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Portland State University

Environmental Engineering

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Articles 31 - 60 of 146

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Water Quality Factor Prediction Using Supervised Machine Learning, Kathleen Joslyn Jan 2018

Water Quality Factor Prediction Using Supervised Machine Learning, Kathleen Joslyn

REU Final Reports

The objective of this research is to explore prediction accuracy of water quality factors, with techniques and algorithms in machine learning consisting of a variation of support vector machines - Support Vector Regression (SVR) and the gradient boosting algorithm Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). Both the XGBoost and SVR algorithms were used to predict nine different factors with success rates ranging from 79% to 99%. Parameters of these algorithms were also explored to test the prediction accuracy levels of individual water quality factors. These parameters included normalizing the data, filling missing data points, and training and testing on a large set of ...


Effects Of Land Development And Season On Heavy Metal Concentrations In Urban Streams, Helen Daigle Jan 2018

Effects Of Land Development And Season On Heavy Metal Concentrations In Urban Streams, Helen Daigle

REU Final Reports

Although it is generally understood that urban development can impact the quality of urban streams, there are many factors that affect the concentrations of pollutants being transferred from the built environment to a given output. This study examines the impact of land use surrounding urban streams, specifically, the degree of development and presence or absence of green infrastructure (GI) in these areas on heavy metal (HM) concentrations in Portland, Oregon. After collecting 1021 water quality samples from 2010-2018, we examined the difference in concentrations of HM pollutants across different combinations of land use and season. Increased levels of calcium, magnesium ...


Elution Tailing Of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids In Porous Media, Louisa Orr Nov 2017

Elution Tailing Of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids In Porous Media, Louisa Orr

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A variety of porous media were studied to characterize contaminant dispersion over time. This work looked at a compilation of previously published studies to investigate the dependence of long term elution tailing trends on particular soil characteristics. Recession curve analysis was conducted on existing dispersed contaminant literature, to yeild the low-concentration recession constant (K). The R2 values correlating the soil properties to contaminant concentration ranged from 0.12494 to 0.95429. The low-concentration recession constant (K) values ranged from 0.9745407 0.9999988. The relationship between K and the soil properties porosity, organic carbon, and fines fraction is increasing ...


Drones For Commercial Last-Mile Deliveries: A Discussion Of Logistical, Environmental, And Economic Trade-Offs, Miguel Figliozzi Sep 2017

Drones For Commercial Last-Mile Deliveries: A Discussion Of Logistical, Environmental, And Economic Trade-Offs, Miguel Figliozzi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

There are no studies that model the potential effectiveness of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones to reduce CO2e lifecycle (including both utilization and vehicle phase) emissions when compared to conventional diesel vans, electric trucks, electric vans, and tricycles. This study presents a novel analysis of lifecycle UAV and ground commercial vehicles CO2e emissions.


A Statistical Investigation Of Lower Columbia River Water Temperature, 1915-2003, Corina Christina Mae Overman Aug 2017

A Statistical Investigation Of Lower Columbia River Water Temperature, 1915-2003, Corina Christina Mae Overman

Civil and Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Columbia River is home to anadromous salmon populations that migrate upriver every year to spawn. These fish require cool water temperatures (Tw) to survive. In recent years, high summer Tw in the Columbia River has caused increased mortality of salmon. Different possible explanations for increased Tw include climate change, deforestation, and decreased summertime streamflow (Q) due to dams. In this study, robust linear regression models of Tw based on air temperature (Ta) and Q were developed to examine the change in Tw over time. The data was separated into an historical period (1938-1956 ...


