID) practices using the storm-water management model (SWMM). This decision-support system can be used for six LID types and has the following key capabilities: determining relevant LID design parameters within the SWMM that critically influence the hydrological cycle components using a simple sensitivity analysis and determining the best hydrological values for LID planning specification. This study analyzed a highly urbanized university campus as a case study to determine the design and planning specifications for an ...


Apprehensive Drought Characteristics Over Iraq: Results Of A Multidecadal Spatiotemporal Assessment, Maysoun Ayad Hameed, Ali Ahmadalipour, Hamid Moradkhani Feb 2018

Apprehensive Drought Characteristics Over Iraq: Results Of A Multidecadal Spatiotemporal Assessment, Maysoun Ayad Hameed, Ali Ahmadalipour, Hamid Moradkhani

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Drought is an extreme climate phenomenon that happens slowly and periodically threatens the environmental and socio-economic sectors. Iraq is one of the countries in the Middle East that has been dealing with serious drought-related issues in the 21st century. Here, we investigate meteorological drought across Iraq from 1948 to 2009 at 0.25° spatial resolution. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been utilized as a multi-scalar drought index accounting for the effects of temperature variability on drought. Four of the main characteristics of drought including extent, intensity, frequency and duration are studied and the associated spatiotemporal patterns are investigated ...


Effects Of Land Development And Season On Heavy Metal Concentrations In Urban Streams, Helen Daigle Jan 2018

Effects Of Land Development And Season On Heavy Metal Concentrations In Urban Streams, Helen Daigle

REU Final Reports

Although it is generally understood that urban development can impact the quality of urban streams, there are many factors that affect the concentrations of pollutants being transferred from the built environment to a given output. This study examines the impact of land use surrounding urban streams, specifically, the degree of development and presence or absence of green infrastructure (GI) in these areas on heavy metal (HM) concentrations in Portland, Oregon. After collecting 1021 water quality samples from 2010-2018, we examined the difference in concentrations of HM pollutants across different combinations of land use and season. Increased levels of calcium, magnesium ...


Effectiveness Of Indoor Plants For Passive Removal Of Indoor Ozone, Omed A. Abbass, David J. Sailor, Elliott T. Gall Jul 2017

Effectiveness Of Indoor Plants For Passive Removal Of Indoor Ozone, Omed A. Abbass, David J. Sailor, Elliott T. Gall

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Indoor vegetation is often proposed as a passive approach for improving indoor air quality. While studies of outdoor environments indicate that vegetation can be an important sink of outdoor ozone, there is scant data in the literature concerning the dynamics of ozone uptake by indoor plants. This study determined ozone deposition velocities (vd) for five common indoor plants (Peace Lily, Ficus, Calathia, Dieffenbachia, Golden Pothos). The transient vd was calculated, using measured leaf areas for each plant, for exposures mimicking three diurnal cycles where ozone concentrations in chamber tests were elevated for 8 h followed by 16 h ...


Integrating Freight Into Livable Communities, Kristine M. Williams, Alexandria Carroll Dec 2015

Integrating Freight Into Livable Communities, Kristine M. Williams, Alexandria Carroll

TREC Final Reports

Where livability is a goal of the planning process, freight runs the risk of not being considered except as an afterthought or as something to be excluded. Yet, freight is an integral part of local economic development. Because economic prosperity is a key characteristic of livable communities, freight must be incorporated into the planning process. This study explores the relationship between freight and livability through a comprehensive literature review and case study research. The final report includes a menu of strategies and case study perspectives that highlight the importance of transportation and land use integration, interagency coordination, and context-sensitivity in ...


Gc/Ms Analysis Of Some Extractives From Eichhornia Crassipes, Héctor A. Fileto-Pérez, O. Miriam Rutiaga-Quiñones, Mark D. Sytsma, Isabelle M. Lorne, Wentai Luo, James F. Pankow, José G. Rutiaga-Quiñones Nov 2015

Gc/Ms Analysis Of Some Extractives From Eichhornia Crassipes, Héctor A. Fileto-Pérez, O. Miriam Rutiaga-Quiñones, Mark D. Sytsma, Isabelle M. Lorne, Wentai Luo, James F. Pankow, José G. Rutiaga-Quiñones

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is an invasive weed that causes serious issues for rivers, lakes, and other reservoirs around the world, although it can be an excellent source for bioactive compounds such as phytosterols and some steroids found in many plants. In this study, water hyacinth samples from both Durango and Distrito Federal in Mexico were collected. Ascendant extracts (cyclohexane, hexane, acetone, and methanol) from their leaves, stems, and roots were analyzed. Using boron trifluoride (similar to 10% [similar to 1.3 M] in 1-butanol), all extracts were derivatized. Twenty-four derivatized samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC ...


