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Portland State University

Environmental Engineering

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Articles 121 - 146 of 146

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Climate Change Impact Assessment For Surface Transportation In The Pacific Northwest And Alaska, John Macarthur, Philip Mote, Miguel A. Figliozzi, Jason Ideker, Ming Lee Jan 2012

Climate Change Impact Assessment For Surface Transportation In The Pacific Northwest And Alaska, John Macarthur, Philip Mote, Miguel A. Figliozzi, Jason Ideker, Ming Lee

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The states in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska region share interconnected transportation networks for people, goods, and services that support the regional economy, mobility, and human safety. Regional weather has and will continue to affect the physical condition and serviceability of these networks, yet the nature of climate changes and their potential impacts on the regional transportation system and its use are very poorly understood. The world’s leading climate scientists, such as the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, have reached consensus that global climate changes are being observed and will continue into the future, particularly increasing temperatures. Given this ...


An Empirical Study Of Particulate Matter Exposure For Transit Users At Bus Stop Shelters, Adam Moore Jan 2012

An Empirical Study Of Particulate Matter Exposure For Transit Users At Bus Stop Shelters, Adam Moore

Dissertations and Theses

Congested traffic corridors in dense urban areas are key contributors to the degradation of urban air quality. While waiting at bus stops, transit patrons may be exposed to greater amounts of vehicle-based pollution, including particulate matter, due to their proximity to the roadway. Current guidelines for the location and design of bus stops do not take into account air quality or exposure considerations. This thesis provides a unique contribution to roadside air quality studies and presents an innovative method for the consideration of bus shelter placement. Exposure to roadside pollutants is estimated for transit riders waiting at three-sided bus stop ...


Tsunami Hydrodynamics In The Columbia River, Harry Yeh, Elena Tolkova, David A. Jay, Stefan A. Talke, Hermann Fritz Jan 2012

Tsunami Hydrodynamics In The Columbia River, Harry Yeh, Elena Tolkova, David A. Jay, Stefan A. Talke, Hermann Fritz

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku Tsunami overtopped a weir and penetrated 49 km up the Kitakami River, the fourth largest river in Japan. Similarly, the 2010 Chile tsunami propagated at least 15 km up the Maule River. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, large tsunamis have occurred along the Cascadia subduction zone, most recently the 'orphan tsunami' of 1700 (Atwater et al.). The expected future occurrence of a Cascadia tsunami and its penetration into the Lower Columbia River became the subject of “the Workshop on Tsunami Hydrodynamics in a Large River” held in Corvallis, Oregon, 2011. We ...


Identification Of The Biogenic Compounds Responsible For Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Growth, Paul M. Winkler, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Luca Cappellin, Hans R. Friedli, Kelley Barsanti, Peter H. Mcmurry, James N. Smith Jan 2012

Identification Of The Biogenic Compounds Responsible For Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Growth, Paul M. Winkler, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Luca Cappellin, Hans R. Friedli, Kelley Barsanti, Peter H. Mcmurry, James N. Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The probability that freshly nucleated nanoparticles can survive to become cloud condensation nuclei is highly sensitive to particle growth rates. Much of the growth of newly formed ambient nanoparticles can be attributed to oxidized organic vapors originating from biogenic precursor gases. In this study we investigated the chemical composition of size-selected biogenic nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 40 nm. Particles were formed in a flow tube reactor by ozonolysis ofα-pinene and analyzed with a Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer. While we found similar composition in 10 and 20 nm particles, the relative amounts of ...


Refining Greenstep: Impacts Of Vehicle Technologies And Its/Operational Improvements On Travel Speed And Fuel Consumption Curves, Kelly Clifton, Alexander Y. Bigazzi Nov 2011

Refining Greenstep: Impacts Of Vehicle Technologies And Its/Operational Improvements On Travel Speed And Fuel Consumption Curves, Kelly Clifton, Alexander Y. Bigazzi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This report describes analysis undertaken to establish a method for incorporating traffic operations and ITS strategies into the GreenSTEP model. We first discuss operations impacts on fuel economy and delay from the literature. Then, an investigation of delay adjustments in GreenSTEP shows that different methods of representing delay changes lead to similar (and small) impacts on fuel economy. From this result we establish average speed adjustment by congestion level as the preferred method for incorporating delay effects from operations improvements. An investigation of aggregate traffic operations impacts produces estimates of base speeds without operations improvements, maximum speeds with full operational ...