Remote Measurements Of Tides And River Slope Using An Airborne Lidar Instrument, Austin S. Hudson, Stefan A. Talke, Ruth Branch, Chris Chickadel, Gordon Farquharson, Andrew Jessup Apr 2017

Remote Measurements Of Tides And River Slope Using An Airborne Lidar Instrument, Austin S. Hudson, Stefan A. Talke, Ruth Branch, Chris Chickadel, Gordon Farquharson, Andrew Jessup

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Tides and river slope are fundamental characteristics of estuaries, but they are usually undersampled due to deficiencies in the spatial coverage of water level measurements. This study aims to address this issue by investigating the use of airborne lidar measurements to study tidal statistics and river slope in the Columbia River estuary. Eight plane transects over a 12-h period yield at least eight independent measurements of water level at 2.5-km increments over a 65-km stretch of the estuary. These data are fit to a sinusoidal curve and the results are compared to seven in situ gauges. In situ– and ...


Issues In Trip Generation Methods For Transportation Impact Estimation Of Land Use Development: A Review And Discussion Of The State-Of-The-Art Approaches, Kristina Marie Currans Jan 2017

Issues In Trip Generation Methods For Transportation Impact Estimation Of Land Use Development: A Review And Discussion Of The State-Of-The-Art Approaches, Kristina Marie Currans

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

As agencies develop more robust planning objectives for creating sustainable and livable communities, the research community has continued developing supportive tools and methods to provide more accurate and robust means for estimating transportation impacts for site-level development review. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art trip generation methods for land use transportation impact estimation. First, it provides an overview of the more recent available and peer-reviewed estimation methods. Second, the authors offer a discussion of the successes of state-of-the-art approaches using common themes of research to identify corresponding consistency with theories of travel behavior and urban economics. These themes ...


Workshop Synthesis: Measuring Attitudes And Perceptions In Quantitative Surveys, Kelly Clifton, Juan Antonio Carrasco Jan 2017

Workshop Synthesis: Measuring Attitudes And Perceptions In Quantitative Surveys, Kelly Clifton, Juan Antonio Carrasco

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This workshop engaged participants in discussion about issues in incorporating qualitative information, namely attitudes, perceptions, and other psychological-social factors into transport research and analysis. There are many challenges to collecting this information from respondents. This synthesis summarizes the workshop presentations and discussion where participants identified the various types of information desired, reviewed the current challenges in conducting this type of data collection, made recommendations for practice, and outlined an agenda for future research.


Coupling Of Sea Level And Tidal Range Changes, With Implications For Future Water Levels, Adam T. Devlin, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke, Edward D. Zaron, Jiayi Pan, Hui Lin Jan 2017

Coupling Of Sea Level And Tidal Range Changes, With Implications For Future Water Levels, Adam T. Devlin, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke, Edward D. Zaron, Jiayi Pan, Hui Lin

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Are perturbations to ocean tides correlated with changing sea-level and climate, and how will this affect high water levels? Here, we survey 152 tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and statistically evaluate how the sum of the four largest tidal constituents, a proxy for the highest astronomical tide (HAT), changes over seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that the variability in HAT is significantly correlated with sea-level variability; approximately 35% of stations exhibit a greater than ±50 mm tidal change per meter sea-level fluctuation. Focusing on a subset of three stations with long records, probability ...


Relative Sea-Level Trends In New York City During The Past 1500 Years, Andrew C. Kemp, Troy D. Hill, Christopher H. Vane, Niamh Cahill, Philip M. Orton, Stefan A. Talke, Andrew C. Parnell, Kelsey Sanborn, Ellen K. Hartig Jan 2017

Relative Sea-Level Trends In New York City During The Past 1500 Years, Andrew C. Kemp, Troy D. Hill, Christopher H. Vane, Niamh Cahill, Philip M. Orton, Stefan A. Talke, Andrew C. Parnell, Kelsey Sanborn, Ellen K. Hartig

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

New York City (NYC) is threatened by 21st-century relative sea-level (RSL) rise because it will experience a trend that exceeds the global mean and has high concentrations of low-lying infrastructure and socioeconomic activity. To provide a long-term context for anticipated trends, we reconstructed RSL change during the past ~1500 years using a core of salt-marsh sediment from Pelham Bay in The Bronx. Foraminifera and bulk-sediment δ13C values were used as sea-level indicators. The history of sediment accumulation was established by radiocarbon dating and recognition of pollution and land-use trends of known age in down-core elemental, isotopic, and pollen ...