Ozone Reaction With Interior Building Materials: Influence Of Diurnal Ozone Variation, Temperature And Humidity, Donghyun Rim, Elliot T. Gall, Randy L. Maddalena, William W. Nazaroff Oct 2015

Ozone Reaction With Interior Building Materials: Influence Of Diurnal Ozone Variation, Temperature And Humidity, Donghyun Rim, Elliot T. Gall, Randy L. Maddalena, William W. Nazaroff

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Indoor ozone chemistry affects human exposure to ozone and reaction products that also may adversely affect health and comfort. Reactive uptake of ozone has been characterized for many building materials; however, scant information is available on how diurnal variation of ambient ozone influences ozone reaction with indoor surfaces. The primary objective of this study is to investigate ozone-surface reactions in response to a diurnally varying ozone exposure for three common building materials: ceiling tile, painted drywall, and carpet tile. A secondary objective is to examine the effects of air ...


The Effects Of Global Change Upon United States Air Quality, Rodrigo Gonzalez-Abraham, Serena H. Chung, Jeremy C. Avise, Brian Lamb, Eric P. Salathé Jr., Christopher G. Nolte, Dan Loughlin, Alex Guenther, Christine Wiedinmyer, Tiffany Duhl, Yang Zhang, David G. Streets Jan 2015

The Effects Of Global Change Upon United States Air Quality, Rodrigo Gonzalez-Abraham, Serena H. Chung, Jeremy C. Avise, Brian Lamb, Eric P. Salathé Jr., Christopher G. Nolte, Dan Loughlin, Alex Guenther, Christine Wiedinmyer, Tiffany Duhl, Yang Zhang, David G. Streets

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the United States (US), we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional ...


A Regression Approach For Estimation Of Anthropogenic Heat Flux Based On A Bottom-Up Air Pollutant Emission Database, Sanghyun Lee, Stuart A. Mckeen, David J. Sailor Oct 2014

A Regression Approach For Estimation Of Anthropogenic Heat Flux Based On A Bottom-Up Air Pollutant Emission Database, Sanghyun Lee, Stuart A. Mckeen, David J. Sailor

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

A statistical regression method is presented for estimating hourly anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) using an anthropogenic pollutant emission inventory for use in mesoscale meteorological and air-quality modeling. Based on bottom-up AHF estimated from detailed energy consumption data and anthropogenic pollutant emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the US National Emission Inventory year 2005 (NEI-2005), a robust regression relation between the AHF and the pollutant emissions is obtained for Houston. This relation is a combination of two power functions (Y = aXb) relating CO and NOx emissions to AHF, giving a determinant coefficient (R2 ...


Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation And Organic Nitrate Yield From No3 Oxidation Of Biogenic Hydrocarbons, Juliane L. Fry, Danielle C. Draper, Kelley C. Barsanti, James N. Smith, John Ortega, Paul M. Winkler, Michael J. Lawler, Steven S. Brown, Peter M. Edwards, Ronald C. Cohen, Lance Lee Sep 2014

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation And Organic Nitrate Yield From No3 Oxidation Of Biogenic Hydrocarbons, Juliane L. Fry, Danielle C. Draper, Kelley C. Barsanti, James N. Smith, John Ortega, Paul M. Winkler, Michael J. Lawler, Steven S. Brown, Peter M. Edwards, Ronald C. Cohen, Lance Lee

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields from NO3 oxidation of a series of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), consisting of five monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ-3-carene, limonene, sabinene, and β-caryophyllene), were investigated in a series of continuous flow experiments in a 10 m3 indoor Teflon chamber. By making in situ measurements of the nitrate radical and employing a kinetics box model, we generate time-dependent yield curves as a function of reacted BVOC. SOA yields varied dramatically among the different BVOCs, from zero for α-pinene to 38−65% for Δ-3-carene and 86% for β-caryophyllene at mass loading of ...


Bicycle Facilities And The Uptake Of Air Pollution By Active Travelers, Alexander Y. Bigazzi, Miguel A. Figliozzi, James F. Pankow, Wentai Luo, Lorne M. Isabelle Mar 2014

Bicycle Facilities And The Uptake Of Air Pollution By Active Travelers, Alexander Y. Bigazzi, Miguel A. Figliozzi, James F. Pankow, Wentai Luo, Lorne M. Isabelle

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Outlines the research of urban bicyclists' facilities and the uptake of air pollution by active travelers in urban Portland, OR. Outlines the research goals, beginning data collection methods, intake/uptake, modeling results, conclusions and the next steps for future work with the collected data set of direct uptake measurements.