Circulation, Sediment Concentration And Oxygen Depletion In The Tidal Ems River, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart Jan 2011

Circulation, Sediment Concentration And Oxygen Depletion In The Tidal Ems River, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

We present measurements which show that the tidal Ems River in Germ any is extremely muddy over a 30 km + turbid zone, with fluid mud o f 1-2 m thickness covering the bed with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) o f greater than 50 kg.m-3. Moreover, we show that these elevated SSC contain large quantities of organic material which deplete dissolved oxygen (DO) and produce summertime hypoxic zones. Using mathematical modeling, we develop simplified representations o f the estuary physics that reproduce the tidally-averaged circulation, SSC distribution, and oxygen depletion. These models show that SSC and oxygen concentrations are ...


Infrared-Based Measurements Of Velocity, Turbulent Kinetic Energy, And Dissipation At The Water Surface In A Tidal River, C. Chris Chickadel, Stefan A. Talke, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, Andrew T. Jessup Jan 2011

Infrared-Based Measurements Of Velocity, Turbulent Kinetic Energy, And Dissipation At The Water Surface In A Tidal River, C. Chris Chickadel, Stefan A. Talke, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, Andrew T. Jessup

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Thermal infrared (IR) based particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the evolution of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and the TKE dissipation rate at the water surface in the tidally influenced Snohomish River. Patterns of temperature variability in the IR imagery arise from disruption of the cool skin layer and are used to estimate the 2D velocity field. Comparisons of IR based PIV mean velocity made against a collocated acoustic velocimeter demonstrate high correlation (r2 > 0.9). Over a tidal period, surface TKE computed from the IR velocity varies from 10-4 J·kg-1 to 3x10-3 J·kg-1, with ...


Mixing Layer Dynamics In Separated Flow Over An Estuarine Sill With Variable Stratification, Stefan A. Talke, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, C. Chris Chickadel Sep 2010

Mixing Layer Dynamics In Separated Flow Over An Estuarine Sill With Variable Stratification, Stefan A. Talke, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, C. Chris Chickadel

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

We investigate the generation of a mixing layer in the separated flow behind an estuarine sill (height H ∼ 4 m) in the Snohomish River, Washington as part of a larger investigation of coherent structures using remote and in situ sensing. During increasing ebb flows the depth d and stratification decrease and a region of sheared flow characterized by elevated production of turbulent kinetic energy develops. Profiles of velocity and acoustic backscatter exhibit coherent fluctuations of order 0.1 Hz and are used to define the boundaries of the mixing layer. Variations in the mixing layer width and its embedded coherent ...


The Effect Of Tidal Asymmetry And Temporal Settling Lag On Sediment Trapping In Tidal Estuaries, Alexander S. Chernetsky, Henk M. Schuttelaars, Stefan A. Talke Sep 2010

The Effect Of Tidal Asymmetry And Temporal Settling Lag On Sediment Trapping In Tidal Estuaries, Alexander S. Chernetsky, Henk M. Schuttelaars, Stefan A. Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Over decades and centuries, the mean depth of estuaries changes due to sea-level rise, land subsidence, infilling, and dredging projects. These processes produce changes in relative roughness (friction) and mixing, resulting in fundamental changes in the characteristics of the horizontal (velocity) and vertical tides (sea surface elevation) and the dynamics of sediment trapping. To investigate such changes, a 2DV model is developed. The model equations consist of the width-averaged shallow water equations and a sediment balance equation. Together with the condition of morphodynamic equilibrium, these equations are solved analytically by making a regular expansion of the various physical variables in ...


Vertical Boil Propagation From A Submerged Estuarine Sill, C. Chris Chickadel, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, Stefan A. Talke, Andrew T. Jessup May 2009

Vertical Boil Propagation From A Submerged Estuarine Sill, C. Chris Chickadel, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, Stefan A. Talke, Andrew T. Jessup

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Surface disruptions by boils during strong tidal flows over a rocky sill were observed in thermal infrared imagery collected at the Snohomish River estuary in Washington State. Locations of boil disruptions and boil diameters at the surface were quantified and are used to test an idealized model of vertical boil propagation. The model is developed as a two-dimensional approximation of a three-dimensional vortex loop, and boil vorticity is derived from the flow shear over the sill. Predictions of boil disruption locations were determined from the modeled vertical velocity, the sill depth, and the over-sill velocity. Predictions by the vertical velocity ...