Accessibility, Income, And Person Trip Generation: Multilevel Model Of Activity At Food Retail Establishments In Portland, Oregon, Kristina Marie Currans, Kelly Clifton Jan 2017

Accessibility, Income, And Person Trip Generation: Multilevel Model Of Activity At Food Retail Establishments In Portland, Oregon, Kristina Marie Currans, Kelly Clifton

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

In the past decade, the methods for estimating multimodal transportation impacts of urban land use development have improved substantially. One assumption commonly made in these new methods is that overall person-trip rates at similarly-sized establishments of the same land use do not vary across a region. This is an assumption of convenience to permit the adjustment of ITE Trip Generation vehicle trip rates for use in different urban environments. However, this assumption is inconsistent with theories of urban economics, which recognize that businesses pay a premium to locate in areas with high levels of accessibility to attract more customers. In ...


A Validated Tropical-Extratropical Flood Hazard Assessment For New York Harbor, Philip M. Orton, T. M. Hall, Stefan A. Talke, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, S. Vinogradov Dec 2016

A Validated Tropical-Extratropical Flood Hazard Assessment For New York Harbor, Philip M. Orton, T. M. Hall, Stefan A. Talke, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, S. Vinogradov

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Recent studies of flood risk at New York Harbor (NYH) have shown disparate results for the 100 year storm tide, providing an uncertain foundation for the flood mitigation response after Hurricane Sandy. Here we present a flood hazard assessment that improves confidence in our understanding of the region's present-day potential for flooding, by separately including the contribution of tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical cyclones (ETCs), and validating our modeling study at multiple stages against historical observations. The TC assessment is based on a climatology of 606 synthetic storms developed from a statistical-stochastic model of North Atlantic TCs. The ETC ...


A Study On The Current State Of Contaminants Of Concern Research, With A Focus On Biosolids And Regulations, Maren Fulton Dec 2016

A Study On The Current State Of Contaminants Of Concern Research, With A Focus On Biosolids And Regulations, Maren Fulton

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Wastewater treatment plants are a major source of contaminants of emerging concern, as these facilities are the main receptors of these products via household, commercial, and industrial drains, and transport via stormwater runoff. Biosolids are composed of numerous constituents, with a number of environmentally persistent and potentially toxic contaminants of emerging concern identified as present in large concentrations. Research is needed to understand the transport and fate mechanisms of these compounds in biosolids. Additionally, this research is needed to determine a new priority framework to regulate CECs, both on the national level and regional levels. Wastewater treatment plant influent and ...


Evaluation Of A Supervisor Training Program For Odot’S Ecodrive Program, Donald M. Truxillo, John Macarthur, Leslie B. Hammer, Talya N. Bauer Dec 2016

Evaluation Of A Supervisor Training Program For Odot’S Ecodrive Program, Donald M. Truxillo, John Macarthur, Leslie B. Hammer, Talya N. Bauer

TREC Final Reports

Eco-driving consists of using energy-efficient approaches to driving aimed at reducing fuel consumption and, ultimately, CO2 emissions. A previous study found that an EcoDrive informational campaign was effective at increasing the use of eco-driving behaviors, but only when employees perceived that their supervisor supported the program and when they were personally motivated to perform the eco-driving behaviors. In order to build upon the findings of our previous study, the present study focused on increasing the use of eco-driving behaviors through an informational eco-driving campaign combined with supervisor training to support the use of eco-driving practices.

In this study we collected ...