Improving Global Impact: How The Integration Of Remotely Reporting Sensors In Water Projects May Demonstrate And Enhance Positive Change, Evan A. Thomas Dec 2013

Improving Global Impact: How The Integration Of Remotely Reporting Sensors In Water Projects May Demonstrate And Enhance Positive Change, Evan A. Thomas

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article argues that improved feedback on the actual impact of development programs may ensure the success of poverty reduction interventions such as water filters, water pumps, latrines, and cookstoves.


Energy And Climate Interactions In The Urban Environment, David J. Sailor May 2013

Energy And Climate Interactions In The Urban Environment, David J. Sailor

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This presentation focuses on sustainable design choices and characteristics


Analyzing Experimental Data And Model Parameters: Implications For Predictions Of Soa Using Chemical Transport Models, Kelley Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, Serena H. Chung Jan 2013

Analyzing Experimental Data And Model Parameters: Implications For Predictions Of Soa Using Chemical Transport Models, Kelley Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, Serena H. Chung

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Despite critical importance for air quality and climate predictions, accurate representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation remains elusive. An essential addition to the ongoing discussion of improving model predictions is an acknowledgement of the linkages between experimental conditions, parameter optimization and model output, as well as the linkage between empirically-derived partitioning parameters and the physicochemical properties of SOA they represent in models. In this work, a "best available" set of SOA modeling parameters is selected by comparing predicted SOA yields and mass concentrations with observed yields and mass concentrations from a comprehensive list of published smog chamber studies. Evaluated ...


Interview With Adam Boesel, Green Micro Gym, 2011 (Audio), Adam Boesel Jul 2011

Interview With Adam Boesel, Green Micro Gym, 2011 (Audio), Adam Boesel

All Sustainability History Project Oral Histories

Interview of Adam Boesel by Teresa Celestine at Green Micro Gym Portland, Oregon on July 29th, 2011.

The interview index is available for download.


Research On Coupled Human And Natural Systems (Chans): Approach, Challenges, And Strategies, Marina Alberti, Heidi Asbjornsen, Lawrence A. Baker, Nicholas Brozović, Laurie E. Drinkwater, Scott A. Drzyzga, Claire A. Jantz, José Fragoso, Daniel S. Holland, Timothy A. Kohler, Jianguo Liu, William J. Mcconnell, Herbert D. G. Maschner, James D. A. Millington, Michael Monticino, Guillermo Podestá, Robert Gilmore Pontius Jr., Charles L. Redman, Nicholas J. Reo, David J. Sailor, Gerald Urquhart Apr 2011

Research On Coupled Human And Natural Systems (Chans): Approach, Challenges, And Strategies, Marina Alberti, Heidi Asbjornsen, Lawrence A. Baker, Nicholas Brozović, Laurie E. Drinkwater, Scott A. Drzyzga, Claire A. Jantz, José Fragoso, Daniel S. Holland, Timothy A. Kohler, Jianguo Liu, William J. Mcconnell, Herbert D. G. Maschner, James D. A. Millington, Michael Monticino, Guillermo Podestá, Robert Gilmore Pontius Jr., Charles L. Redman, Nicholas J. Reo, David J. Sailor, Gerald Urquhart

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding the complexity of human–nature interactions is central to the quest for both human well-being and global sustainability. To build an understanding of these interactions, scientists, planners, resource managers, policy makers, and communities increasingly are collaborating across wide-ranging disciplines and knowledge domains. Scientists and others are generating new integrated knowledge on top of their requisite specialized knowledge to understand complex systems in order to solve pressing environmental and social problems (e.g., Carpenter et al. 2009). One approach to this sort of integration, bringing together detailed knowledge of various disciplines (e.g., social, economic, biological, and geophysical), has become ...


Climate And More Sustainable Cities: Climate Information For Improved Planning And Management Of Cities (Producers/Capabilities Perspective), C.S.B. Grimmond, Matthias Roth, Tim R. Oke, Y. C. Au, M. Best, R. Betts, Gregory R. Carmichael, Helen Cleugh, Walter F. Dabberdt, Rohinton Emmanuel, E. Freitas, K. Fortuniak, Steven Hanna, Petra M. Klein, Laurence S. Kalkstein, C. H. Liu, Alex Nickson, David Pearlmutter, David J. Sailor, James Voogt Jan 2010