An Idealized Model And Systematic Process Study Of Oxygen Depletion In Highly Turbid Estuaries, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart, Victor De Jonge Jan 2009

An Idealized Model And Systematic Process Study Of Oxygen Depletion In Highly Turbid Estuaries, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart, Victor De Jonge

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The sensitivity of oxygen depletion in turbid estuaries to parameters like freshwater discharge, depth, and sediment availability is investigated using an idealized model. The model describes tidally averaged circulation and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), which are input into an advection–diffusion sink module of dissolved oxygen (DO). Based on the analysis of field data collected in the Ems estuary, the modeled oxygen depletion rates are proportional to SSC. The model is calibrated to the observed variation of DO with SSC and temperature. Modeled DO closely tracks changes to the estuarine turbidity zone (ETZ): increased channel depth, decreased freshwater discharge, and ...


The Potential Contribution Of Organic Salts To New Particle Growth, Kelley Barsanti, Peter H. Mcmurry, J. N. Smith Jan 2009

The Potential Contribution Of Organic Salts To New Particle Growth, Kelley Barsanti, Peter H. Mcmurry, J. N. Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Field and lab measurements suggest that low-molecular weight (MW) organic acids and bases exist in accumulation and nucleation mode particles, despite their relatively high pure-liquid vapor pressures. The mechanism(s) by which such compounds contribute to the mass growth of existing aerosol particles and newly formed particles has not been thoroughly explored. One mechanism by which low- MW compounds may contribute to new particle growth is through the formation of organic salts. In this paper we use thermodynamic modeling to explore the potential for organic salt formation by atmospherically relevant organic acids and bases for two system types: one in ...


Feedback Between Residual Circulations And Sediment Distribution In Highly Turbid Estuaries: An Analytical Model, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart, H. M. Schuttelaars Jan 2009

Feedback Between Residual Circulations And Sediment Distribution In Highly Turbid Estuaries: An Analytical Model, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart, H. M. Schuttelaars

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Motivated by field studies of the Ems estuary which show longitudinal gradients in bottom sediment concentration as high as O(0.01 kg/m4), we develop an analytical model for estuarine residual circulation based on currents from salinity gradients, turbidity gradients, and freshwater discharge. Salinity is assumed to be vertically well mixed, while the vertical concentration profile is assumed to result from a balance between a constant settling velocity and turbulent diffusive flux. Width and depth of the model estuary are held constant. Model results show that turbidity gradients enhance tidally averaged circulation upstream of the estuarine turbidity maximum ...


Suspended Sediment Fluxes At An Intertidal Flat: The Shifting Influence Of Wave, Wind, Tidal, And Freshwater Forcing, Stefan A. Talke, Mark T. Stacey Jan 2008

Suspended Sediment Fluxes At An Intertidal Flat: The Shifting Influence Of Wave, Wind, Tidal, And Freshwater Forcing, Stefan A. Talke, Mark T. Stacey

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Using in situ, continuous, high frequency (8–16 Hz) measurements of velocity, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and salinity, we investigate the factors affecting near-bed sediment flux during and after a meteorological event (cold front) on an intertidal flat in central San Francisco Bay. Hydrodynamic forcing occurs over many frequency bands including wind wave, ocean swell, seiching (500–1000 s), tidal, and infra-tidal frequencies, and varies greatly over the time scale of hours and days. Sediment fluxes occur primarily due to variations in flow and SSC at three different scales: residual (tidally averaged), tidal, and seiching. During the meteorological event, sediment ...


New Particle Formation In The Front Range Of The Colorado Rocky Mountains, Micahel Boy, Thomas Karl, Andrew Turnipseed, Roy Lee Mauldin, Edward Kosciuch, James Greenberg, Jeff Rathbone, James Smith, Andreas Held, Kelley Barsanti, Alex Guenther Jan 2008

New Particle Formation In The Front Range Of The Colorado Rocky Mountains, Micahel Boy, Thomas Karl, Andrew Turnipseed, Roy Lee Mauldin, Edward Kosciuch, James Greenberg, Jeff Rathbone, James Smith, Andreas Held, Kelley Barsanti, Alex Guenther

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

New particle formation is of interest because of its influence on the properties of aerosol population, and due to the possible contribution of newly formed particles to cloud condensation nuclei. Currently no conclusive evidence exists as to the mechanism or mechanisms of nucleation and subsequent particle growth. However, nucleation rates exhibit a clear dependence on ambient sulphuric acid concentrations and particle growth is often attributed to the condensation of organic vapours. A detailed study of new particle formation in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains is presented here. Gas and particle measurement data for 32 days was analyzed ...