Minimum Conditions For Visible Mold Growth, G. A. Tsongas, Frank Riordan Sep 2016

Minimum Conditions For Visible Mold Growth, G. A. Tsongas, Frank Riordan

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Considerable confusion and misunderstanding exists over the conditions required for visible mold growth at a surface in buildings. That is evident in papers and articles authored by engineers and other scientists, including various ASHRAE, ASTM and Canada Mortgage Housing Corporation publications. One of the major problems is that many HVAC engineers, building scientists, practitioners and others believe there exists a single critical value of the relative humidity (RH) of the indoor or ambient air well away from surfaces, below which mold will not grow on surfaces. However, that is not the case. The purpose of this article is to clarify ...


Pursuing Vision Zero In Seattle – Results Of A Systemic Safety Analysis, Rebecca Sanders Jun 2016

Pursuing Vision Zero In Seattle – Results Of A Systemic Safety Analysis, Rebecca Sanders

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Many cities are considering pursuing Vision Zero to eliminate traffic deaths, but may not know how to move beyond addressing past crash locations toward preventing future crashes. Systemic analysis, which looks at crash patterns to determine common characteristics associated with various types of crashes, shows promise in helping cities to identify problematic locations and treatments in the hopes of preventing future crashes.

This presentation will share results from part of Seattle’s Vision Zero effort – a multi-phased analysis of pedestrian and bicycle crash data aiming to help the City understand both where crashes have occurred and where they are most ...


Comparing Mode Shares For Non-Residential Destinations In Urban And Suburban Environments, Tasnia Subrin May 2016

Comparing Mode Shares For Non-Residential Destinations In Urban And Suburban Environments, Tasnia Subrin

Student Research Symposium

To ensure facility for multimodal transportation is one of the most important concerns in today’s transportation sector, with initiatives being taken to make multimodal transportation popular. The built environment variables have a strong relationship with transportation mode choice, but whether that relationship holds true in urban and suburban neighborhoods in the same manner has not been considered. Using data for three non-residential land uses, this research explores whether the built environment variables in suburban areas influences mode share like it does in urban areas. We used survey data conducted at the establishments regarding respondents’ travel characteristics from a previous ...


De La Salle Sensor, Shayla Adams, Geraldine Hernandez, Gloria Joseph, Elias Taylor, Elli Cooney Apr 2016

De La Salle Sensor, Shayla Adams, Geraldine Hernandez, Gloria Joseph, Elias Taylor, Elli Cooney

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

There is a huge amount of water being wasted and with climate change causing widespread water shortages, it is important that the people of Portland become more water conscious. With the our product, it will help you become aware of your water bill and the amount of water you use with a built in calculator.


Small Scale Water Filtration Project, Elaine Yang, Lang Ming, Alex Tees, Lauren Galle, Tristan Coffey, Andria Tattersfield, Colin Brock Apr 2016

Small Scale Water Filtration Project, Elaine Yang, Lang Ming, Alex Tees, Lauren Galle, Tristan Coffey, Andria Tattersfield, Colin Brock

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

Access to clean drinking water is a large problem that our world is facing today. Consuming contaminated water can lead to the spread of water-borne illnesses. Populations without the security of water struggle to develop, as seen predominately in Africa. As Oregonians prepare for life after a major earthquake which could devastate the infrastructure that delivers clean water to our homes, a water filtration system should be part of a family’s emergency preparedness plan.

There are a large variety of processes for achieving fresh water. Combining all of the necessary components to lead to clean water is a complex ...


Larc: Local Agricultural Resource Conservation, Dash Justice, Josh Davis, Sid Crumble, Ashlie Kinney Apr 2016

Larc: Local Agricultural Resource Conservation, Dash Justice, Josh Davis, Sid Crumble, Ashlie Kinney

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

In America today, over 75% of the nation’s water is used in the irrigation of agriculture. The main users -- and abusers -- of water in the United States are farmers. In addition, many areas in the U.S. are facing drought conditions, especially in western states. Also, while the drought conditions in California are receding, water shortage as an issue demands a long term solution.