Climate And More Sustainable Cities: Climate Information For Improved Planning And Management Of Cities (Producers/Capabilities Perspective), C.S.B. Grimmond, Matthias Roth, Tim R. Oke, Y. C. Au, M. Best, R. Betts, Gregory R. Carmichael, Helen Cleugh, Walter F. Dabberdt, Rohinton Emmanuel, E. Freitas, K. Fortuniak, Steven Hanna, Petra M. Klein, Laurence S. Kalkstein, C. H. Liu, Alex Nickson, David Pearlmutter, David J. Sailor, James Voogt

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

In the last two decades substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the scientific basis of urban climates. These are reviewed here with attention to sustainability of cities, applications that use climate information, and scientific understanding in relation to measurements and modelling. Consideration is given from street (micro) scale to neighbourhood (local) to city and region (meso) scale. Those areas where improvements are needed in the next decade to ensure more sustainable cities are identified. High-priority recommendations are made in the following six strategic areas: observations, data, understanding, modelling, tools and education. These include the need for more ...


Interview With Kirk Davis, Glumac International, 2009 (Audio), Kirk Davis May 2009

Interview With Kirk Davis, Glumac International, 2009 (Audio), Kirk Davis

All Sustainability History Project Oral Histories

Interview of Kirk Davis by Jay Fielding at Glumac International, Portland, Oregon on May 22nd, 2009.

The interview index is available for download.


Lake Whatcom Model Calibration With Variable Stoichiometry In Sediments - Revised, Chris Berger, Scott A. Wells Feb 2007

Lake Whatcom Model Calibration With Variable Stoichiometry In Sediments - Revised, Chris Berger, Scott A. Wells

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This memorandum discusses model calibration and enhancements made to the Lake Whatcom water quality model. Model development and initial calibration were documented in the report “Lake Whatcom Water Quality Model” (Berger and Wells, 2005). The Lake Whatcom water quality model has been converted from CE-QUAL-W2 version 3.2 to version 3.5 (Cole and Wells, 2006).


Lake Whatcom Water Quality Model, Chris Berger Jul 2005

Lake Whatcom Water Quality Model, Chris Berger

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

A water quality model of Lake Whatcom, Washington was developed as part of a Total Maximum Daily Load Study for the Washington Department of Ecology. Lake Whatcom is a large natural lake which is listed on the 1998 Washington State 303(d) list of waterbodies which do not meet the criterion for dissolved oxygen. Located next to the city of Bellingham, it is approximately 10 miles long and has a surface area of approximately 5000 acres and a maximum depth of over 100 meters. Eutrophication processes in the lake have been accelerated in recent years perhaps by the availability of ...


Waldo Lake Research In 2004, Mark D. Sytsma, John Rueter, Richard Petersen, Roy Koch, Scott A. Wells, Michelle Wood, Yangdong Pan, Robert Leslie Annear, Aaron Hook, Laura Johnson, Rich Miller, Amanda Murphy, Terry Stoltz Jun 2005

Waldo Lake Research In 2004, Mark D. Sytsma, John Rueter, Richard Petersen, Roy Koch, Scott A. Wells, Michelle Wood, Yangdong Pan, Robert Leslie Annear, Aaron Hook, Laura Johnson, Rich Miller, Amanda Murphy, Terry Stoltz

Center for Lakes and Reservoirs Publications and Presentations

The Willamette National Forest has worked with Portland State University, Center for Lakes and Reservoirs (PSU) and the University of Oregon (UO) to investigate ecosystem changes, provide guidance on long-term monitoring methods, assess monitoring data, develop predictive water quality models, and conduct research that will lead to better protection and understanding of the Waldo Lake ecosystem. This report summarizes the second year of collaborative PSU-UO research at Waldo Lake. Research has focused on understanding physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Waldo Lake across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Research tasks that continued from 2003 into 2004 included temperature ...


A System Dynamics Model Of The Pacific Coast Rockfish Fishery, Wayne Wakeland, Olgay Cangur, Guillermo Rueda, Astrid Scholz Jul 2003

A System Dynamics Model Of The Pacific Coast Rockfish Fishery, Wayne Wakeland, Olgay Cangur, Guillermo Rueda, Astrid Scholz

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper presents a model of the dynamic behavior of the yellowtail rockfish of the Pacific Coast of the United States. The purpose of the model is to generate endogenously the historical data for fish population, fishing vessels, regulatory parameters, and fish harvest. The model was subjected to a variety of tests to determine its sensitivity to changes in key parameters and initial values, including extreme conditions. Model results indicate that acceptable biological catch and fleet capacity must be adjusted quickly in response to changing conditions, in order to improve fishery sustainability. Additional analysis reinforces the policy of setting the ...