Optimal Bus Stop Spacing For Minimizing Transit Operation Cost, Huan Li, Robert L. Bertini Jan 2008

Optimal Bus Stop Spacing For Minimizing Transit Operation Cost, Huan Li, Robert L. Bertini

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

With the increasing attention to finance issues relative to transit operation, a bus stop spacing model is generated with the aim at minimizing the operation cost without impact on transit accessibility. Two cost functions are considered in the model including passenger access cost and in-vehicle passenger stopping cost aiming at minimizing total cost. A bus route in Portland, Oregon, USA is examined as an example using Archived Bus Dispatch System (BDS) data provided by TriMet, the regional transit provider for the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Based on the optimization model, the theoretical optimized bus stop spacing is 930 feet comparing ...


Coupling The Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Model Ce-Qual-W2 With A Multi-Trophic Fish Bio-Energetics Model For Lake Roosevelt, Washington, Michael Lee Mckillip Jan 2008

Coupling The Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Model Ce-Qual-W2 With A Multi-Trophic Fish Bio-Energetics Model For Lake Roosevelt, Washington, Michael Lee Mckillip

Dissertations and Theses

Grand Coulee Dam created Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake as part of the Columbia Basin Project. Located in northeastern Washington State, the Project provides economically important hydropower (19 billion kilowatt hours per year), irrigation (225,000 ha), flood control, and sport fishing ($5 to 20 million annually). A good system understanding aids in balancing these beneficial uses for the 230 km long reservoir. The reservoir's atypical 45-day mean residence time is much shorter than a typical lake, and much longer than for a riverine dam. The spring freshet requires drawdowns of 15 to 20 m for flood control—the driving ...


Improving Arterial Performance Measurement Using Traffic Signal System Data, Michael Wolfe, Christopher Monsere, Peter Koonce, Robert L. Bertini Jul 2007

Improving Arterial Performance Measurement Using Traffic Signal System Data, Michael Wolfe, Christopher Monsere, Peter Koonce, Robert L. Bertini

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The characterization of the performance of freeways in real time and on a historical basis has been successfully achieved for many years. The ability to characterize arterial performance has been more elusive. Currently numerous applications of traffic management and traveler information systems include freeways but lack the ability to extend their operation to major arterials. This paper describes methods for quantifying arterial performance using data from signal system loop detectors. Included in the array of metrics are traffic density, total delay, predicted travel time, and signal coordination effectiveness. Methods for determining performance in these areas are adapted for use in ...


Lake Whatcom Model Calibration With Variable Stoichiometry In Sediments - Revised, Chris Berger, Scott A. Wells Feb 2007

Lake Whatcom Model Calibration With Variable Stoichiometry In Sediments - Revised, Chris Berger, Scott A. Wells

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This memorandum discusses model calibration and enhancements made to the Lake Whatcom water quality model. Model development and initial calibration were documented in the report “Lake Whatcom Water Quality Model” (Berger and Wells, 2005). The Lake Whatcom water quality model has been converted from CE-QUAL-W2 version 3.2 to version 3.5 (Cole and Wells, 2006).


Enhancing Targeted Traffic Enforcement Efforts In Portland, Oregon, Max Coffman, Christopher Monsere Jun 2006

Enhancing Targeted Traffic Enforcement Efforts In Portland, Oregon, Max Coffman, Christopher Monsere

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Enforcement is a key component of any comprehensive traffic safety program, and through a unique effort the Portland Office of Transportation (PDOT) partners with schools, the court system, community groups and the Police Bureau to develop a coordinated citywide program to improve traffic safety. However, like many government agencies, the Police Bureau faces constraints that limit the resources it can devote to traffic safety. In response, PDOT and the Police Bureau’s Traffic Division have instituted a program of Strategic and Focused Enforcement (SAFE) to better allocate limited traffic safety personnel and resources. Using historical crash data, PDOT identified 30 ...