Puddl: Gamifying Water Conservation, Quince Assenberg, Jack Chen, Denny Glenn, Jessica Lam Apr 2016

Puddl: Gamifying Water Conservation, Quince Assenberg, Jack Chen, Denny Glenn, Jessica Lam

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

As the global population surges, the demand for fresh water will only increase. With no technological breakthrough on the horizon, it is more important than ever to conserve water and not waste this precious resource. Water conservation is a serious issue, and will only become more severe as global warming worsens. As the global temperature increases, and rainfall becomes more sporadic, it will be important for communities to find new ways to save water. This push has already been made in certain areas in the united states, California, where they were forced to reduce their water consumption by 25%.

Through ...


Aqua Band, Jessica Peterson, Sam Behrens, Michael Desimone, Aiden Nelson, Alexandra Leamy Apr 2016

Aqua Band, Jessica Peterson, Sam Behrens, Michael Desimone, Aiden Nelson, Alexandra Leamy

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

People drown all of the time. Whether it's a young child playing in the river or a college student partying on a boat, there is always the danger of drowning. It is not always easy to tell if somebody is drowning. If you are a parent, you won’t always be watching your kids. When you look away and they start drowning, there is no safe way to be alerted of your child’s situation.


Residential Greywater Recycling System, Sophia Bui, Clare Clark, Anthony Hoang, Kim Le, Skyler Mishler, Janette Soler, Teresa Tran Apr 2016

Residential Greywater Recycling System, Sophia Bui, Clare Clark, Anthony Hoang, Kim Le, Skyler Mishler, Janette Soler, Teresa Tran

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

In a typical household, a majority of the fresh water is utilized by the shower, bathroom sinks and laundry. Water exiting from these fixtures is considered greywater. This is wasteful because the greywater is being combined with blackwater making it unusable. If greywater could be separated and captured, it can be reused for other purposes. We came to the conclusion that greywater is able to be recycled and reused for flushing excreta.


A Genetic Approach To Designing A Novel Biological Sensor To Monitor Water Contamination, Cynthia Bui, Anissa Rosbaugh, Israel Gonzalez, Julie Lu, Colin Kuhns, Joel Crandall, Alyssa Faulk, Miriam Nguyen Apr 2016

A Genetic Approach To Designing A Novel Biological Sensor To Monitor Water Contamination, Cynthia Bui, Anissa Rosbaugh, Israel Gonzalez, Julie Lu, Colin Kuhns, Joel Crandall, Alyssa Faulk, Miriam Nguyen

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

Many cities across the country have experienced extreme water problems. The City of Portland has issued several water boiling advisories due to E. coli contamination. Additionally, there has been incidents of serious contaminants like lead leaching in water systems (Flint, Michigan). The Portland Water Bureau does not use a water treatment plant due to the quality of our water sources; a chlorination plant is used to chlorinate the water from the Bull Run Watershed (our main water source). Not having a water treatment plant makes Oregon more prone to a prolonged absence of potable water should the supply be contaminated ...


Isolated Water Circulation And Filtration System, Adrik Gurganus, Mellonie Mwawai, Wysteria Cedillo-Nielsen, Morgan Rekart, Zander Hoffman Apr 2016

Isolated Water Circulation And Filtration System, Adrik Gurganus, Mellonie Mwawai, Wysteria Cedillo-Nielsen, Morgan Rekart, Zander Hoffman

PSU High School Innovation Challenge

One big issue we are addressing is the large amount greywater produced by average households around the country. Still, the main problem is that, in areas affected by drought such as California, people have little available clean water, and this system will greatly benefit these people directly. The Isolated water system uses a filtration combined of organic materials, soaps, dirt, foods and sink to filter out the grey used water. Since the water system is not connected with the local water system if there were a natural disaster the owner would have free access to a water source while the ...


Estimating River Discharge Using Multiple-Tide Gauges Distributed Along A Channel, Hamed R. Moftakhari, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke Apr 2016

Estimating River Discharge Using Multiple-Tide Gauges Distributed Along A Channel, Hamed R. Moftakhari, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Reliable estimation of freshwater inflow to the ocean from large tidal rivers is vital for water resources management and climate analyses. Discharge gauging stations are typically located beyond the tidal intrusion reach, such that inputs and losses occurring closer to the ocean are not included. Here, we develop a method of estimating river discharge using multiple gauges and time-dependent tidal statistics determined via wavelet analysis. The Multiple-gauge Tidal Discharge Estimate (MTDE) method is developed using data from the Columbia River and Fraser River estuaries and calibrated against river discharge. Next, we evaluate the general applicability of MTDE by testing an ...


Do Characteristics Of Walkable Environments Support Bicycling? Toward A Definition Of Bicycle-Supported Development, Christopher D. Muhs, Kelly Clifton Jan 2016

Do Characteristics Of Walkable Environments Support Bicycling? Toward A Definition Of Bicycle-Supported Development, Christopher D. Muhs, Kelly Clifton

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Does walkability equate with bikeability? Through a comprehensive review of studies of the built environment and bicycling, including mode choice, route choice, safety, and urban design literature, this paper addresses this question. Previous work has raised the issue that the two modes are functionally different, despite them often being combined into a nonmotorized category, and has highlighted research challenges. Existing studies of bikeability have largely focused on infrastructure. This paper contributes to the literature on bicycling and the built environment by providing a thorough review of past research with a focus on the relationships between land use, urban form, and ...


Multi-Criteria Evaluation Of Cmip5 Gcms For Climate Change Impact Analysis, Ali Ahmadalipour, Arun Rana, Hamid Moradkhani, Ashish Sharma Dec 2015

Multi-Criteria Evaluation Of Cmip5 Gcms For Climate Change Impact Analysis, Ali Ahmadalipour, Arun Rana, Hamid Moradkhani, Ashish Sharma

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on global hydrological cycle along with food-water-energy nexus. Currently, there are many climate models used in predicting important climatic variables. Though there have been advances in the field, there are still many problems to be resolved related to reliability, uncertainty, and computing needs, among many others. In the present work, we have analyzed performance of 20 different global climate models (GCMs) from Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We demonstrate a statistical multicriteria approach, using univariate and multivariate techniques ...


Towards Effective Design Treatment For Right Turns At Intersections With Bicycle Traffic, David Hurwitz, Mafruhatul Jannat, Jennifer Warner, Christopher M. Monsere, Ali Razmpa Nov 2015

Towards Effective Design Treatment For Right Turns At Intersections With Bicycle Traffic, David Hurwitz, Mafruhatul Jannat, Jennifer Warner, Christopher M. Monsere, Ali Razmpa

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The overall goal of this research was to quantify the safety performance of alternative traffic control strategies to mitigate right-turning vehicle-bicycle crashes at signalized intersections in Oregon. The ultimate aim was to provide useful design guidance to potentially mitigate these collision types at the critical intersection configurations. This report includes a comprehensive review of more than 150 scientific and technical articles that relate to bicycle-motor vehicle crashes. A total of 504 right-hook crashes were identified from vehicle path information in the Oregon crash data from 2007-2011, mapped and reviewed in detail to identify the frequency and severity of crashes by ...


How To Estimate Pedestrian Demand, Kelly Clifton, Patrick Allen Singleton, Christopher D. Muhs, Robert J. Schneider Nov 2015

How To Estimate Pedestrian Demand, Kelly Clifton, Patrick Allen Singleton, Christopher D. Muhs, Robert J. Schneider

TREC Project Briefs

There is growing support to improve the quality of the walking environment and make investments to promote pedestrian travel. Such efforts often require analytical non-motorized planning tools to estimate levels of pedestrian demand that are sensitive to environmental and demographic factors at an appropriate scale. Despite this interest and need, current forecasting tools, particularly regional travel demand models, often fall short.

To address this gap, Oregon Metro and NITC researcher Kelly Clifton worked together to develop a pedestrian demand estimation tool. For generations, planners have been using statistical models to forecast travel demand, but these models have traditionally been auto-centered ...