Hydrodynamics And Morphology In The Ems/Dollard Estuary: Review Of Models, Measurements, Scientific Literature, And The Effects Of Changing Conditions, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart Jan 2006

Hydrodynamics And Morphology In The Ems/Dollard Estuary: Review Of Models, Measurements, Scientific Literature, And The Effects Of Changing Conditions, Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. De Swart

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Ems estuary has constantly changed over the past centuries both from man-made and natural influences. On the time scale of thousands of years, sea level rise has created the estuary and dynamically changed its boundaries. More recently, storm surges created the Dollard sub-basin in the 14th -15th centuries. Beginning in the 16th century, diking and reclamation of land has greatly altered the surface area of the Ems estuary, particularly in the Dollard. These natural and anthropogenic changes to the surface area of the Ems altered the flow patterns of water, the tidal characteristics, and the patterns of sediment deposition ...


Waldo Lake Research In 2004, Mark D. Sytsma, John Rueter, Richard Petersen, Roy Koch, Scott A. Wells, Michelle Wood, Yangdong Pan, Robert Leslie Annear, Aaron Hook, Laura Johnson, Rich Miller, Amanda Murphy, Terry Stoltz Jun 2005

Waldo Lake Research In 2004, Mark D. Sytsma, John Rueter, Richard Petersen, Roy Koch, Scott A. Wells, Michelle Wood, Yangdong Pan, Robert Leslie Annear, Aaron Hook, Laura Johnson, Rich Miller, Amanda Murphy, Terry Stoltz

Center for Lakes and Reservoirs Publications and Presentations

The Willamette National Forest has worked with Portland State University, Center for Lakes and Reservoirs (PSU) and the University of Oregon (UO) to investigate ecosystem changes, provide guidance on long-term monitoring methods, assess monitoring data, develop predictive water quality models, and conduct research that will lead to better protection and understanding of the Waldo Lake ecosystem. This report summarizes the second year of collaborative PSU-UO research at Waldo Lake. Research has focused on understanding physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Waldo Lake across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Research tasks that continued from 2003 into 2004 included temperature ...


Analysis And Prediction Of The Water Temperature Of The Mckenzie River, Oregon Using The Equilibrium Temperature Approach, R. Peder Hansen Jan 1986

Analysis And Prediction Of The Water Temperature Of The Mckenzie River, Oregon Using The Equilibrium Temperature Approach, R. Peder Hansen

Dissertations and Theses

A one dimensional, steady flow, unsteady temperature model is used to evaluate the effects of two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) dams and resulting reservoirs on hourly water temperatures of the mainstem McKenzie River from Delta Park (RM 62.1) to Leaburg Dam (RM 38.8). Both COE projects are on tributaries to the McKenzie River and at present have only bottom withdrawl capabilities.


Forecasting For Local Water Management, Douglas Alan Putnam Jan 1985

Forecasting For Local Water Management, Douglas Alan Putnam

Dissertations and Theses

Forecast models are investigated and developed for use in local water management to aid in determining short term water requirements and availability. The forecast models include precipitation occurrence and depth using a Markov chain model, temperature and solar radiation with a multivariate autoregressive model, and streamflow with autoregressive-moving average models. The precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation forecasts are used with a soil moisture model to determine water demands. A state space approach to the Muskingum-Cunge streamflow routing technique is developed. The forecast water demands and streamflow forecasts are used as inputs to this routing model. Forecast model errors and propagation ...


Transient Flow Inverse Study Calculation Of Unsaturated Permeability Of Wood, Farid Piroozmandi Jan 1985

Transient Flow Inverse Study Calculation Of Unsaturated Permeability Of Wood, Farid Piroozmandi

Dissertations and Theses

One of the major processes in lumber industry is wood drying. This process consumes large amounts of energy and capital, and due to the length of time it takes, it acts as a governing factor in lumber production levels. Development of improvements in processes and equipment used in wood drying can be expedited through computer simulation of various drying procedures. These numerical simulations depend on the accuracy of numerical models representing wood transport properties, including functional dependency of liquid permeability through wood with respect to local saturation level. Data available in the literature mainly represent wood permeability properties at fully ...


State Space Approach To Flood Stage Estimation, Gregory Allen Jones Jan 1984

State Space Approach To Flood Stage Estimation, Gregory Allen Jones

Dissertations and Theses

A flood routing and stage prediction model is developed using the techniques of State Space and Kalman filtering. The governing equation is the physically based hydrologic method of flood routing with the output being an optimal estimate of stage given known inputs of streamflow. These equations are developed in state space and the Kalman filter is employed to estimate the flow and river stage.

The model is applied to the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers in the State of Washington, where the stage is affected by a shifting bed elevation. With the deterministic inputs at Mayfield Dam on the Cowlitz and ...